Volume 60 - Number 3 - Fall 1994

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

60:30344 Anderson, Robert N.; Saenz, Rogelio. Structural determinants of Mexican American intermarriage, 1975-1980. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 2, Jun 1994. 414-30 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper uses the structural theoretical perspective and data from the 1980 [U.S.] Census to examine the impact of pertinent structural determinants of Mexican American intermarriage with Anglos across 53 metropolitan statistical areas in the southwest United States. The findings show that opportunity for contact, levels of Spanish language maintenance, and internal status diversity are important statistically. This lends general support for the structural theoretical perspective as it relates to the understanding of Mexican American intermarriage with Anglos."
Correspondence: R. N. Anderson, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30345 Bartiaux, Francoise. The declining birth rate and the marriage market: Italy 1930-1950. [Denatalite et marche matrimonial: le cas de l'Italie en 1930-1950.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 91-117 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The decline in the birth rate recorded in Italy between 1916 and 1919 began to affect [the] marriage market as early as the midthirties. This imbalance was resolved through major changes in the relative ages of the spouses, which continue to be apparent in a couple analysis based on individual data drawn from the Census of 1981. The role of mortality and of widowhood...is assessed. Their impact turns out to be minimal. The article concludes with a discussion of the influence of circumstances that prevailed at the time these marriages took place (before, during and after the Second World War)."
Correspondence: F. Bartiaux, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30346 Bender, Rosemary. Marriages in Canada, 1992. [Mariages au Canada, 1992.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993. 362-8 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Data on marriages in Canada in 1992 are presented by province and territory, age and sex, mean age at marriage, previous marital status, and religion. Some international comparisons are included.
Correspondence: R. Bender, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30347 Bideau, Alain; Brunet, Guy; Heyer, Evelyne; Plauchu, Henri. Analyzing population structure through the study of consanguinity: the example of the Valserine Valley from the eighteenth century to the present. [La consanguinite, revelateur de la structure de la population: l'exemple de la vallee de la Valserine du XVIIIe siecle a nos jours.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 145-60 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The consanguineous marriage rate is usually estimated by demographer-historians from dispensation declarations in marriage certificates. A comparison of such declarations with other sources, such as diocesan registers and genealogies, shows that these measures are unreliable. Analysing genealogies of five villages in the Valserine valley [in France] from the end [of the] seventeenth century to the present makes it possible to establish the average consanguinity ratio within the population. Genealogies do, furthermore, take into account instances of more remote consanguinity (beyond the fourth generation). They demonstrate the existence of subpopulations in which spouse selection and mobility are different. Consanguinity is a trait peculiar to a limited group of families who have lived in these villages over the three centuries studied."
Correspondence: A. Bideau, Universite Lumiere Lyon 2, MRASH, Centre Pierre Leon, URA 223, 86 rue Pasteur, 69365 Lyons Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30348 Burch, Thomas K. Theory, computers and the parameterization of demographic behaviour. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 377-88 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author compares the functionality and the acceptance within the academic community of two models used to estimate first marriage. He finds that "twenty years after their publication, the Coale-McNeil model has become the standard model of first marriage, while the Hernes model has been relatively neglected by mainstream demography....Some part of the explanation must lie with the intellectual character of the discipline of demography."
Correspondence: T. K. Burch, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30349 Fisher, Helen. The nature of romantic love. Journal of NIH Research, Vol. 6, No. 4, Apr 1994. 59-64 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Romantic love (characterized by at least two emotional stages, attraction and attachment) is a cultural universal. I propose that the human neurophysiology for these emotions evolved in our first hominid forebears some 4 million years ago as chemical mechanisms designed to initiate affiliation and sustain ancestral pair bonds through the infancy of a single altricial (helpless) child, a period of about four years. Serial monogamy during reproductive years has had adaptive advantages throughout human evolution, and natural selection has resulted in primary human mating behaviors that are still visible in worldwide patterns of marriage, divorce, and remarriage, as well as in the characteristic ebb and flow of human romantic love."
Correspondence: H. Fisher, 65 East 80th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30350 Hammes, Winfried. Divorces 1992. [Ehescheidungen 1992.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 2, Feb 1994. 128-33 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Information is presented on divorces in Germany in 1992. An overview of trends in the former East and West Germany since 1960 is first provided. The analysis then focuses on divorce by duration of marriage and marriage cohort, age of divorced persons, and number of children involved.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30351 Ilyina, Irina. Marital-status composition of the Soviet population. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 167-83 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
Trends in marital status in the former Soviet Union are analyzed for the period 1897-1989, with a focus on the 1979-1989 decade. Data presented cover those proportions never married, married, divorced, and widowed, by sex and ethnic group. The author notes that "in spite of fundamental changes in the institution of marriage in the 20th century...there were no essential changes in population marital structures....The exception is the replacement of the category of widowed by the category of divorced...."
Correspondence: I. Ilyina, State Committee of the Russian Federation on Statistics, Institute of Statistics and Economic Research, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30352 Lapins, Andis. Teenage marriages in Latvia. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 211-7 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This investigation studies the demographic, economic, and social problems of married couples under age 18 and the formation of their families. The study was organized in Riga, Latvia. The sample was drawn from couples who were permitted to marry under the age of 18....All the marriages were registered between 1987 and 1988." Consideration is given to family size and parity, reasons for marrying including premarital pregnancy, living conditions, satisfaction with family life, and attitudes toward sex behavior.
Correspondence: A. Lapins, Latvian State University, Riga, Latvia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30353 Manting, D. More separations than divorces. [Meer scheidingen dan echtscheidingen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 4, Apr 1994. 6-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In the Netherlands, the yearly numbers of divorces have been rather stable since the mid eighties. Yet the numbers of separations of couples are on the increase. This is caused by two factors. First of all, more and more women cohabit at some point in their lives....Secondly, cohabiting couples have a much higher likelihood of disruption than married couples. About one in seven women born in 1950-1954 was ever divorced before age 38. If disruption of cohabitation is added to this figure, one in five women born in the early fifties has ever separated. For more recent birth cohorts, difference between divorce and disruption of both marriage and cohabitation is much larger. Of women born in the early sixties, only 4 per cent were ever divorced before age 28, whereas 17 percent of these women were ever separated."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30354 McCaa, Robert. Marriageways in Mexico and Spain, 1500-1900. Continuity and Change, Vol. 9, No. 1, May 1994. 11-43 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"How did formal marriage, cohabitation and concubinage--what I call 'marriageways'--differ between Spain and Mexico during the early modern period? The dissimilarities in ages at coupling and forms of cohabitation are much greater than previously suspected....After four centuries of extraordinary regional and racial differences in the frequency, precocity and types of unions, a single Mexican pattern of civil marriage emerged toward the middle of the twentieth century. It was preceded by an enormous profusion of types of unions, fostered by the great inequalities of power between the sexes and social groups....In Spain, the transition to a Western European pattern continued into the nineteenth century and beyond, but as female age at marriage rose...so too did illegitimacy. European historians attribute these developments to urbanization, rising economic opportunities for women and expanding sexual liberties."
Correspondence: R. McCaa, University of Minnesota, Department of History, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30355 McElhaney, Lori J. The relationship between marital quality and children in later life remarriages: an exploratory study. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 94-09, [1994]. 32 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to explore aspects of parent-children relations [in the United States] and their effects on marital quality in remarriages started in later life. Specifically, this study investigated parent-children relation indicators of coresidence of children, quality of parent-children relationships, and contact with non-residential adult children, along with possible interactions."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30356 Oderkirk, Jillian. Marriage in Canada: changing beliefs and behaviours, 1600-1990. Canadian Social Trends, No. 33, Summer 1994. 2-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The author reviews changes in marriage patterns in Canada for the period from 1600 to 1990. She finds that "although these changes have affected the stability and exclusivity of marriage, they have not caused the institution to disappear. Indeed, the majority of Canadians are still expected to marry, at least once, before their 50th birthday. Compared with twenty-five years ago, however, marriage is now less prevalent, occurs later in life and often does not last long enough for couples to raise their families."
Correspondence: J. Oderkirk, Canadian Social Trends, 7th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30357 Oppenheimer, Valerie K. Women's rising employment and the future of the family in industrial societies. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, Jun 1994. 293-342, 495-6, 498 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The author critically assesses the theoretical and empirical bases of the popular view that marriage is a declining institution in the United States and that this decline is an inevitable concomitant of the growth of women's economic independence in industrial societies....Focusing particularly on Becker's specialization and trading model of the gain to marriage, the author investigates several facets of the theory: the historical fit between the major rises in women's employment and trends in marital and fertility behavior; the extent to which the marital behavior observed in recent years matches the marital behavior predicted by the theory; and the degree to which micro-level empirical research supports the theory. The article concludes that both macro- and micro-level evidence for the theory is weak. It suggests that parental sex-role specialization puts nuclear families at risk because there is rarely more than one specialist of each type in a family."
Correspondence: V. K. Oppenheimer, University of California, Department of Sociology, Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30358 Pollard, John H.; Hohn, Charlotte. The interaction between the sexes. Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1993-1994. 203-28 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"In recent times there has been considerable discussion of the wide disparity between the numbers of unmarried males and unmarried females in the younger and mid adult ages in Germany....To study this phenomenon and understand it, a two-sex population model is essential....In this paper, we develop a two-sex model using behavioural arguments, and show that the model obeys criteria which have been prescribed by earlier writers....The model is relatively easy to use, produces consistent results, and projects marriage numbers which accord with intuitive expectation. It also leads us to the conclusion that the excess of unmarried males at the younger marriageable ages, observed in Germany, is a phenomenon to be expected in all western-type populations in which more males than females are born and there is a strong preference for a partner about the same age, with the bride a little younger than the groom on average."
Correspondence: J. H. Pollard, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30359 Prinz, Christopher. Patterns of marriage and cohabitation in Europe, with emphasis on Sweden. Popnet, No. 24, Spring 1994. 1-11 pp. Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This article attempts to describe the reasons for the emergence and the rapid increase of cohabitation [in Sweden] and can be used as the basis for assumptions about the future of cohabitation in other European countries. In addition, the article analyzes some interesting differences between married and cohabiting couples."
Correspondence: C. Prinz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30360 Prioux, France. The ups and downs of marriage in Austria. Population. English Selection, Vol. 5, 1993. 153-82 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author examines reasons for fluctuations in marriage patterns in Austria since 1950. "We propose to investigate here not only the immediate impact of these perturbations in terms of first marriage rates, non-marital fertility and legitimations, but also the possible longer-term effects, by studying proportions never married in birth cohorts and fertility and divorce rates in marriage cohorts; finally, we shall consider total fertility trends for the most recent period." The impact of changes in Austria's fiscal policy with regard to newlyweds is considered.
Correspondence: F. Prioux, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30361 Rao, Vijayendra. The rising price of husbands: a hedonic analysis of dowry increases in rural India. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 101, No. 4, Aug 1993. 666-77 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Dowries in South Asia have steadily risen over the last 40 years and now often amount to over 50 percent of a household's assets. This paper attempts to investigate the reasons behind this increase. It adapts Rosen's implicit market model to the Indian marriage market and tests predictions from the model with data from six villages in South Central India and from the Indian census. It is found that a 'marriage squeeze' caused by population growth, resulting in larger younger cohorts and hence a surplus of women in the marriage market, has played a significant role in the rise in dowries."
Correspondence: V. Rao, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30362 Sardon, Jean-Paul. Women's first marriage rates in Europe: elements for a typology. Population. English Selection, Vol. 5, 1993. 119-52 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"In recent years, Eastern and Western Europe have displayed very different marriage patterns....Does the current division between Eastern and Western Europe reflect a revival of the Western model in its home territory, and was the 'marriage boom' nothing but a temporary digression? Or is it the present situation which is only a particular moment in time, when Eastern Europe, with her still early, universal marriage pattern, is merely lagging behind, before following in Western footsteps--fewer, later marriages--when her societies have modernized? We propose to investigate these questions by analysing period and cohort trends in women's nuptiality in 21 European countries. We shall use various methods, in particular hierarchical cluster analysis, to identify 'nearnesses' between countries."
Correspondence: J.-P. Sardon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30363 Uchida, Eiichi; Araki, Shunich; Murata, Katsuyuki. Socioeconomic factors affecting first marriage and birth rates by sex and age in the total Japanese population. Journal of Human Ergology, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1992. 107-18 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The effects of a wide variety of social, economic and demographic factors on age-specific first marriage and live birth rates in 46 Japanese prefectures were analyzed using stepwise regression analysis for 1970 and again for 1975 after classification of those twenty-two factors by factor analysis. The principal results were as follows: (1) high employment (high income) and social mobility caused by industrialization had a strongly positive influence on the first marriage and birth rates for young females, (2) rural and urban residence factors had positive effects on the marriage and birth rates for young males and females, respectively, (3) old age factor had an inverse effect on the marriage rates for both males and females over a wide range of ages, and (4) young age factor promoted the birth rate for young and middle-aged females."
Correspondence: S. Araki, University of Tokyo, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Tokyo 113, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30364 Wang, Feng; Tuma, Nancy B. Changes in Chinese marriage patterns during the twentieth century. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 337-52 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper we focus on broad changes in marriage patterns of both women and men in China in the current century. We first document how people's socioeconomic characteristics have changed across several birth cohorts, ranging from people born between 1900 and 1925 to ones born between 1960 and 1964. Secondly, we provide evidence of changes in marriage patterns for people born during several time periods in this century. Finally, we link changes in marriage patterns to other broad changes in the society, such as changes of residence, education, and occupation. We attempt to link changes across birth cohorts to changes in social and political environments, including changes in governmental policies."
Correspondence: F. Wang, University of Hawaii, Department of Sociology, 2444 Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30365 Westoff, Charles F.; Blanc, Ann K.; Nyblade, Laura. Marriage and entry into parenthood. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 10, Mar 1994. vi, 42 pp. Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"The primary purpose of this report is to present comparable information on marriage and first birth for countries participating in the DHS program. The report is divided into seven sections: the next section describes DHS procedures for the collection of data on marriage and first birth and discusses issues related to data quality; the following two sections present a set of international comparisons for DHS countries on several measures of current marital status and marital stability; the fifth section focuses on exposure to childbearing among never-married women; age at marriage and age at first birth are described in section 6, and the results are summarized in section 7."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30366 Zeng, Yi; Wang, Deming. An event history analysis of remarriages of females in China. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 323-35 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper provides age/duration specific remarriage rates and the findings on the socio-demographic determinants of remarriage in China based on an event history analysis. The next section will present a description of the data and the methodology used for this study and the following sections will deal with the results and discussion of the estimates."
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

60:30367 Abma, Joyce C. Transitions to adulthood among young women: the sequencing of nest-leaving, marriage, and first birth. Pub. Order No. DA9401193. 1993. 183 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Ohio State University, "discusses the dynamics leading to the sequences of events from a decision-making perspective. Using event-history data from a contemporary cohort of young women, analyses focus on the effects of childhood family background, distinguishing between five types of families, on the sequencing of nest-leaving, marriage, and first birth for whites, blacks, and Hispanics."
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8).

60:30368 Beets, Gijs; Cliquet, Robert; Dooghe, Gilbert; de Jong Gierveld, Jenny. Population and family in the Low Countries 1992: family and labour. NIDI/CBGS Publication, No. 26, ISBN 90-265-1342-9. 1993. 268 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is the latest in a series designed to bring work originally published in Dutch to the attention of a wider audience through translation into English. This volume presents nine studies by scholars from the Netherlands and Belgium on aspects of family and female labor force participation. Related topics, such as the division of labor within the family, the transition to adulthood by female adolescents, income distribution, and childcare, are addressed. The final chapter describes recent trends in population and the family in the two countries.
For a previous report for 1991, see 58:20021.
Correspondence: Swets and Zeitlinger, Heereweg 347B, 2161 CA Lisse, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30369 Belliveau, Jo-Anne; Oderkirk, Jillian; Silver, Cynthia. Common-law unions. The Quebec difference. Canadian Social Trends, No. 33, Summer 1994. 8-12 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The trend toward common-law unions in Canada, and especially in Quebec, is examined, with a focus on the period since 1981. The authors find that "although marriage is not as common today as in the past, especially among young people, most Canadians are still choosing to live as couples....In Quebec, however, more so than in other provinces, common-law unions are becoming increasingly prevalent among older couples and those having children. As a result, the characteristics of common-law families are beginning to resemble those of married-couple families. This suggests that common-law unions may be becoming more of an alternative than a prelude to marriage, at least among some couples in Quebec."
Correspondence: J.-A. Belliveau, Canadian Social Trends, 7th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30370 Das Gupta, Monica. Life course perspectives on women's autonomy and health outcomes. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 94-03, May 1994. 29 pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper examines how different patterns of kinship and inheritance affect intergenerational relationships and the ramifications of gender inequality. Peasant societies of pre-industrial Northern Europe are contrasted with those of contemporary South Asia to illuminate some of these relationships....The convergence of low autonomy due to youth as well as sex amongst young married women in South Asia means that women are at the lowest point in their lifecycle in terms of autonomy during their peak childbearing years. As shown in this paper, this has considerable implications for demographic and health outcomes: in terms of poorer child survival, slower fertility decline, and poorer reproductive health."
This paper was prepared for the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30371 DaVanzo, Julie; Rahman, M. Omar. American families: trends and policy issues. RAND Paper, No. P-7854, Dec 16, 1993. xxxi, 107 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"In this paper, we review the demographic trends--in marriage, divorce, fertility, and labor force participation--that have affected American families. We summarize what is known about the determinants and consequences of these trends and the connections among them, and then discuss the policy issues that they raise. We attempt to provide a broad overview designed to highlight some of the major issues."
For two related papers, see Population Index, Vol. 59, No. 3, pp. 350-86; and No. 4, pp. 547-66.
Correspondence: RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30372 Davey, Judith A. Monitoring New Zealand households: an analysis of trends by life stage and ethnicity. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 19, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1993. 125-42 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"Changes in household and family forms, and differences between groups based on age and ethnicity, are relevant to our understanding of society and to the development of social policy. This paper looks at household patterns [in New Zealand] by age group and changes in these patterns over the 1981-1991 period. The analysis, using a database developed [by the New Zealand Planning Council's Social Monitoring Group], highlights the importance of disaggregation by ethnicity and of growing social diversity."
Correspondence: J. A. Davey, Victoria University, Department of Sociology and Social Policy, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30373 Duenas, Guiomar. Society, family, and gender in Santa Fe, New Granada, until the end of the colony. [Sociedad, familia y genero en Santafe, Nueva Granada, a finales de la colonia.] Latin American Population History Bulletin, No. 25, Spring 1994. 2-22 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Spa.
The author examines family structure in Santa Fe, the capital of New Granada, a Spanish colony that included Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. The focus is on the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He finds that social class structure was closely related to ethnic group and skin color, and that the sex ratio was biased toward women. Women also headed nearly 50% of all households. Data are mainly from the 1801 smallpox census.
Correspondence: G. Duenas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Historia, Calle 86 No. 50-19, Bogota, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30374 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). The Finnish family. [Suomalainen perhe.] Vaesto/Befolkning/Population 1994, No. 5, ISBN 951-47-8723-4. 1994. 192 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin.
This collection of studies describes the recent evolution of family structure in Finland. Consideration is given to demographic aging, decreased family size, and changes in the labor force and in the division of labor. Public policy and family legislation responses to new family structures are described.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PL 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30375 Grundy, Emily. The living arrangements of elderly people. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, No. 2, 1992. 353-61 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In order to assess possible future trends in the living arrangements of elderly people and their implications, we need to understand the causes of...relatively recent changes. Analysts have variously stressed demographic trends, economic factors and behavioural or cultural shifts as major influences on changing household patterns. These arguments are reviewed [in this article]." Aspects considered include the availability of spouse and children, coresidence between elderly parents and children, cultural factors, income, and health and health care. The primary geographical focus is on the United Kingdom, with some additional information for the United States and selected other developed countries.
Correspondence: E. Grundy, King's College, Age Concern Institute for Gerontology, Cornwall House Annexe, Waterloo Road, London SE1 8TX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30376 Heaton, Tim B.; Jacobson, Cardell K. Race differences in changing family demographics in the 1980s. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1994. 290-308 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"In this article, we explore the degree to which a relatively small set of variables can account for racial difference in timing of initiation of sexual activity, first marriage, first birth, and divorce [in the United States]. The independent variables included in the model are adolescent living arrangements (single-parent vs. two-parent), mother's educational level, religion, region of the country, area of residency (urban, suburban, rural), birth cohort, and year of the survey. Based on hazard models for the rate of occurrence of each event, we estimate how Blacks would differ if they had mean values on covariates equal to White observed means. Although the results differ for the four dependent variables, this particular set of independent variables does not provide a satisfactory explanation of the differences between Black and White family formation and dissolution."
Correspondence: T. B. Heaton, Brigham Young University, Center for Studies of the Family, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30377 Latten, J. J. Changes in the demographic life course. [Verandering in de demografische levensloop.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 3, Mar 1994. 8-14 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The decision to live alone after leaving the parental home, to cohabit, to marry, or to become [a] mother for the first time, as well as the ages at which these decisions occur, characterize the individual demographic life-course. Based on the first results of the 1993 [Netherlands] Family and Fertility Survey it is shown that the kind of transitions made and the age at which these occur change....The ages at which transitions in the demographic life-course are made, are compared for generations born after 1950. The results point to a continuous change. The only exception is the tendency to stay at the parents home, which changed direction towards a longer stay for those born since the mid 1960s."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30378 Lavertu, Jacques. Children and their family environment in the census of 1990. [Les enfants et leur environnment familial au recensement de 1990.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1993. 1,985-2,010 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
"In the census of 1990, 17.8 million children [in France] under 30 years old were living with their parent(s). They amount to 31 per cent of the population, and live on average with 1.47 siblings....Although those in intermediate and white collar occupations are slightly underrepresented, compared with the active adult male population, sons and daughters of blue-collar workers are overrepresented. Moreover, the older the child, the more likely he is to come from a family in which the head of the household has received little or no education....For children of the same age, the number of siblings in the family affects the mother's level of labour force participation....Between the censuses of 1982 and 1990, the age at which children leave the parental home and/or enter working life has increased markedly."
Correspondence: J. Lavertu, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30379 Lee, Gary R.; Coward, Raymond T.; Netzer, Julie K. Residential differences in filial responsibility expectations among older persons. Rural Sociology, Vol. 59, No. 1, Spring 1994. 100-9 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"This study examines variation in filial responsibility expectations--the extent to which adult children are expected to assist and care for their aging parents--among a sample of 440 older persons. The analysis focuses on the relationship of filial responsibility expectations to residential location and tests the hypothesis that older rural residents have higher expectations for assistance from their children than do older urbanites....The findings show that four variables--marital status, health, race, and residence during childhood--affect filial responsibility expectations among older persons....Specifically, those who grew up on farms have higher expectations than those raised in urban environments. Current residence, on the other hand, has little to do with expectations." Data concern a sample of persons aged 65 and older living in northern Florida.
Correspondence: G. R. Lee, University of Florida, Center on Rural Health and Aging, Gainesville, FL 32611-2036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30380 Lino, Mark. Income and spending patterns of single-mother families. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 117, No. 5, May 1994. 29-37 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study examines the economic status of single-mother families by the mothers' marital status, focusing on income and expenditures. Different routes to single parenthood have varying economic implications for families. Families maintained by divorced/separated, never-married, and widowed women also are compared with married-couple families to determine the extent of differences by family type. Data are from the interview component of the 1989-91 [U.S.] Consumer Expenditure Survey....[The author finds that] single-mother families are a growing proportion of all families with children. Compared with married-couples families, the economic status of such families is much lower. Among single-mother families, those maintained by never-married mothers are a growing percentage and are most likely to be economically disadvantaged."
Correspondence: M. Lino, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Family Economics Research Group, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (Docs).

60:30381 Lloyd, Cynthia B. Investing in the next generation: the implications of high fertility at the level of the family. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 63, 1994. 59 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper...provides an up-to-date review of the evidence, primarily from developing countries, on families' experiences with fertility and family size and their implications for investments in young people. It looks at the experience of children collectively as well as individually, and explores the ways in which boys' and girls' experiences differ....It also explores the links among fertility, the extent to which children are wanted, and equity among siblings."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30382 McDaniel, Antonio. Historical racial differences in living arrangements of children. Journal of Family History, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1994. 57-77 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Racial differences in U.S. family structure are explored. The author suggests that "the African American family is not simply a product of existing social conditions but a reflection of a history and a culture that has been conducive to the survival of the African American population. The effect of social and economic exploitation and exclusion of the African population in America during slavery and its aftermath is summarized by a historical approach, which is sensitive to culture. The contemporary household structures of the European and African American populations differ in a similar although more extreme manner than in the past."
Correspondence: A. McDaniel, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30383 Nath, Dilip C.; Talukdar, Pijush K. Household structure and family pattern of a traditional society. Janasamkhya, Vol. 9, No. 1-2, Jun 1991. 61-74 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"In this paper, [the] main aim is to examine the household structure and family units of a scheduled caste population--a traditional society of India--with the help of survey data. Data [are] from a socio-demographic survey [of a] scheduled caste population residing in the rural areas of Assam." Information is provided on types of households and family units; residence pattern and household structure; and household size.
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Gauhati University, Department of Statistics, Gauhati 781 014, Assam, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30384 Nave-Herz, Rosemarie; Kruger, Dorothea. One-parent families: an empirical study of the life situation and life planning of single mothers and fathers. [Ein-Eltern-Familien. Eine empirische Studie zur Lebenssituation und Lebensplanung alleinerziehender Mutter und Vater.] Materialien zur Frauenforschung, Vol. 15, ISBN 3-89370-160-5. 1992. 130 pp. Kleine Verlag: Bielefeld, Germany. In Ger.
A qualitative and quantitative study of one-parent families in Germany is presented. Topics examined include the increase in the number of such families, particularly those headed by women; attitudes toward one-parent families; reasons for choosing this type of lifestyle; future wishes and plans; and social integration.
Correspondence: Kleine Verlag, Postfach 101668, 4800 Bielefeld 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30385 Prokophieva, Lidia. Large families in low-fertility regions: a social portrait. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 219-30 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This chapter studies and describes the phenomenon of large families, especially in the regions where nuclear families with one or two children prevail....We have studied the motivation for a large family, the socioeconomic status of the parents, and the degree of their responsibility for the well-being and upbringing of their children. In addition, the essential differences in the way of life have been considered. We use data from the socioeconomic survey carried out in Taganrog, a medium-sized city in Russia, in early 1990."
Correspondence: L. Prokophieva, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Socioeconomic Studies of Population, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30386 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando; Burch, Thomas K. Tracing the life courses of Canadians. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1994. 21-34 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the life courses of Canadians through an event history analysis of data from the 1990 General Social Survey on Family and Friends. The sequences and the timing of transitions into various life course stages, and the durations of stay in those stages are analyzed through multiple-decrement life tables. Changes in the life courses over 10-year birth cohorts from 1910 to 1970 and differentials by gender are highlighted in the paper. The analysis reveals that what is traditionally thought of as a 'typical' life course is experienced only by one-fourth to one-third of a cohort. With the increasing diversity of life course stages among younger cohorts, it would no longer be adequate to consider only the 'typical' life stages in future analyses."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Z. R. Ravanera, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30387 Rendall, Michael S. The growth of female family headship in the United States, 1968-88. Pub. Order No. DA9407014. 1993. 144 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The present study investigates the growth of female family headship--women raising children under 18 without a coresident male partner--in the United States between 1968 and 1988....The overall picture of headship change formed from these analyses is one of increasingly younger family heads over time, mostly induced by nonmarital childbearing into the 1980s, with greater fluidity of mother-child coresidence arrangements, more secondary-family headship, and greater incidence of multiple periods of family headship per woman." The study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(10).

60:30388 Settles, Barbara H.; Hanks, Daniel E.; Sussman, Marvin B. Families on the move: migration, immigration, emigration, and mobility. Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 19, No. 1-4, 1993. 400 pp. Haworth Press: Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
This volume of the journal Marriage and Family Review, published in two separate parts, presents the proceedings of the Groves Conference on Marriage and the Family. The focus is on the role that migration plays in modern family life. Both internal and international migration are considered. The geographical scope is worldwide, with specific attention paid to the United States.
Correspondence: Haworth Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30389 Stankuniene, Vlada; Kanopiene, Vida. Public opinion on family policies in Lithuania. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 249-61 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"The article is based on two surveys carried out [in Lithuania in 1988 and 1990]....The public opinion on the effect of existing FP [family policy] and family preferences has been investigated along with other problems by these surveys....The...surveys indicate [that]...most families prefer to support themselves; men should be allowed to earn as much as possible to support their families. The preferable way of caring for preschool children is at home by a nonworking parent,...[and] women with preschool children prefer to give up their job or to work under special conditions."
Correspondence: V. Stankuniene, Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Department of Demography, Gedimino pr. 3, 2600 Vilnius, Lithuania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30390 Trent, Katherine. Family context and adolescents' expectations about marriage, fertility, and nonmarital childbearing. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 2, Jun 1994. 319-39 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience of Youth are used to examine adolescents' expectations about the occurrence, timing, and sequence of marriage and childbearing. Blacks are the most likely group to expect adolescent or nonmarital childbearing, and the least likely to expect early marriage. Family structure effects are few, but suggest some 'nontraditional' arrangements increase expectations for early family formation. In general, poverty increases and higher maternal education decreases expectations for teenage childbearing."
Correspondence: K. Trent, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:30391 Valetas, Marie-France. The future of woman's own name and the transformation of family structures. Population. English Selection, Vol. 5, 1993. 223-47 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author explores "the changes in attitude [in France] which may have accompanied the recent anti-marriage trend mirrored by the spread of unmarried cohabitation and divorce. She has chosen to investigate opinions in France concerning a secularly one-sided aspect of the marriage system: almost all women take their husband's name when they marry and children are automatically given only their father's name....We...look for signs of change: first, cohortwise, by examining age-specific differences in attitude; second, change related to social groups and the diffusion of new opinions....Finally, we compare these results with data from preceding surveys and suggest what the prospects may be for woman's name."
Correspondence: M.-F. Valetas, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30392 Volkov, Andrei. Family and household changes in the USSR: a demographic approach. In: Demographic trends and patterns in the Soviet Union before 1991, edited by Wolfgang Lutz, Sergei Scherbov, and Andrei Volkov. 1994. 149-66 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
Family and household formation patterns in the former Soviet Union are outlined using data from two surveys on family formation conducted in 1984 and 1989. Consideration is given to nuptiality, marriage dissolution, fertility, living arrangements, family size norms, and family relationships.
Correspondence: A. Volkov, State Committee of the Russian Federation on Statistics, Institute of Statistics and Economic Research, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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