Volume 60 - Number 4 - Winter 1994

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

60:40751 Blum, Alain. Birth, life, and death in the USSR, 1917-1991. [Naitre, vivre et mourir en URSS, 1917-1991.] ISBN 2-259-00397-4. 1994. 273 pp. Plon: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines two main questions: how did the Soviet regime attempt to influence demographic events in the USSR, and how successful was it in those attempts? He uses a wide range of sources, some previously unutilized, to show how Stalin and his successors manipulated census results for political ends, and to describe the effect of various policies on mortality after 1917. The extent to which the peoples of the Soviet Union were able to maintain their demographic distinctness is noted.
Correspondence: Plon, 76 rue Bonaparte, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40752 Brechin, Steven R.; Ness, Gayl D.; Drake, William D. Integration of population, environment and development policies: population and environment. In: Expert group meeting on population, environment and sustainable development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 126, 1994. 15-28 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The authors discuss the integration of population and the environment in the development of policy. They explore "the efforts at Michigan University under its Population Environment Dynamics Project (PEDP) to better link population and environment issues together within the context of economic development. It is argued that one of the best ways to make these linkages is by formally framing the problems in an integrated context." Policy implications are discussed.
Correspondence: S. R. Brechin, University of Michigan, Population Environment Dynamics Project, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40753 Freitez Landaeta, Anitza. Behind a population policy for Venezuela. [Tras una politica de poblacion en Venezuela.] Temas de Coyuntura, No. 28, Dec 1993. 81-94 pp. Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
The author reviews political factors that have affected the formulation of population policies in Venezuela, with a focus on the period since the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, Romania. She asserts that a consensus among government entities needs to be reached regarding changes in fertility, mortality, and migration, because those changes will effect education, social services, social security, employment, and life-styles.
Correspondence: A. Freitez Landaeta, Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales, Departamento de Estudios Demograficos, Urb. Montalban, La Vega, Apartado 29068, Caracas 1021, Venezuela. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40754 Hemmer, Hans-Rimbert. A successful population policy: potentials and constraints. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Pt. 1, Winter 1993. 411-31 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author examines the need for population policies in developing countries and the constraints on their successful implementation. The elements of appropriate policies are outlined, which include emphasis on steps to reduce levels of poverty. Comments by Nancy Birdsall (pp. 426-8) and Mohammad Afzal (pp. 429-31) are included.
Correspondence: H.-R. Hemmer, German Foundation for International Development, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40755 Indonesia. Government (Djakarta, Indonesia). The Indonesian population program. In: Development issues: presentations to the 48th meeting of the Development Committee. May 1994. 109-24 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The paper reviews Indonesian experience with family planning and population policy. This paper reports in Section I on the demographic background and the scope of the changes in fertility and contraceptive behavior which have occurred, and then turns in Section II to a discussion of how these changes came about. Section II describes key program elements, distinguishing between those that appear to be specific to Indonesia or at least to Southeast Asia, and those likely to be widely replicable. Section III examines the role of donor assistance in program development and execution. The paper concludes in Section IV with a discussion of the future issues facing the Indonesian population program."
Correspondence: Government of Indonesia, Djakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40756 Jimenez Guzman, Lucero. Population policies in Mexico: a consideration of their development and impact. [Politicas de poblacion en Mexico: un acercamiento a sus planteamientos y efectos.] ISBN 968-36-2720-X. 1992. 280 pp. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias: Cuernavaca, Mexico. In Spa.
This is a collective work on aspects of population policy in Mexico. It includes chapters on population policies in general, and those concerning internal migration, health and mortality, and the status of women. The relationships among culture, demography, and population policies are also examined.
Correspondence: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias, Avenida Universidad s/n, Segundo Circuito 2, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40757 Kismadi, M. S. Integration of population, environment and development policies. In: Expert group meeting on population, environment and sustainable development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 126, 1994. 35-42 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Population policies in the context of sustainable development are constrained by inadequate knowledge of the interaction between population, the environment and development. A framework for the analysis of such an interaction is proposed. It reflects a hierarchy of problems: from levels where population size and other quantitative population aspects can be considered to be the most important variables, to those where qualitative aspects, attitudes and value orientations make for more difficult analysis of the problem."
Correspondence: M. S. Kismadi, Ministry of State for Population and Environment, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40758 Murphy, Elaine M. Communicating population and family planning information to policymakers. Policy Paper Series, No. 4, May 1994. 27 pp. Options for Population Policy: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This manual provides a framework and step-by-step approach to addressing a set of policy communication needs. It is designed to serve as a guideline for individuals and institutions interested in communicating population and family planning information to policy audiences in developing countries."
Correspondence: Options for Population Policy, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40759 Panandiker, Pai. Integration of population, environment and development policies. In: Expert group meeting on population, environment and sustainable development. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 126, 1994. 29-34 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The author discusses the integration of population, environment, and development policies in the ESCAP region. "This paper notes...the diversity in the ESCAP region where countries are at three broad stages of development with different perspectives and priorities vis-a-vis population and the environment....The paper expresses some optimism...about the prospect of a stationary population in the next century and a gradual decline of the material content of human consumption and its replacement by non-material 'knowledge goods'."
Correspondence: P. Panandiker, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40760 Rodriguez-Trias, Helen. Women are organizing: environmental and population policies will never be the same. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 9, Sep 1994. 1,379-82 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The growing role that women are playing in the development and implementation of environmental and population policies and programs around the world is outlined. Particular attention is given to women's participation in the development of successful family planning programs.
Correspondence: H. Rodriguez-Trias, P.O. Box 418, Brookdale, CA 95007. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:40761 Ryckmans, Helene. Cooperation for development. Experiences and perspectives. [La cooperation au developpement. Experiences et perspectives.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 11, ISBN 2-87085-255-X. Sep 1991. 140 pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by ARTEL, 14 Chaussee de Gand, 1080 Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa; Ara; Dut; Chi.
This is a selection of five studies on aspects of international cooperation for development. The focus is on foreign assistance for projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. One article examines Belgian assistance, and others examine population assistance to Africa as a whole and foreign aid to Rwanda and Senegal in particular.
Correspondence: Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40762 Yap, Mui Teng. Policy options for low fertility countries: the Singapore experience. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 73-89 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author assesses the new fertility and immigration policies that were introduced in Singapore in the late 1980s. The aims of the policies were to raise fertility and immigration levels and to "keep Singapore competitive and raise the standard of living." The implications of ethnic and educational differentials in fertility are considered.
Correspondence: M. T. Yap, Institute of Policy Studies, Kent Ridge, P.O. Box 1088, Singapore 9111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

60:40763 Baban, Adriana; David, Henry P. Voices of Romanian women: perceptions of sexuality, reproductive behavior, and partner relations during the Ceausescu era. Aug 1994. 71 pp. Transnational Family Research Institute: Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
This study explores, through individual in-depth interviews with 50 women aged 18-55, the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of the strict pronatalist policy carried out in Romania for the 23 years before the overthrow of Ceausescu in 1989. "Major topics emerging from the interviews include sexuality as a taboo topic at home; sexuality as a source of personal embarrassment, threat, and stress; unwanted pregnancy as a traumatic catastrophic event; clandestine abortion decision making and psychological costs; and partner relations as contradictions in communication." Copies of this report are available at a cost of $10 from the publishers.
Correspondence: Transnational Family Research Institute, 8307 Whitman Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40764 Courbage, Youssef. Demographic trends and political attitudes in Syria. [Evolution demographique et attitudes politiques en Syrie.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 725-49 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Those responsible for framing population policies in Syria have wavered between pursuing a populationist policy, and a policy of population control....Since the Census of 1970 which showed that population growth was much larger than had been expected, planners have increasingly opted for what, by implication, is a population policy related to economic development and the access of women to education and work....Since the mid-1980s, new behaviour patterns have emerged. The economic crisis, the fall in production (especially in agriculture) and the emergence of an economy based on work for wages, have contributed to decreasing fertility throughout the country."
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40765 Feuerstein, Marie-Therese. Family planning in Viet Nam: a vigorous approach. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 47, No. 1, 1994. 36-9 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author reviews Viet Nam's population and family planning policy goals. The country "is vigorously implementing its population and family planning policies and plans....An increased range of family planning methods will be offered to the population through a 'cafeteria' approach."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40766 Johnson, D. Gale. Effects of institutions and policies on rural population growth with application to China. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, Sep 1994. 503-31, 692-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article has two main purposes. The first is to show that families' decisions determining fertility are significantly influenced by the institutions and policies that affect their lives and that the appropriate mix of policies and institutions can lead to rapid declines in fertility. The second is to present a set of institutions and policies that would achieve and maintain low levels of fertility in China while permitting families to have the number of children they desire....I...summarize the evidence on the major factors that influence family fertility decisions in a developing country, discuss the de facto pronatalist policies that exist in China and their probable influence on rural fertility, and suggest an effective alternative to China's current mixture of such pronatalist policies and numerical controls on births....The remainder of the article presents evidence to support the conclusion that, within relatively wide limits, the size of China's population will have little effect on per capita food supplies or real per capita incomes."
Correspondence: D. G. Johnson, University of Chicago, Department of Economics, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40767 Lane, Sandra D. From population control to reproductive health: an emerging policy agenda. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 9, Nov 1994. 1,303-14 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article reviews the background to the current debates between advocates of population control and reproductive health as frameworks for national and international health policies. Population control has been a dominant metaphor in international family planning programs since the 1960s. Population control has frequently meant pursuing a single-minded goal of fertility limitation, often without sufficient attention to the rights of family planning clients. This narrow focus has led to some coercive policies, numerous ethical violations, and ineffective family planning programs. In the last decade there has been the beginning of a policy shift, advocated by a growing number of activists and researchers in women's health, from population control to reproductive health. A reproductive health framework would provide a broader programmatic focus that could bring needed attention to such issues as sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, abortion, reproductive cancers and women's empowerment generally." The geographical scope is worldwide, with a focus on developing countries.
Correspondence: S. D. Lane, Case Western Reserve University, Department of Anthropology, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7125. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40768 Meredith, William H. China's family planning policy today. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 23, No. 2, Autumn 1993. 35-50 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper details current family planning policies in China as well as progress and problems in reaching State goals. The information provided is based on a content analysis of current English language publications from the People's Republic of China. Current government policy is reviewed as is the current state of family planning in China today....Chinese response to foreign criticism is also discussed."
Correspondence: W. H. Meredith, University of Nebraska, Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, Lincoln, NE 68588. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40769 Sen, Gita; Germain, Adrienne; Chen, Lincoln C. Population policies reconsidered: health, empowerment, and rights. Harvard Series on Population and International Health, ISBN 0-674-69003-6. LC 94-8443. Mar 1994. xiv, 280 pp. Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, Center for Population and Development Studies: Boston, Massachusetts; International Women's Health Coalition: New York, New York. Distributed by Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. In Eng.
This is an interdisciplinary collective work which presents a critical evaluation of population policies and family planning programs. The 17 contributions are presented under four topics, which are the reexamination of premises, human rights and reproductive rights, gender and empowerment, and reproductive and sexual health. There are three major themes that occur throughout the book. "The first is that population policies should be transformed to reflect a fundamental commitment to ethics and human rights. The second is that population policies, rather than concentrating simply on fertility control, can only be effective and humane as part of broader human development approaches that create an enabling environment within which people can attain their health and rights. The third theme gives priority to two strategies: women's empowerment and reproductive and sexual health services."
Correspondence: Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40770 Tian, Xueyuan. "Intermediate" population control and comprehensive community development. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1993. 241-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses "the role and function communities perform in population control [in China]." Sections are included on essential areas in intermediate population control, different typologies in population and community development, and a study of an experimental development zone on the island of Hainan.
Correspondence: X. Tian, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40771 Wilson, Amrit. New world order and West's war on population. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 29, No. 34, Aug 20, 1994. 2,201-4 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author attacks the movement to control the rate of global population growth as an effort by advanced capitalist countries to preserve their economic and political dominance over developing countries. The emphasis is on the negative reaction of women in developing countries to some of the methods of contraception offered in family planning programs. The author concludes that people will only accept family planning programs and policies when they feel they have control over their own lives.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:40772 World Bank (Washington, D.C.). Population and development: implications for the World Bank. Development in Practice, ISBN 0-8213-2999-5. LC 94-31613. Aug 1994. x, 134 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report was prepared for the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, Egypt, in September 1994. "The study explains why slowing population growth is still a high priority for the poorest countries, how population policy can be integrated with social policies, how population programs can provide the poor with appropriate services, why country-specific strategies are needed, and what other demographic issues are becoming more significant." Chapters are also included on population trends in developing countries, demand and supply factors in fertility transitions, integrated approaches to reproductive health, and implications for the World Bank.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40773 Zhang, Junsen; Sturm, Roland. When do couples sign the one-child certificate in urban China? Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1994. 69-81 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes a central part of China's one-child policy: when do eligible couples sign the one-child certificate and what are important socioeconomic determinants of this decision? We use proportional hazard models applied to micro-data from the 1985 Chinese Fertility Survey to study this question. Our results for urban residents in Hebei and Shaanxi indicate that a couple's socioeconomic characteristics significantly affect the timing of signing the certificate. In particular, education of the husband and wife, household wealth, and the age at marriage increase the probability of signing the certificate at an earlier time, while living space decreases the probability."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

60:40774 Chavez, Linda. Immigration politics 1996. International Economy, Vol. 7, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1993. 12-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines efforts to deter illegal immigration to the United States, focusing on recent proposals put forward in California. The emphasis is on measures designed to limit entitlement programs concerning health services and education benefits for illegal immigrants.
Correspondence: L. Chavez, Manhattan Institute, 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, NY 10017. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:40775 Collinson, Sarah. Towards further harmonisation? Migration policy in the European Union. Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 31, No. 114, Jun 1994. 210-37 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Questions concerning the development of a common migration policy by the member countries of the European Community are explored. The author suggests that "the present shape of migration policy in Europe appears to indicate the emergence of a complex mosaic of cooperative arrangements, not only in terms of relations between the Union member states and third countries, but also within the Union itself. Different spheres of cooperation seem to be emerging, with the greatest integration being achieved in respect to policies which aim at completing the internal market and facilitating the eventual functioning of the European Economic Area."
Correspondence: S. Collinson, Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House, 10 St. James's Square, London SW1Y 4LE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40776 Gedik, Ayse. Migration and urban growth in Turkey 1965-1985. In: Innovation and urban population dynamics, edited by K. P. Strohmeier and C. W. Matthiessen. ISBN 1-85628-143-4. 1992. 105-21 pp. Avebury: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"In the developing countries, various policies are designed and put into effect in order to reduce the population concentration in the primate cities. One of these policies is to direct-attract the rural migrants to non-metropolitan secondary cities....In this paper, this prevailing consensus among most policy makers and scholars is questioned, and put to empirical test with Turkish Population Census [data for] 1970, 1980, and 1985. A detailed case study is carried out, and the different types of migration flows...are analyzed in order to find out which types of migration flow to/from the urban centres have the largest effect on population concentration. Our findings refuted the above stated consensus at least for the case when migration is measured as change of permanent residence during five year periods between two censuses."
Correspondence: Avebury, Ashgate Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hants GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40777 Jupp, James; Kabala, Marie. The politics of Australian immigration. Pub. Order No. 92-3060-7. ISBN 0-644-27293-7. 1993. xviii, 302 pp. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This book, which includes contributions by several authors, examines the major forces and individuals that have shaped immigration policy in Australia. "The book opens with a broad picture of the immigration policy-making scene, its stakeholders and interests. Part two sets Australian conditions in the international context....Essays in governmental politics in Australia in part three explain the rationale behind decisions on the annual immigrant intake and the selection criteria; the role of the judiciary as a factor influencing immigration decisions and the role of the Department of Immigration in setting immigration law; and the internal workings of the bureaucracy in making changes in departmental decisions. Part four discusses the approach to immigration of the two major political parties, the bipartisan approach and the role of public opinion. A further section on interest groups looks at the growth lobby and its opponents, the ethnic lobby and public discourse on the issue. The conclusion draws together the various analyses and perspectives presented."
Correspondence: Australian Government Publishing Service, G.P.O. Box 84, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

60:40778 Lowell, B. Lindsay; Jing, Zhongren. Unauthorized workers and immigration reform: what can we ascertain from employers? International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, Fall 1994. 427-48 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article estimates the unauthorized U.S. labor force and explores employers' initial reactions to the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). A sample of businesses, undertaken to evaluate IRCA impact, supplies information on hiring practices. A selectivity correction model is used to impute 2.6 million unauthorized workers in the entire sample which compares favorably with other estimates. The estimate is tabulated by questions about IRCA: the findings suggest that a large proportion of the unauthorized labor force uses fraudulent documents, many without the knowledge of their employer. This may be associated with the apparent lack of marked change in patterns of unauthorized hiring in the period immediately following IRCA passage."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: B. L. Lowell, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40779 Luciani, Giacomo. Migration policies in Europe and the United States. ISBN 0-7923-2537-0. 1993. viii, 162 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers presented at a conference held in Rome, Italy, in 1991. "The Conference aimed at comparing two different approaches to the issue of migration. On one hand, the economic approach stresses the positive effects of migration on the pattern of long term growth....On the other hand, the social and political approach emphasises the short-term negative effects: disruption of social norms, social conflicts, racism and, in general, a great deal of adjustment costs....This collection...explains the available techniques for regulating the phenomenon, and the necessary ingredients for successful migration, including giving proper citizenship to the immigrants. It also explains specific problems for Europe and the need for co-ordinated national policies." The geographical focus is on Europe and the United States.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40780 Tichenor, Daniel J. The politics of immigration reform in the United States, 1981-1990. Polity, Vol. 26, No. 3, Spring 1994. 333-62 pp. Amherst, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"American immigration politics produced two major laws in the 1980s, overcoming formidable obstacles to policy change and unleashing new forces for increased migration when new restrictions seemed likely. This article examines the ideologically mixed coalition behind these changes and the ambiguous, often conflicting policy that was the result. Subsequent struggles within the courts and the administrative presidency to interpret and apply these reforms, the author concludes, have resulted in greater public antipathy toward immigration and also enervated participatory citizenship in the United States."
Correspondence: D. J. Tichenor, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02254. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

60:40781 Vernez, Georges. The United States Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: implementation and effects. In: Migration policies in Europe and the United States, edited by Giacomo Luciani. 1993. 83-96 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The purpose of this essay is to synthesize what has already been established about IRCA's implementation and effects and to discuss the likely longer-term effects on immigration, legal and illegal, and on U.S. domestic policies and institutions. It draws upon the findings from a number of evaluative studies of the implementation and effects of IRCA conducted by the [RAND] Program for Research on Immigration Policy (PRIP)."
Correspondence: G. Vernez, RAND Corporation, Program for Research and Immigration Policy, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:40782 Zolberg, Aristide R. Are the industrial countries under siege? In: Migration policies in Europe and the United States, edited by Giacomo Luciani. 1993. 53-81 pp. Kluwer Academic: Boston, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author discusses changing trends in international migration, with a focus on the appropriateness of various existing and proposed measures to limit such movements in developed countries. "The objective of this paper is to exorcise the spectre of an impending invasion and to provide a framework for elaborating immigration policy broadly speaking on a sound basis....[Migration problems] are often vastly exaggerated so as to undermine confidence in established mechanisms for dealing with them, and beyond this to call into question the legitimacy of asylum policies that are in accord with international obligations and promote human rights, as well as the acceptance of growing diversity. My argument is largely a plea on behalf of common sense: the search for solutions must be founded on an accurate grasp of the nature of the challenge."
Correspondence: A. R. Zolberg, New School for Social Research, 66 West 12th Street, New York, NY 10011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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