Volume 61 - Number 2 - Summer 1995

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

61:20042 Ipanga, T. Spatial organization of Zaire through population distribution. [Organisation de l'espace zairois par la distribution de la population.] Geo-Eco-Trop, Vol. 15, No. 3-4, 1991. 173-98 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is an analysis of the spatial distribution of the population in Zaire. The author examines both spatial distribution in general and in relation to central points in different parts of the country.
Correspondence: T. Ipanga, Universite de Lubumbashi, B.P. 1825, Lubumbashi, Zaire. Location: University of Iowa Library, Iowa City, IA.

61:20043 Yuan, Xin. The population distribution pattern in Xinjiang Autonomous Region. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1994. 281-92 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author describes patterns of population distribution in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China. "The geographic features of Xinjiang determine the basic shape of local population distribution, whereas the region's cultural varieties, social and economic conditions and population development factors also have influences upon distribution and re-distribution of population. A combination of these factors is responsible for the forming of a unique population distribution pattern in Xinjiang."
Correspondence: X. Yuan, Xinjiang University, Population Research Institute, Xinjiang, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

61:20044 Damian, Araceli. Urban research in Mexico, 1980-1990. [La investigacion urbana en Mexico, 1980-1990.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1991. 613-48, 781 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to assess urban research in Mexico during the 1980s....The study is divided into three sections: 1) continuing themes; 2) new themes on urban issues; [and] 3) state policies regarding urban issues. The author notes that in the 1980s, research was conducted for the purpose of analyzing urban realities more explicitly....She also offers a description of studies that attempt to link state policies, the actors involved, and their impact (or lack of it) on urbanization processes, and discusses the regulatory functions carried out by the state."
Correspondence: A. Damian, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20045 Ertur, Omer. The need for a national urbanization policy in Nepal. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep 1994. 19-36 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Even though Nepal is one of the least urbanized countries in South Asia, its urban growth rate is the highest among the countries comprising SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation). This article argues that planned urbanization in Nepal would be beneficial for the country's development initiatives; however, the rapid and haphazard urbanization that is currently taking place is a matter of greater concern. It brings out a number of implications for policy and concludes with a set of recommendations."
Correspondence: O. Ertur, United Nations Population Fund, Katmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20046 European Communities. Commission. Directorate-General for Regional Policies (Brussels, Belgium). Urbanisation and the functions of cities in the European Community. Regional Development Studies, No. 4, ISBN 92-826-4810-9. 1992. 230 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This report presents the findings of the study of urbanization and the functions of cities in the European Community....It is based on primary field work conducted in 24 cities throughout the Community in 1990-91, ranging from Copenhagen in the north to Seville in the south, from Dublin in the west to Thessaloniki in the east....The primary field research was complemented by a series of thematic studies on the following issues: the role of networks and linkages between cities in the Community; the impact of reunification upon the urban system in Germany; the role of four capital cities in the Community; the roles and prospects of smaller cities in the European Community; the 'third Italy' model of regional development and the contribution of cultural policy to urban regeneration in European cities."
Correspondence: European Communities, Office for Official Publications, 2920 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20047 Han, Sun Sheng; Wong, Shue Tuck. The influence of Chinese reform and pre-reform policies on urban growth in the 1980s. Urban Geography, Vol. 15, No. 6, Sep 1994. 537-64 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to examine the role of...various coexisting policies of the 1980s and to explore the underlying factors that affected the pattern of Chinese urban growth. Data for a random selection of 66 cities from mainland China and some 16 variables were tested and analyzed by both parametric and nonparametric statistics. The results of the statistical analyses suggest that pre-reform policy conflicted with reform policies of the 1980s and that the various policies acted as countervailing forces on Chinese urban growth. Small cities showed significant rapid growth, whereas super-large cities indicated slow growth. Industrial development was the dominant factor accountable for the rapid expansion of Chinese cities, whereas the balanced growth between the inner-city nonagricultural population and the built-up area was a result of the interplay of city planning policies."
Correspondence: S. S. Han, Simon Fraser University, Department of Geography, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20048 Hsu, Mei-Ling. The expansion of the Chinese urban system, 1953-1990. Urban Geography, Vol. 15, No. 6, Sep 1994. 514-36 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"The number of Chinese cities...increased by 326 between 1953 and 1990, although the growth trend fluctuated over time. The number, size, distribution, and functions of the new cities as well as the pace and rationale of city establishment are studied, and the ever-changing Chinese definitions of the city and urban population are clarified. Urban growth, which has been affected by changing policies, politics, and recent economic reforms, is analyzed in four periods. New cities are either small or medium in size. The annual averages of new city establishment varied from one to four between 1953 and 1977 to more than 20 after 1978. Cities established before 1978 mostly are centers of industry, trade, and transportation, and those established after 1978 are mostly administrative centers. Lastly, the process of Chinese urbanization is analyzed."
Correspondence: M.-L. Hsu, University of Minnesota, Department of Geography, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20049 Khan, Amir. Interrelationships between demographic factors, development and the environment in the ESCAP region. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep 1994. 37-54 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"In the ESCAP region, urban areas account for as little as 6 per cent of the total population in Bhutan to as much as 100 per cent in Singapore. This article considers a number of issues related to urbanization in the region, such as the growth of cities, rural-to-urban migration and various urbanization problems including those related to the environment. It concludes with a set of recommendations that may be helpful to the Governments of countries facing urbanization problems."
Correspondence: A. Khan, University of Peshawar, Department of Geography, Urban and Regional Planning, Peshawar, NWFP, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20050 Kurian, George T. World encyclopedia of cities. ISBN 0-87436-649-6. LC 93-43133. 1994. xii, 1,169 pp. ABC-CLIO: Santa Barbara, California. In Eng.
This two-volume reference work contains data on cities around the world, compiled from many sources. Both statistical and narrative data are provided for each city, and concern population including household composition, ethnic composition, the labor force, education, health, religion, and housing.
Correspondence: ABC-CLIO, 130 Cremona Drive, P.O. Box 1911, Santa Barbara, CA 93116-1911. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20051 Ledent, Jacques; Termote, Marc. Migration and birth place: the example of Djakarta. [Migration et lieu de naissance: l'exemple de Djakarta.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1994. 41-59 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper examines population dynamics in Djakarta based on the demographic conditions that prevailed in the late seventies. This is carried out by means of an extension of the classical multiregional approach that accounts for the influence of the place of birth of individuals on their migration behavior. Such an extension brings new insights into migration patterns to and from Djakarta and yields more precise as well as more detailed estimates of the indicators that reflect population dynamics in that city."
Correspondence: J. Ledent, Universite du Quebec, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Urbanisation, 3465 rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20052 Lee, Barrett A.; Price-Spratlen, Townsand. The geography of homelessness in the United States. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-27, Nov 1994. 24, [7] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Although the spatial distribution of homeless people has important implications for service delivery, little is known about this aspect of the homelessness problem in the contemporary U.S. Our research examines 1990 Census S-night data at multiple geographic levels to determine whether traditional concentrations of homelessness persist or are giving way to a more dispersed pattern. We find that the homeless are overrepresented in the Northeast and the West, in metropolitan and urban portions of the nation, in central cities of metro areas, and in relatively few neighborhoods within these areas."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20053 Moriconi-Ebrard, Francois. World urbanization since 1950. [L'urbanisation du monde depuis 1950.] Collection Villes, ISBN 2-7178-2559-2. 1993. 372 pp. Anthropos: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a study on global urbanization since 1950. It uses data from Geopolis, a database of the 26,000 towns and cities with populations over 10,000. In Part 1, the author reviews trends in global urbanization from 1950 to 1990. In Part 2, he examines urban systems, including the rank-size distribution of cities, rates of urban growth, and the metropolitan phenomenon.
Correspondence: Anthropos/Economica, 49 rue Hericart, 75015 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20054 Nangia, Parveen; Gupta, Kamla. Morphology of slums in Thane. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 6, 1993-1994. [x], 61 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The specific objectives of this study were: to identify the factors responsible for the emergence of slums [in India] on some particular locations [with a focus on Thane district], to study the terrain of areas supporting the slums, to find out the urban infrastructure available within the slums, to study the internal structure and external form of slums and analyse their variations with the ownership of land on which they were located, to assess the role of Municipal Corporation and social welfare organizations in the development of these settlements, [and] to recommend some policy measures for checking the unscrupulous growth of slums."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20055 Neupert, Ricardo; Goldstein, Sidney. Urbanization and population redistribution in Mongolia. East-West Center Occasional Paper: Population Series, No. 122, ISBN 0-86638-166-X. LC 94-39475. Dec 1994. vii, 59 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The authors examine "urbanization patterns and the role of migration in urban growth [in Mongolia]....[They review] the process of urbanization and the patterns of urban population distribution during the 1970s and 1980s. The paper concludes with an analysis of the role of migration and natural increase in the growth of the nation's major cities and smaller urban centers."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20056 Nicolaas, H. Population development of the four big municipalities is mainly determined by external migration. [Bevolkingsontwikkeling vier grote gemeenten vooral bepaald door buitenlandse migratie.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 11, Nov 1994. 22-6 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews population growth in the Netherlands for the period 1990-1993 focusing on the major metropolitan areas. Aspects considered include population size, natural increase, migration, nationality, and changes in the population of the four largest municipalities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20057 O'Connor, Kevin. Mega metropolitan areas in Australia 1970-1990. People and Place, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1994. 21-4 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
The author reviews trends in metropolitan-area development in Australia. "Overall the very big metropolitan regions continue to dominate the location of investment around the country....Concentration of people and economic activity in mega-metropolitan regions persists."
Correspondence: K. O'Connor, Monash University, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20058 Potrykowska, Alina; Korcelli, Piotr. Urban populations at the micro-level. [Les populations urbaines a micro-echelle.] Geographia Polonica, No. 61, ISBN 83-01-10816-9. 1993. 496 pp. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization: Warsaw, Poland. In Eng; Fre.
This volume contains revised versions of 37 papers presented at a symposium on urban populations at the micro-level held in Warsaw and Serock, Poland, September 2-7, 1991. The papers, which are in English or French, are grouped under five topics, which are: methodological problems of micro-level, urban population characteristics, intra-urban migration, changes in the urban environment, and the application of the micro-level approach to the study of urban populations. The geographical focus is worldwide, with some emphasis on Europe.
Correspondence: Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20059 Summers, Anita A.; Cheshire, Paul C.; Senn, Lanfranco. Urban change in the United States and Western Europe: comparative analysis and policy. ISBN 0-87766-592-3. LC 93-16113. 1993. xx, 622 pp. Urban Institute Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This book contains a selection of studies that present comparisons of the patterns and processes of urban concentrations of residents and employment in Western Europe and the United States. The papers are divided under five subject headings, which concern intra- and intermetropolitan area change, the dynamics of metropolitan area change, the implications of metropolitan change, the role of government, and summary and conclusions. The foreword notes that urban problems are more intense in America than in Europe, and suggests that this may be due to a difference in attitude to the city and its problems. "European life is lived much more in the city than is American life. The result is that even the suburban dweller in Europe is willing to pay for the upkeep and beautification of the city, and this works to keep urban poverty within 'acceptable' bounds. This difference may also influence policy discussion and the perception of plausible policy action."
Correspondence: Urban Institute Press, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20060 van Weesep, Jan; Dieleman, Frans M. European cities: growth and change. Urban Studies, Vol. 30, No. 6, Jun 1993. 877-1,080 pp. Carfax Publishing: Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains a selection of the papers presented at the Conference on European Cities, Growth and Decline, held in The Hague, Netherlands, in April 1992.
Correspondence: Carfax Publishing, P.O. Box 25, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3UE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20061 Winsberg, Morton D. Urban population redistribution under the impact of foreign immigration and, more recently, natural disaster: the case of Miami. Urban Geography, Vol. 15, No. 5, Jul-Aug 1994. 487-94 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
Metropolitan Miami is used as an example to analyze the degree to which various new immigrant groups are either assimilating into the general U.S. population or attempting to preserve their ethnic and cultural distinctiveness. Attention is also given to the impact on population distribution of hurricane Andrew in 1992. The author concludes that the general trend is toward the preservation of separate characteristics.
Correspondence: M. D. Winsberg, Florida State University, Department of Geography, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2050. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20062 Xu, Tianqi; Ye, Shendong. A new model for the urbanization of rural population in China: an analysis of the nonnative population in the Longgang "Farmers' Town" Wenzhou. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1994. 433-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper holds that [the] Longgang Model--a new model of transforming rural labor force by moving it away from farmland and from rural villages--plays an exemplar role in the urbanization of Chinese rural population in many aspects and can help speed up the urbanization process. It advocates a receptive attitude toward rural residents entering small cities and towns, and illustrates its stand on the issue with the example of Longgang 'Farmers' Town' which grew from a village into a town within a brief period of time."
Correspondence: T. Xu, Hangzhou University, Population Research Center, 34 Tian Mu Shan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

61:20063 Johnson, Kenneth M.; Beale, Calvin L. The recent revival of widespread population growth in non-metropolitan areas of the United States. Rural Sociology, Vol. 59, No. 4, Winter 1994. 655-67 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"This research note updates knowledge of nonmetropolitan (non-metro) [U.S.] population redistribution trends by examining demographic shifts in such areas since the 1990 census." Results indicate that "population growth was widespread in non-metropolitan (non-metro) areas of the United States during the early 1990s. More than 64 percent of the 2,277 non-metro counties gained population between 1990 and 1992, compared with only 45 percent in the 1980s. The non-metro population still grew at a slower pace than did the metropolitan population, but the gap was much narrower than during the 1980s. Net migration gains accounted for 43 percent of the total estimated non-metro population increase of 879,000 between 1990 and 1992. These findings suggest it is premature to conclude that the renewed population growth in non-metro areas first noted in the 1970s has ended."
Correspondence: K. M. Johnson, Loyola University, Department of Sociology, Chicago, IL 60626. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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