Volume 60 - Number 3 - Fall 1994

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

60:30042 Champion, A. G. International migration and demographic change in the developed world. Urban Studies, Vol. 31, No. 4-5, May 1994. 653-77 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This is the second in a two-yearly series of papers which examines key aspects of urban and regional demographic change in the developed world....This paper draws on the wealth of recent studies....The first section outlines the problems faced in the study of international migration....The second section identifies the principal developments which have taken place over the last 20 years, highlighting the increasing volume of international movement, the trends in the types and geographical patterns of migration, and the contextual changes which lie behind these shifts. The third section examines the demographic impact of these movements in terms of both direct and indirect effects on population size, composition, and distribution."
For the first paper, published in 1992, see 59:20030.
Correspondence: A. G. Champion, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography, Daysh Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

60:30043 Conning, Arthur. The use of geographical information systems (GIS) in demography. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 169-74 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author describes the use of GIS (Geographical Information Systems) software in the study of demography. It is noted that the most salient feature of this technology is its usefulness for analyzing spatial distribution.
Correspondence: A. Conning, UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30044 Heyer, E.; Poulard, S. Spatial distribution and spatial concentration of descendants of Saguenay founders (19th and 20th century). In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 191-201 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The object of this paper is an attempt to answer two questions raised from the spatial distribution of the Saguenean population [of Quebec]: first, can the tracking of the geographical distribution of the founders' descendants over the period covering the 19th and 20th century reveal a spatial structure of the population? and secondly, if it is so, what are the consequences on the gene pool of this population?...Entire family biographies have been reconstructed from 660,000 baptism, marriage and death certificates covering the period 1842-1971....A geographical information system (GIS) has been used to map, at various points in time, the geographical distribution of selected founders' descendants, thus illustrating the different migratory behaviours of these lineages."
Correspondence: E. Heyer, Universite du Quebec, Centre Interuniversitaire des Recherches sur les Populations, 555 Boulevard de l'Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30045 Rakowski, Witold. The effective growth of the population as a factor of regional social and economic activity and living conditions. [Przyrost rzeczywisty ludnosci jako czynnik aktywnosci spoleczno-gospodarczej regionow i warunkow zycia ludnosci.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, 1993. 67-84 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The author analyses changes in location of the Polish population in the years 1989-1991. From the analysis it appears...that the role of the Warszawa, Lodz, Wroclaw, Krakow and Legnica voivodeships in the process of population concentration is decreasing, and...the role of Western, Northern and South-Eastern regions [is increasing]....It is difficult to say how much [current changes are] due to economic transformations and how much to the crisis in local economies."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

60:30046 Berry, Brian J. L. Africa's urban future: from nation-states to a system of regions. In: Urbanization in Africa: a handbook, edited by James D. Tarver. 1994. 439-61 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
The author attempts to describe characteristics of African urban development that will affect future urbanization. He suggests that regional factors may begin to take precedence over national conditions in their influence on urbanization, and that informal factors reflecting the decisions and actions of individuals and families may outweigh government policies in shaping African urban trends.
Correspondence: B. J. L. Berry, University of Texas, Bruton Center for Development Studies, Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083-0688. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30047 Bose, Ashish. Towards sustainable urbanization: metropolitan growth, urbanization and their implications. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 124, Nov 1993. 29-35 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The author discusses metropolitan growth and its consequences in the ESCAP region. Aspects considered include strategies for containing metropolitan growth; formulating a methodology to target cities for development of infrastructure; the cost-effectiveness of large cities and small towns; metropolitan management; and female migration to urban areas.
Correspondence: A. Bose, Institute of Economic Growth, Population Research Centre, Delhi University Enclave, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30048 Choguill, C. L. Crisis, chaos, crunch? Planning for urban growth in the developing world. Urban Studies, Vol. 31, No. 6, Jun 1994. 935-45 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Urban development within the developing world was, until just over a decade ago, seen primarily as the responsibility of government. A shift has taken place from the traditional approach of centralised, top-down decision-making to one in which government's role involves the creation of an environment which enables urban residents to solve many of their own problems....This paper focuses on four issues which form a part of these new developments. In particular, it examines the necessary response of governmental authorities to such change in policy terms....These necessary shifts seem particularly relevant in the areas of shelter, urban services, employment generation and planning legislation and standards."
Correspondence: C. L. Choguill, University of Sheffield, Department of Town and Regional Planning, Sheffield S10 2TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

60:30049 Christopher, A. J. Segregation levels in the late-apartheid city 1985-1991. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 85, No. 1, 1994. 15-24 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In the course of the 1980s a number of changes took place in the organization of South African cities, leading to the concept of 'modernizing' apartheid. Relaxation of laws and the publicized responses to racial integration in a few localities encouraged the concept of a breakdown of residential barriers. However, an examination of the 1991 census suggests not only that segregation levels are remarkably high, but also that they rose in the period between 1985 and 1991. The White population in particular remains highly segregated from the remainder. There is nevertheless a number of significant regional differences, indicating that urban restructuring was not uniform. The late-apartheid city thus appears little changed from its predecessor."
Correspondence: A. J. Christopher, University of Port Elizabeth, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 1600, Port Elizabeth 6000, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30050 Christopher, A. J. Urbanization and national capitals in Africa. In: Urbanization in Africa: a handbook, edited by James D. Tarver. 1994. 408-22 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
The author examines the role of capital cities in the urbanization process in Africa, including changes in their distribution and their consequences. The study covers both the colonial era and subsequent adjustments. The author concludes that even after more than 30 years of independence, the capital cities tend to reflect the styles and locational preferences of the colonial powers.
Correspondence: A. J. Christopher, University of Port Elizabeth, Department of Geography, Port Elizabeth 6000, Cape Province, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30051 Collin, Jean-Pierre; Mongeau, Jael. Some demographic aspects of urban sprawl in Montreal from 1971 to 1991 and the implications for metropolitan management. [Quelques aspects demographiques de l'etalement urbain a Montreal de 1971 a 1991 et leurs implications pour la gestion de l'agglomeration.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 21, No. 2, Autumn 1992. 5-30 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Urban sprawl over the last two decades has changed the relationships between the central city and its suburb, as the urban character of the suburb asserts itself. Data on migrations and commuting inside Montreal show diminishing contracts between the suburbanites and the central city, indicating that Montreal...is experiencing this process of 'urbanization' of its suburb as well. However, the downtown area keeps a large part of its attractiveness: it is still visited by many suburbanites who nevertheless live in a different environment."
Correspondence: J.-P. Collin, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 2635 boulevard Hochelage, Suite 640, C.P. 7500, Sainte-Foy, Quebec G1V 4C7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30052 Dieleman, Frans M.; Hamnett, Chris. Globalisation, world cities and the Randstad. Urban Studies, Vol. 31, No. 3, Apr 1994. 357-564 pp. Carfax Publishing: Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains a selection of papers on the concept of global cities, prepared at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The papers concern the validity of the concept that such cities will have a crucial role to play in the coordination of the global economy. How close the Dutch urbanized region known as the Randstad comes to meeting the criteria for consideration as a global city is considered.
Correspondence: Carfax Publishing, P.O. Box 25, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3UE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

60:30053 Guerin-Pace, France. Two centuries of urban growth: the population of the French cities from 1831 to 1990. [Deux siecles de croissance urbaine: la population des villes francaises de 1831 a 1990.] Collection Villes, ISBN 2-7178-2450-2. 1993. xiii, 205 pp. Anthropos/Economica: Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in urbanization in France are reviewed over the period 1831-1990. The author notes that although the percentage of the population residing in urban areas has increased from around 25% to 75%, the urban hierarchy of the country has remained largely the same. An attempt is made to identify the complex mechanisms which guide the development of the system of towns and their geographic location.
Correspondence: Anthropos/Economica, 49 rue Hericart, 75015 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30054 Isupov, V. A. The urban population of Siberia: from catastrophe to rebirth (from the end of 1930 to the end of 1950). [Gorodskoe naselenie Sibiri: ot katastrofy k vozpozhdeniyu (konets 30-kh--konets 50-kh gg).] ISBN 5-02-029641-4. LC 92-218479. 1991. 288 pp. Nauka Sibirskoe Otdelenie: Novosibirsk, USSR. In Rus.
The demographic crises that affected population developments in Siberia over the course of the Stalinist era, including World War II, are analyzed using archival data that were previously unavailable. Chapters are included on urban population size and characteristics, urban mortality, and urban fertility.
Correspondence: Nauka Sibirskoe Otdelenie, Ul. Sovetskaya 18, 630099 Novosibirsk, Russia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

60:30055 Kouame, Aka. Urban growth and restructuring of the labor force in the Ivory Coast. [Croissance urbaine et restructuration du marche du travail en Cote d'Ivoire.] Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne des Etudes Africaines, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1992. 396-416 pp. Toronto, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"With an average annual population growth rate of 4.1 percent from 1965 to 1985, Ivory Coast is one of the fastest growing countries in the world. The impact of this population growth is felt more intensely in the urban areas which are growing at a rate five times greater than are the rural areas. While some of this high growth rate can be attributed to natural increase, the main contribution stems from a rise in immigration. The corresponding rapid increase of the employment rate in the urban areas is actually an illusion, which hides a significant underemployment."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30056 Mieszkowski, Peter; Mills, Edwin S. The causes of metropolitan suburbanization. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 7, No. 3, Summer 1993. 135-47 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The authors analyze causes and consequences of metropolitan suburbanization, with a focus on trends in the United States. The effect of employment, transportation, and travel considerations is compared with the impact of urban problems such as taxes, public school quality, crime, and environmental quality.
Correspondence: P. Mieszkowski, Rice University, Department of Economics and Finance, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30057 Murphy, P. A.; Burnley, I. H. Socio-demographic structure of Sydney's perimetropolitan region. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 10, No. 2, Nov 1993. 127-44 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The paper conceptualizes processes driving change in perimetropolitan regions then, using Sydney [Australia] as a case study, analyses population growth rates and internal migration patterns between 1981 and 1991. Next, a set of social and demographic variables derived from the 1986 Census is analysed to derive four key dimensions of socio-spatial structure, namely: disadvantage, rurality, socio-economic status and retirement."
Correspondence: I. H. Burnley, University of New South Wales, School of Geography, P.O. Box 1, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30058 Pivovarov, Yu. L. Urbanization in the USSR: macro-regional differentials, a stage and regional approach, and differences in settlement patterns. [Urbanizatsiya v SSSR: makroregional'nye razlichiya, stadial'no-regional'nyi podkhod kontrastnost' rasseleniya.] Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR: Seriya Geograficheskaya, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1992. 52-63 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
An analysis of settlement trends in the former USSR during the 1980s is presented, with a focus on the European part of the country. A trend toward increasing levels of urbanization is noted. The author analyzes differences in population dynamics by major and minor administrative region, using census data. It is noted that the rate of urbanization has exceeded the ability to provide necessary services and infrastructure. Differences in urbanization patterns between major regions are also analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30059 Portes, Alejandro; Lungo, Mario. Urbanization in the Caribbean. [Urbanizacion en el Caribe.] ISBN 9977-68-032-9. Jun 1992. 349 pp. Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales [FLACSO]: San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
This is an introduction to the study of urbanization in the Caribbean, particularly since the oil crisis of 1973-1974. Three separate case studies are included on Port-au-Prince, Haiti; Kingston, Jamaica; and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
Correspondence: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Apartado 5429, 1000 San Jose, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:30060 Safarova, Gaiane L.; Tchistyakova, Natalia E. Saint-Petersburg at the turn of the century: trends of demographic development. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 139-47 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Current demographic trends in St. Petersburg, Russia, are examined. Problems caused by demographic aging are discussed.
Correspondence: G. L. Safarova, Institute for Economics and Mathematics RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30061 Stern, David I. Historical path-dependence of the urban population density gradient. Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1994. 197-222 pp. Secaucus, New Jersey/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Recent research has emphasized path-dependence and the effect of vintage factors in urban development. Jerusalem and Tel Aviv are cities where the modern CBD [central business district] is not in its historic location. Distance from the historic center is taken as a proxy of housing and infrastructure vintage. A polycentric urban population density function is used to assess the relative importance of distance from the CBD and from the historic center in explaining population density. Additionally, I examine econometrically the validity of a number of population density functions, and analyze the structure of the error variance and the design of appropriate measures of goodness of fit and hypothesis tests for regression models of population density. The results show that distance from the historical center is an important factor in explaining population density but its explanatory power has declined over time. It is more significant than distance from the CBD in explaining residential density in Tel Aviv and gross density in Jerusalem. It explains a larger proportion of the variance in gross density in the inner city than does distance from the CBD, but vice versa in the suburbs."
Correspondence: D. I. Stern, University of York, Department of Environmental Economics and Environmental Management, Heslington, York Y01 1HH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:30062 Tarver, James D. Urbanization in Africa: a handbook. ISBN 0-313-27760-5. LC 93-11853. 1994. xxxii, 484 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The objective of this reference book is to present the different aspects and features of urbanization in Africa, both historical and contemporary....[It] is organized into three interrelated parts....Part I provides a historical overview of urbanization in Africa, beginning with its appearance in ancient Egypt. Then, the successive urban developments in Carthage, the West African empires and kingdoms, and in other areas of sustained urban development are described....The urbanization patterns of 15 highly urbanized counties, which were either Anglophone, Francophone, or Lusophone colonies, are presented in Part II....Each of the 15 counties has an urban agglomeration of at least half a million inhabitants, and each of the five United Nations regions is represented....[Part III consists of five] chapters [which] analyze the role of urbanization policy, rural-urban and international migration, national administrative centers, and the AIDS pandemic upon urbanization in Africa."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30063 Toucan Valley Publications (Milpitas, California). The American tally. Statistics and rankings for 3,165 U.S. cities and towns. ISBN 0-9634017-8-5. 1993. xiii, 438 pp. Milpitas, California. In Eng.
Selected data are presented in tabular format for 3,165 U.S. cities and towns with populations over 10,000. They include data on population characteristics such as race and age, education, language and immigration, income and employment, and housing.
Correspondence: Toucan Valley Publications, 142 North Milpitas Boulevard, Suite 260, Milpitas, CA 95035. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30064 Zinyama, Lovemore. Urban growth in Zimbabwe--the 1992 census. Geography, Vol. 79, Pt. 2, No. 343, Apr 1994. 176-80 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in urbanization in Zimbabwe are analyzed, using provisional data from the 1992 census.
Correspondence: L. Zinyama, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

60:30065 Craumer, Peter R. Agricultural change, labor supply, and rural out-migration in Soviet Central Asia. In: Geographic perspectives on Soviet Central Asia, edited by Robert A. Lewis. 1992. 132-80 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to examine the changes taking place in [Soviet] Central Asian agriculture in the postwar period, especially in the period beginning in the 1960s." The primary focus is on the problem of surplus labor. "The labor problem will be analyzed in relation to rural population growth, levels of mechanization, labor productivity and wages, and prospects for relieving the labor surplus by rural out-migration. Finally, the changing role of the private agricultural sector in rural incomes will also be assessed to determine its possible effect on migration."
Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

60:30066 Delaunay, Daniel. Populations in the agrarian environment. An application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). [Les populations dans leur environnement agraire. Une application des Systemes d'Information Geographique.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 3. 1993. 175-84 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
The author uses GIS (Geographic Information Systems) methodology to analyze rural spatial distribution patterns. Data for Mexico are used to illustrate the method.
Correspondence: D. Delaunay, Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, 213 rue La Fayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:30067 Ortiz Martinez, Jorge del C. Population trends in the Inka region. [Situacion demografica de la Region Inka.] Revista Peruana de Poblacion, No. 1, 1992. 31-54 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Current demographic trends in southeastern Peru are analyzed using official data. High levels of both fertility and infant mortality are noted. The results of a survey undertaken in rural areas are also presented, in which the author uses Bongaarts's model to analyze intermediate variables affecting fertility in both lowland and mountain regions.
Correspondence: J. del C. Ortiz Martinez, Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad, Avenida de la Cultura s/n, Apartado 367, Cusco, Peru. Location: Brigham Young University Library, Provo, UT.

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