Volume 60 - Number 3 - Fall 1994

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

60:30713 Berer, Marge. Population and family planning policies: women-centred perspectives. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 1, May 1993. 4-12 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is an introduction to a special issue concerned with population and family planning policies.
Correspondence: M. Berer, Reproductive Health Matters, 1 London Bridge Street, London SE1 9SG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30714 Cabrera, Gustavo. Demographic dynamics and development: the role of population policy in Mexico. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 105-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This chapter focuses on the demographic changes experienced in Mexico during the past 50 years as outcomes of its population policies....Within the last 50 years, two very different conceptions of demographic growth and its relationship to development have prevailed, leading to divergent positions on population policy....The integration of population variables into social and economic programs has not been achieved. Consequently, population programs have become independent, pursuing specific fertility and demographic growth objectives as goals, rather than as mechanisms for the attainment of social and economic change."
Correspondence: G. Cabrera, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30715 Dabo, Keffing. Population politics in the Sahel: a comparative analysis of population policies in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Senegal. [Les politiques de population au Sahel: une analyse comparative des politiques de population du Burkina Faso, du Mali, et du Senegal.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 417-42 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
The author analyzes and compares population policies in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Senegal. Consideration is given to the effect of changes in government, socioeconomic factors, and policy formulation and administration.
Correspondence: K. Dabo, Ministere de l'Economie, des Finances et du Plan, Direction Nationale de la Planification, B.P. 2466, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30716 Dawson, Gaynor. Development planning for women: the case of the Indonesian transmigration program. Women's Studies International Forum, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 69-81 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper I discuss the case of the Indonesian transmigration program where a number of projects specifically for women have been implemented since the late 1970s and where, since the mid-1980s, more attention has been paid in mainstream planning to women, especially in their productive capacity. I consider the implications for women of the conceptual framework and assumptions made by the planners. I argue that in the process of planning, elements of the prevailing ideology of gender hierarchy are absorbed, reapplied, and reinforced in pursuit of officially defined goals and in the interest of greater administrative efficiency, and that merely incorporating women into such development schemes is not sufficient by itself to ensure that they will benefit."
Correspondence: G. Dawson, Murdoch University, School of Social Sciences, Women's Studies Programme, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30717 de Barbieri, Teresita. Gender and population policies: some reflections. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 1, May 1993. 85-92 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to reflect on how a gender perspective might contribute to a greater understanding of population as an issue, to analyse population policies and the decline of fertility in Latin America, and propose some directions for the future....My hope is to stimulate broad-based and deeper reflection about sexuality, reproduction and the social division of labour and the way these are influenced by gender power." Family planning programs, sexuality, and having children are examined from this perspective.
Correspondence: T. de Barbieri, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Gender Studies Programme, Ciudad Universitaria, Del. Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30718 Finkle, Jason L.; McIntosh, C. Alison. The new politics of population. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 3-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"For most of human history, the politics of population has rested on the assumption that population size and growth are essential determinants of national power and economic strength....Today, population politics has been transformed as governments everywhere have come to see rapid population growth in third world countries as an obstacle to development and have laid aside the old beliefs. In a major shift of emphasis, the old politics of population has been replaced by the politics of family planning."
Correspondence: J. L. Finkle, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Population Planning and International Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30719 Getachew, Dawit. The process of population policy formulation in Ethiopia. Population and Development Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1990. 38-41 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
The author briefly reviews the development of population policy in Ethiopia. Aspects considered include the impact of the 1984 census results on long-term development planning, and the work of a subcommittee on manpower and population policy, which was formed by a national committee preparing a five-year development plan covering the period 1989-1994.
Correspondence: D. Getachew, Office of the National Committee for Central Planning, Hotels and Tourism, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Yale University, Social Science Library, New Haven, CT.

60:30720 Inayatullah, Attiya. Policy formulation and implementation issues in the ESCAP region. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 199-210 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The author reviews the development of population policy in the Asia and Pacific region, with a focus on the importance of population aging, migration and urbanization, improving the role and status of women, human resources development, and the potential of nongovernmental organizations. In addition, various policy implementation issues are discussed, and methods of resource mobilization are assessed.
Correspondence: A. Inayatullah, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Lahore, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30721 Klugman, Barbara. Balancing means and ends--population policy in South Africa. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 1, May 1993. 44-57 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author critically examines the government's population control policy in South Africa since 1980. She "explores the frame of reference used by the PDP [Population Development Programme] and, in the process of offering a critique, suggests alternative approaches to population development which,...would integrate processes for the emancipation of women with the development process itself."
Correspondence: B. Klugman, University of the Witwatersrand, Centre for Health Policy, Women's Health Project, P.O. Wits, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30722 Laws, Glenda. Implications of demographic changes for urban policy and planning. Urban Geography, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 90-100 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
The author examines ways in which demographic change shapes urban planning and policy in the United States. She focuses on changing family and household structure, immigration, and demographic aging.
Correspondence: G. Laws, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Geography, 302 Walker Building, University Park, PA 16802-5011. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

60:30723 Novick, Susana. Politics and population, Argentina 1870-1989. [Politica y poblacion, Argentina 1870-1989.] Biblioteca Politica Argentina, No. 353-354, ISBN 950-25-2347-4. 1992. 227 pp. Centro Editor de America Latina: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
This two-volume study is a review of developments and changes in Argentinean population policy over the period 1870-1989. The first volume examines population policies in the context of the various development plans adopted over time, and looks separately at how laws and policies affected migration, marriage, and fertility. The second volume analyzes the differences in policy between the various types of civil and military regimes that have ruled the country, particularly since 1946.
Correspondence: Centro Editor de America Latina, Tucuman 1736, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30724 Stortzbach, Bernd. Germany after unification--opinions on and attitudes toward the family, children, and family policy in the East and West. [Deutschland nach der Vereinigung--Meinungen und Einstellungen zu Familie, Kindern und zur Familienpolitik in Ost und West.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1993-1994. 151-67 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"In this contribution, first results are given of a survey initiated in 1992 by the Federal Institute for Population Research...on the acceptance of measures related to family policy. With this survey a total of 10,000 representatively selected German women and men aged 20 to 39 years were interviewed as to their opinions and attitudes with regard to family and children as well as with regard to measures related to family policy....This first results analysis is focussed on demonstrating the differences and common features in the opinions of the respondents from the former RFA and from the former GDR. The results indicate clear differences between the former two parts of Germany in the assessment of reasons for the decline of the birthrate, value orientation with regard to family and children as well as the assessment of the actual family policy adopted by the federal government and of individual measures related to family policy."
Correspondence: B. Stortzbach, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30725 Thomas, John W.; Grindle, Merilee S. Political leadership and policy characteristics in population policy reform. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 51-70 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This chapter addresses the issue of reform in population policy....We are particularly interested in the role of policy elites--those officially responsible for making authoritative decisions for government--in reform initiatives. We believe that much of the explanation of policy change rests on a more systematic understanding of the role of these public officials....We first present a summary of an analytic framework that we have developed on the basis of a series of economic policy reform initiatives, and then assess it in light of 16 cases of population policy change that we have reviewed...." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: J. W. Thomas, Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30726 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA] (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). An assessment of the formulation and implementation of national population programmes in ECA member states during the 1990s. No. ECA/POP/TP/93/1[3bi], [1993]. 53 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
This report presents an overview of the development of national population programs and policies in Africa during the early 1990s. A content summary of the policies of the 13 countries that have adopted explicit population policies is presented, followed by a discussion of constraints on policy development and suggestions for future policy design.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Africa, Population Division, P.O. Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30727 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Development (New York, New York). Case studies on population policy: Argentina. [Estudios de casos de politica de la poblacion: Argentina.] Politica de la Poblacion: Documento, No. 26; ST/ESA/SER.R/96, 1992. vii, 48 pp. New York, New York. In Spa.
This is one in a series of UN Population Division case studies on population policy in selected countries. This report concerns Argentina. Separate consideration is given to policies developed in response to the perception that fertility is too low, to international migration, and to spatial distribution and urbanization.
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Development, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

60:30728 Abdullah, Rashidah. Changing population policies and women's lives in Malaysia. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 1, May 1993. 67-77 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper looks at the effects of [Malaysia's] new population policy on its corollary family planning programme and on fertility, in the context of this multi-ethnic society and from the perspective of Malaysian women. It asks what Malaysian women themselves want and to what extent women's groups and organizations can affect policy on behalf of women's needs."
Correspondence: R. Abdullah, Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30729 Aghajanian, Akbar. Family planning and contraceptive use in Iran, 1967-1992. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1994. 66-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This...report focuses on changes in population policy and contraceptive use in Iran since the establishment of the first national family planning program in 1967." The author shows that following an initial stage of moderate growth, the program came to a virtual halt in 1979 with the Islamic Revolution. "In 1989, the alarming results of the 1986 census, which were well publicized in 1988, galvanized the government into creating another family planning program. The program has been growing in political, ideological and economic support ever since."
Correspondence: A. Aghajanian, Fayetteville State University, Department of Sociology, 1200 Murshison Road, Fayetteville, NC 28301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30730 Chamie, Joseph. Trends, variations, and contradictions in national policies to influence fertility. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 37-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"An underlying hypothesis of this article is that the population policies of a country are not only a function of demographic phenomena, but are also the consequence of social, economic, and political conditions specific to the country. Population policies--and such shifts in policy as those noted above--are likely to be of paramount importance in determining governmental expenditures, programs, practices, and assistance, which in turn affect the well-being of individuals and influence demographic trends....This chapter examines trends, variations, and contradictions in government views and policies that are directed at influencing fertility, which since World War II has been a central concern and focus of most governments' interventions in the area of population....The perceptions and policies of governments toward fertility reported here are based on information from the Population Policy Data Bank, which is maintained by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (DIESA) of the United Nations."
Correspondence: J. Chamie, UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30731 Desiderio, Rene S. Population policy and Philippine politics: divergent opinions of elites on fertility control. Pub. Order No. DA9401847. 1993. 278 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Cornell University, examines "the perceptions and attitudes of the religious, political, and health elites on family planning and population [in the Philippines]. An underlying assumption of the study is that success in formulating a national policy on fertility control will depend largely on the support it receives from these elites."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8).

60:30732 Finkle, Jason L.; McIntosh, C. Alison. The new politics of population: conflict and consensus in family planning. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., LC 94-8051. 1994. vii, 276 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This volume grows out of a seminar held at the Rockefeller Foundation's conference center in Bellagio, Italy in February 1990....The articles in this volume are divided into four sections: overviews and frameworks for analysis; the political environment of policies and programs to influence family planning; case studies of the politics of policy formulation and implementation; and transnational actors and family planning policy." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30733 Greenhalgh, Susan; Zhu, Chuzhu; Li, Nan. Restraining population growth in three Chinese villages, 1988-93. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1994. 365-95, 496, 498-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The latest nationwide survey of Chinese fertility suggests that, after rising during the mid-1980s, fertility has fallen steadily since the late 1980s, reaching replacement level in 1992. Through a re-study of three villages in the northwestern province of Shaanxi, this article explores the politics and economics of this striking demographic development in a locality well known to the authors from previous research. Between 1988 and mid-1993, they find, village fertility fell to new lows due to increased emphasis on birth planning by leaders at all levels and, to a lesser extent, economic advance that reduced already very low childbearing aspirations. This microstudy of three ordinary Chinese villages provides dramatic testimony to the changes that can be wrought at the bottom of the administrative hierarchy when the top leadership decides that rapid population growth must be controlled."
Correspondence: S. Greenhalgh, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30734 Keely, Charles B. Limits to papal power: Vatican inaction after Humanae Vitae. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 220-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This chapter reviews the developments leading to the pivotal publication of Humanae Vitae and its relation to events outside the [Roman Catholic] Church in those early days of the global spread of the family planning movement. It then explores why the central authorities of Roman Catholicism did not actively pursue a goal of incorporating Church teaching into laws and policies of countries in which the Church was a significant presence and in multilateral organizations in which it has representation."
Correspondence: C. B. Keely, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30735 Lloyd, Cynthia B. Policies seeking a reduction of high fertility; a case for a family and gender perspective. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 407-16 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The need to include issues concerning gender relations and family characteristics in policies designed to reduce fertility is examined. The author presents a framework for including these issues in the planning process, focusing on strategies for moving them onto the socioeconomic agenda. Special consideration is given to the supply and demand aspects of family planning, women in development, and the costs of childrearing.
Correspondence: C. B. Lloyd, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30736 Neupert, Ricardo F. Fertility decline in Mongolia: trends, policies and explanations. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 1, Mar 1994. 18-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the history of population policy in Mongolia, with a focus on motivations and consequences of the government's strong pronatalist ideology. "In spite of these policies, fertility began a sustained decline by the middle of the 1970s. This decline intensified during the 1980s and is likely to continue during the present decade, probably even more rapidly than in the past, since limitations on contraceptives and abortion have been removed....There is considerable apprehension concerning the substantial fertility decline and its eventual impact on population growth....Some are concerned that past interventions could be revitalized and future government family planning programs could be extremely limited."
Correspondence: R. F. Neupert, State Statistical Office for Data Analysis, Project MON/92/P03, Ulan Bator, Mongolia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30737 Neupert, Ricardo F. Pronatalist policies and fertility decline: the case of Mongolia. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 443-62 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The first purpose of this study is to describe and to analyze the population policies regarding fertility and population growth implemented between the 1950s and 1989 [in Mongolia]. The emphasis is on analyzing such policies in relation to the demographic and socio-economic situation prevalent in the country during that period. The second objective is to analyze the recent process of fertility decline observed in the country. The emphasis is on explaining this trend within the context of the population policies implemented by the government during the past three decades and, at the same time, discussing some of its major policy implications."
Correspondence: R. F. Neupert, UN Department of Economic and Social Development, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30738 Pai Panandiker, V. A.; Umashankar, P. K. Fertility control and politics in India. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 89-104 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The central explanatory propositions of this article are that India's policy of fertility regulation and its success or failure have been deeply conditioned by two central realities of the Indian polity: (1) India's diversity and (2) India's federal democratic political system. The complex interactive relationship between these key dimensions of the Indian political organization has determined the country's performance not only in the area of family planning but in other areas as well." The authors explore interrelationships between fertility control policies and factors such as religion, ethnic and caste diversity, economic diversity, and the country's political system.
Correspondence: V. A. Pai Panandiker, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30739 Ravindran, T. K. Sundari. Women and the politics of population and development in India. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 1, May 1993. 26-38 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author "analyses the Indian government's current [population control] policies from the point of view of their effect on Indian women. It shows that these policies, which in theory are meant to support development and solve the country's economic problems, in practice do not. Further, it shows why these policies have failed women in the past and will continue to fail them in the future. Finally, it puts forth alternatives for population and development policy and family planning services, as an integrated programme that would meet women's needs and achieve the government's stated aims at the same time."
Correspondence: T. K. S. Ravindran, Centre for Development Studies, International Training Programme on Population and Development, Ulloor, Trivandrum 695 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30740 White, Tyrene. Two kinds of production: the evolution of China's family planning policy in the 1980s. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, Suppl., 1994. 137-58 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the development of China's family planning policy. The analysis places "the one-child policy on the periphery of Chinese politics, not at the center, and [specifies] at the outset four basic aspects of China's political and institutional climate that have provided the structure and context for decisionmaking on population policy in the post-Mao era. With that context in mind, the evolution of the one-child policy is reviewed, showing how changes in this policy sector have been the direct byproducts of broader developments in Chinese politics, not merely a response to popular resistance."
Correspondence: T. White, Swarthmore College, Department of Political Science, Swarthmore, PA 19081. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

60:30741 Brake, Karen. Immigration of Pacific Islanders to New Zealand, 1986-1991: policies, patterns and outcomes. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 19, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1993. 173-203 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper documents the most recent period of immigration from three Pacific Island countries--Fiji, Tonga and Western Samoa--in terms of policy initiatives, patterns of movement, and employment outcomes. The study is concerned primarily with reviewing the changes in immigration policy introduced in 1986, interpreting the patterns of migration from the three Pacific countries in the context of these policy changes, and establishing how the immigrants were faring in the New Zealand labour market in March 1991."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30742 Castles, Stephen; Iredale, Robyn; Vasta, Ellie. Australian immigration between globalization and recession. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 2, Summer 1994. 370-83 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This report has given some idea of the wide-ranging discussions at the Second National Immigration Outlook Conference [held in Sydney, Australia, in 1993], and of the way they reflect vital political, economic, and social issues in a country built upon mass immigration. The strains of globalization, geopolitical reorientation, and economic restructuring are having decisive effects on policies of immigration and multiculturalism. The consequences of such changes are difficult to predict, but in the authors' opinion they could lead to the breakdown of the 'Australian model' which has been remarkably successful in incorporating very large numbers of newcomers from varied backgrounds. The result might be considerable hardship and social tension."
Correspondence: S. Castles, University of Wollongong, Center for Multicultural Studies, P.O. Box 1144, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30743 Clarke, Harry R. Entry charges on immigrants. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 2, Summer 1994. 338-54 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes "the various arguments that can be advanced for imposing fees on immigrants to optimize...resident gains....This article discusses cost recovery and emphasizes the costs of multiculturalism as a possible basis for fees. It then analyzes the effects of inelastic immigrant supplies in providing an optimal tariff motivation for monopsonistically restricting labor flows and deals with the second-best problem of devising an optimal fee policy to accompany a possibly suboptimal immigration quota. Next, attention turns to the role of priceable externalities. Externalities which are expensive to price because of transactions costs are analyzed. Finally, along with summarization of major conclusions, the author considers if, even in the economic interests of existing residents, entry rights should be sold."
Correspondence: H. R. Clarke, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30744 Collinson, Sarah. Beyond borders: West European migration policy towards the 21st century. ISBN 0-905031-71-7. 1993. x, 116 pp. Royal Institute of International Affairs: London, England; Wyndham Place Trust: London, England. Distributed by Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-2188. In Eng.
The author makes the case that international migration is one of the top policy problems for European governments in the 1990s due to such factors as the war in former Yugoslavia, the break-up of the Soviet Union, increases in clandestine migration, and the rise in inter-ethnic tensions. "Governments' attempts to respond to new migration pressures while simultaneously striving to abolish internal border controls have brought European migration policies to a critical crossroads. Decisions taken now will have profound economic, social and political implications for Europe in the years and decades to come. This book tackles head-on some of the major policy challenges faced today: immigrant integration, immigration controls, proposals to alleviate the root-causes of migration, and refugee and asylum policies. The author argues that only when policy-makers recognize the reality of migration as a continuing process can more effective and sustainable policies begin to be developed."
Correspondence: Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House, 10 St James's Square, London SW1Y 4LE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30745 Tomasi, Lydio F. Implementation of the Immigration Act of 1990: immigrants and nonimmigrants; the future of U.S. immigration policy; forced repatriation; migration and health: domestic perspective; employer sanctions: abandon or strengthen? In Defense of the Alien, Vol. 15, ISBN 0-934733-74-0. LC 92-37254. 1993. x, 183 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the 1992 Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy organized by the Center for Migration Studies on aspects of U.S. immigration. The 22 papers are organized into five parts, which concern implications of the 1990 Immigration Act, employer sanctions, the future of U.S. immigration policy, forced repatriation, and the domestic perspective on migration and health.
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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