Educational (Oxford, England); George Philip (London,
England). Philip's geographical digest, 1994-95.
Heinemann-Philip Atlases, ISBN 0-435-34978-3. 1994. 128 pp. Oxford,
England. In Eng.
This atlas is in two parts, a statistical section and a text section. The first presents a range of data for individual countries. It includes a substantive demographic section with data on total population, rate of change, birth and death rates, infant mortality, age groups, life expectancy, median age, population density, urban population, and details from recent censuses of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, the Netherlands, and Nigeria. The geographical scope is worldwide; data are from official sources.
Correspondence: Heinemann Educational, Halley Court, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8EJ, England. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.
Ellen; Hobbs, Frank. World population profile: 1994.
No. WP/94, ISBN 0-16-043085-2. Feb 1994. 68,  pp. U.S. Bureau of
the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is one in a series of reports presenting an overview of current global population trends. It contains chapters on population size and growth, population composition, the components of change, and contraceptive prevalence, as well as a chapter on HIV/AIDS by Peter O. Way and Karen A. Stanecki, which is cited elsewhere in this issue. A series of maps is provided separately, illustrating such concepts as adolescent fertility, infant mortality, fertility, age distribution, and population growth rates.
For a previous report for 1991, see 58:20087.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
George D. Critical masses: the global population
challenge. ISBN 0-670-85235-X. LC 94-11798. 1994. ix, 353 pp.
Viking: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a book on global population issues designed for the general reader. Chapters are included on urbanization, food supplies, environmental degradation, family planning, women's issues, religious issues, and the efforts to develop a world population plan of action.
Correspondence: Viking, Penguin Books USA, 375 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10014. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Tesson-Millet, Marie-Claude; Salomon, Michel.
Where is world population heading? [Ou va la population
mondiale?] Les Editions du Quotidien du Medecin, ISBN 2-906121-22-3.
1994. 256 pp. SESC: Levallois-Perret, France. In Fre.
This report stems from a symposium on global population trends organized by the group Equilibres et Population, and held in Paris, France, December 6-7, 1993. The 28 contributions are divided into four sections on the world situation, resources and consumption, moral aspects and religion, and future policy actions.
Correspondence: SESC, 140 rue Jules-Guesde, 92593 Levallois-Perret Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Gerard-Francois. From the population explosion to a
population collapse? [De "l'explosion" a "l'implosion"
demographique?] Revue des Sciences Morales et Politiques, No. 4, 1993.
583-603 pp. Montrouge, France. In Fre.
A review of current demographic trends around the world is presented. The author considers the concept of the population explosion to be inappropriate, since rates of population growth over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries are the result of a long process of change rather than an isolated phenomenon. However, a review of contemporary trends raises the prospect of a catastrophic decline in population numbers in the developed world, which, coupled with continued population growth in developing countries, will generate a growing demand for migration from poor to rich countries. A summary of the discussion which followed the presentation of the paper is included (pp. 599-603).
Correspondence: G.-F. Dumont, Universite de Paris-Sorbonne (Paris IV), 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Parviz. Reproductive behavior and global population
trends--causes and consequences. [Reproduktionsverhalten und
globale Bevolkerungsentwicklung--Ursachen und Konsequenzen.] In: Ethik
der menschlichen Fortpflanzung, edited by Uwe Korner. 1992. 11-29 pp.
Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger.
The rapid growth in the world's population since the 1950s is examined. The historical demographic transition in developed countries is contrasted with the current situation in developing countries, where mortality has declined but birth rates remain high. Causes and consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries are analyzed.
Correspondence: P. Khalatbari, Gesellschaft fur Demographie, Parkaue 3, 10367 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Parviz. The growth of world population as a threat to
civilization? [Das Wachstum der Weltbevolkerung als Bedrohung der
Zivilisation?] Utopie Kreativ, No. 35-36, Sep-Oct 1993. 56-77 pp.
Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The problems of rapid population growth and unequal distribution of population between developing and developed countries are examined. Causes and consequences of the population explosion in developing countries are then discussed. Attention is given to hunger and undernourishment, destruction of the environment, unemployment, and rural flight and poverty. Prospects for solving these problems are assessed.
Correspondence: P. Khalatbari, Gesellschaft fur Demographie, Parkaue 3, 10367 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
David. Australian demography at the millennium.
Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 11, No. 1, May
1994. 33-54 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper looks backwards over the last ten years to see what topics might concern Australian demographers in the future. The possibility of convergence or 'sameness' is considered, but not proven. The main areas considered are historical demography, mortality, fertility, marriage, fertility regulation, internal migration, international migration, human resources, ageing, forecasting, the family life cycle, policy, and gender."
Correspondence: D. Lucas, Australian National University, National Centre for Development Studies, Graduate Studies in Demography, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
60:40009 Voss, Paul
R. Applied demography and rural sociology. In: The
demography of rural life, edited by David L. Brown, Donald R. Field,
and James J. Zuiches. NERCRD Publication, No. 64, May 1993. 145-81 pp.
Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development [NERCRD]: University
Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"I will briefly explore some of the origins of applied demography in the United States, and, in particular, I will argue that during the past 50 to 60 years, rural sociology and, more narrowly, rural demography, has provided a part of the knowledge base for many of the practical, contemporary applications of demographic science....In my principal section, I highlight some of the important, but frequently overlooked, contributions that rural sociologists have made to the development of applied demography." Comments are included by Kenneth M. Johnson, Richard W. Rathge, and Doris P. Slesinger (pp. 171-81).
Correspondence: P. R. Voss, University of Wisconsin, Department of Rural Sociology, 1450 Linden Drive, Room 314, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Gregoire. Population dynamics. [Dynamique des
populations.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 6, ISBN 2-87085-223-1. Sep 1990. 66
pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et
Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by ARTEL,
14 Chaussee de Gand, 1080 Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng;
Ger; Spa; Ara; Dut; Chi.
The author reviews the development of theories concerning the concept of overpopulation from Malthus to the present. He suggests that this concept should be studied in the context of the relationship between a population and its environment. "Population systems, as we see them, present a great diversity in behavior, as well as different types of evolution associated with such concepts as equilibrium, instability, bifurcation, chaos and universality. A new way of analysing the orbital structures of such systems--the method of the inverse curve--is also presented."
Correspondence: Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
60:40011 De Sandre,
Paolo. Bioethical implications of birth and death.
In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la
Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 201-7 pp. International
Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium.
Some ethical aspects of the study of population are examined in the course of an introduction to a conference session on this topic. The subjects include actions affecting reproduction, the environment, and human genetics.
Correspondence: P. De Sandre, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, 35122 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M. Why trade quantity
for child quality? A "family mobility" thesis. Population
Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-15, May 1994. 29,  pp.
Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute:
University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The author presents a thesis to explain decisions concerning fertility in developing countries in which the core assumption is that parents attempt to enhance family status by ensuring that at least one of their children experiences upward mobility. This means that, in most developing countries, "the rich generally have an objective incentive for investing in child quality. For the poor on the other hand, this incentive may exist only in open and relatively equal societies."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Adrian C. The role of culture in demographic analysis: a
preliminary investigation. Working Papers in Demography, No. 46,
1994. 34 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social
Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to clarify...the role of culture in classical demographic transition theory, and in the more recent theories of fertility decline of Richard Easterlin, John Caldwell, and Ron Lesthaeghe, respectively. It is argued that all these theories, despite their strengths, rely too heavily on outdated concepts of social change. The paper concludes with a proposal that an appropriate framework capable of integrating economic, institutional, and cultural approaches to fertility must be rooted in the concept of human action."
This paper was originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
S. Ryan. Food for thought: rhetoric and reality in modern
mortality history. Historical Methods, Vol. 27, No. 3, Summer
1994. 101-25 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses the use of rhetorical methods in the interpretation of past trends in the social sciences. "In a social science history context, the truth-neutrality of rhetorical methods means that they can be used to clarify the implications of sound historical research for policy purposes, or to make scientifically dubious research seem unjustifiably central to understanding the past and managing the present....The purpose of this paper is to argue that the recent history of mortality transition illustrates the latter possibility."
Correspondence: S. R. Johansson, Stanford University, Department of History, Stanford, CA 94305-2024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Philip. Anthropological demography and the limits of
diffusionism. In: International Population Conference/Congres
International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 4. 1993. 313-26
pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]:
Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author critically examines "the rise of diffusion as a theoretical orientation in population studies...." He reviews relevant literature on the topic, and illustrates his analysis using studies on changes in nuptiality in African family systems.
Correspondence: P. Kreager, University of Oxford, Pauling Centre for Human Sciences, Wellington Square, Oxford 0X1 2JD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
J. P. The epidemiologic transition theory. Journal of
Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 48, No. 4, Aug 1994. 329-31 pp.
London, England. In Eng.
The author questions the validity of the epidemiologic transition theory as formulated by A. R. Omran in 1971. It is concluded that, although this theory provides a potentially powerful framework for the study of disease and mortality, the historical changes in mortality that have occurred need to be studied much more thoroughly if the theory is to be of use in analyzing current and future mortality trends. "Clearly, this enterprise is too exciting to be left to demographers and geographers."
For the study by Omran, published in 1971, see 37:4037.
Correspondence: J. P. Mackenbach, Erasmus University, Department of Public Health, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Maja. Demographic transition theory: theory or
model. [Teorija demografske tranzicije: teorija ili model.]
Stanovnistvo, Vol. 30-31, 1992-1993. 5-20 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In
Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author evaluates the demographic transition theory, with a focus on its relevance for different socioeconomic settings, its assessments of transition stages and predictions for the future, and its simplifications and generalizations.
Correspondence: M. Miljanic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Instituta Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Victor. The economic system and the demographic system:
where are we today? [Mode de production et regime demographique:
qu'en est-il aujourd'hui?] In: Population, reproduction, societes:
perspectives et enjeux de demographie sociale, edited by Dennis D.
Cordell et al. 1993. 13-8 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The author returns to his previous argument regarding the relationship between the economic system in force and people's demographic behavior, with particular reference to Africa. He suggests that recent developments have not invalidated the theoretical approach he put foward together with Joel Gregory, which challenged the concept that linked demographic change with modernization. Instead, he contends that demographic decisions at the household level are taken in order to realize the maximum benefits for household members in the light of prevailing economic conditions.
For a related study by Joel Gregory and Victor Piche, published in 1985, see 51:40009.
Correspondence: V. Piche, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, Programme Population et Developpement au Sahel, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
60:40019 Van de Kaa,
Dirk J. The second demographic transition revisited:
theories and expectations. In: Population and family in the Low
Countries 1993: late fertility and other current issues, edited by
Gijs Beets et al. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 30, 1994. 81-126 pp. Swets
and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author discusses "the sudden changes in Europe's population trends and demographic future observed since the mid-1960s....I have used the term 'second demographic transition' to highlight their great significance....Recent developments will be reviewed briefly in this paper, but the emphasis will be on theoretical explanations of the phenomena observed, so as to support further the 'second transition' idea and to gain insight into the possible future course of events."
Correspondence: D. J. Van de Kaa, Netherlands Institute for Advanced Studies, Meyboomlaan 1, 2242 PR Wassenaar, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Jacques. Malthus and the Malthusians. [Malthus et les
Malthusiens.] Economie Poche, No. 10, 1994. 111 pp. Economica: Paris,
France. In Fre.
This is a general introduction to the works of Malthus, which includes consideration of his work on demography.
Correspondence: Economica, 49 rue Hericart, 75015 Paris, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.
John C. New challenges for demography. Journal of the
Australian Population Association, Vol. 11, No. 1, May 1994. 9-19 pp.
Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Challenges for demography have arisen from recognition of its potential contribution to interdisciplinary research in new areas of major public interest. This paper discusses three of these: research on anthropological demography, AIDS and the health transition. The paper examines priorities and the contribution of demography to progress in each area."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
John N. Why can't demographers and physiologists agree?
Issues of study design. In: Human reproductive ecology:
interactions of environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth
L. Campbell and James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of
Sciences, Vol. 709, 1994. 408-15 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New
York, New York. In Eng.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the separations, overlaps, and interlinkages between two approaches to the study of population, that of physiologists and demographers. Subject areas examined include global population issues, the fertility transition, proximate determinants of fertility, and lactation and fertility.
Correspondence: J. N. Hobcraft, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).
Nathan. Influence of human reproduction on environment.
What features of biology and economics cause them to see population
differently? In: Human reproductive ecology: interactions of
environment, fertility, and behavior, edited by Kenneth L. Campbell and
James W. Wood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 709,
1994. 331-46 pp. New York Academy of Sciences: New York, New York. In
The author examines reasons why disciplines vary in their assessment of the consequences of human reproduction for the environment. Concerning the differences between biology and economics, the author suggests that, whereas biologists look for departures from expected values, economists tend to look at averages.
For a related study, published in 1993, see 59:30010.
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).
B.; Pollard, J. H. The analysis of mortality and other
actuarial statistics. 3rd ed. ISBN 0-901066-26-5. 1993. xvi, 519
pp. Institute of Actuaries: Oxford, England; Faculty of Actuaries:
Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
This is the revised edition of a standard actuarial textbook on the analysis of mortality. It contains new material on demography and population methods. All chapters have been updated or rewritten, and a new chapter has been added on event history analysis and proportional hazards. Concepts covered include life tables, life expectancy, and mortality projections.
For the second edition, published in 1980, see 47:1045.
Correspondence: Institute of Actuaries, Napier House, 4 Worcester Street, Oxford OX1 2AW, England. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.
60:40025 Borrie, W.
D. Progress in Australian demography. Journal of the
Australian Population Association, Vol. 11, No. 1, May 1994. 1-8 pp.
Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In marking the tenth anniversary of the Journal of the Australian Population Association, this paper focuses especially on the teaching of demography in Australia at graduate and undergraduate levels. The paper also discusses the contribution of universities and other research organizations to the development of demography in Australia."
Correspondence: W. D. Borrie, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Michel; Roucolle, Jean-Louis. French population and
society since 1945. [Population et societe francaises depuis
1945.] Momentos de Geographie Sirey, 4th ed. ISBN 2-247-01402-X. 1992.
ix, 315 pp. Sirey: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a completely revised edition of this basic textbook on population trends in contemporary France. It uses recent data, including the 1990 census, as well as the results of published studies. The book is divided into four parts. Part 1 looks at population trends from 1945 to 1992, including natural increase and migration. Part 2 examines the characteristics of the population. Part 3 examines standards of living, including education, income, expenditures, social security, and employment. Part 4 looks at social aspects of modern living, such as violence and relations at work.
For the 2nd edition, published in 1984, see 52:30755.
Correspondence: Editions Sirey, 22 rue Soufflot, 75240 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).