Volume 60 - Number 2 - Summer 1994

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

60:20676 Abeykoon, A. T. P. L. Evolution of population policies and programmes in Sri Lanka. Economic Review, Vol. 19, No. 11, Feb 1994. 31-3 pp. Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
The author discusses the impact of both direct and indirect population policies in Sri Lanka. Aspects considered include internal and international migration, mortality, and fertility.
Correspondence: A. T. P. L. Abeykoon, Ministry of Health and Women's Affairs, Population Division, 231 De Saram Place, Colombo 10, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20677 Birdsall, Nancy; Griffin, Charles. Population growth, externalities, and poverty. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. WPS 1158, Jul 1993. 26 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The implications for poor people in developing countries of two objectives of current population policies are assessed, namely, the negative externalities of rapid population growth and the effects on income distribution. The authors conclude that "the implications of the two arguments for policy are the same--both require behavioral change by the poor. Their behavior is most likely to change if the change improves their welfare--which should therefore be the focus of population programs."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:20678 Festy, Patrick. Effects of law on some demographic variables: individual rationality or social constraint? [Effets du droit sur quelques variables demographiques: rationalite individuelle ou contrainte sociale?] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 191-206 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
The impact of recent legislation on demographic behavior in France is examined, including laws affecting contraception, abortion, the legitimization of children, marriage, divorce, and parental authority. The focus is on how such laws affect demographic behavior in an era of increasing focus on individualism and individual rights. The author concludes that legislation can extend the options open to individuals, but its effectiveness depends on how far it conforms to existing social trends and preferences.
Correspondence: P. Festy, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20679 Fornos, Werner; Burdett, Hal. A return to reason: U.S. international population policy. Toward the 21st Century, No. 4, 1993. 15 pp. Population Institute: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss changes in U.S. international population policy since the 1980s, with a focus on the impact of political activism by the religious right and of a failing global economy. Measures carried out by Presidents Reagan, Bush, and Clinton are described, and consequences for the funding of international population programs are considered.
Correspondence: Population Institute, 110 Maryland Avenue NE, Suite 207, Washington, D.C. 20002. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20680 Hohn, Charlotte. Population-relevant policies before and after unification of Germany. In: Readings in population research: policy, methods and perspectives, edited by P. Krishnan, Chi-Hsien Tuan, and Kuttan Mahadevan. 1992. 3-24 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In my paper on population-relevant policies before and after the unification of Germany I want to discuss a newly emerging issue in developed countries. Which policies have and will affect demographic trends, namely low fertility and resulting aging and population decline? And what can or should be done politically to meet these challenges? I believe that the example of the two Germanies that are now united provide a particularly timely example to study the possible political strategies."
Correspondence: C. Hohn, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20681 Ipsen, Carl. Population policy and theory in Fascist Italy. Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 01/93, [1993]. 40 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The population policies examined in this study include those designed to influence demographic variables in Italy. Policies concerning internal and international migration, the creation of rural population centers in Italy and its colonies, the setting up of a national institute to improve perinatal care and reduce infant mortality, measures to encourage fertility, and controls over marriage between Italians and non-Aryans, particularly Jews, are described. The impact on demographic data collection, studies, and the development of demographic theory is also examined. The focus is on the period of the Fascist regime in Italy, before and during World War II.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20682 Ipsen, Carl D. Dictating demography: the problem of population in Fascist Italy. Pub. Order No. DA9330590. 1992. 518 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study concerns population policies in Italy before and during World War II. The policies were designed to affect migration, reduce infant mortality, encourage fertility, and control marriage. Parallel developments in demographic data collection and population theory are also considered. The study was developed as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(6).

60:20683 Kraft, Michael E. Population policy. In: Encyclopedia of policy studies, 2nd Edition, edited by Stuart S. Nagel. Public Administration and Public Policy, No. 53, ISBN 0-8247-9142-8. LC 93-44894. 1994. 617-42 pp. Marcel Dekker: New York, New York/Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
Population change and its effect on related policy development in the United States is explored. The author examines "recent population trends, major policy developments of the last several decades, the politics of population policy, and contemporary policy challenges. Attention is given as well to world population conditions and trends, both in the less developed countries (LDCs) and the developed nations, and their policy consequences."
Correspondence: M. E. Kraft, University of Wisconsin, Department of Public and Environmental Affairs, 2420 Nicolet Drive, Green Bay, WI 54311-7011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20684 Murphy, Elaine M. Communicating population research: perceptions of third world policymakers. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 1, 1993. 103-24 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses problems involved in communicating the findings of population research. "This report briefly describes the successes and failures of one project's efforts to communicate population research findings to LDC policymakers, and the responses of the LDC policymakers who were the 'communiquees.'...The project, called IMPACT, was part of the Policy Development Division of [the U.S.] AID's Office of Population....Through project IMPACT, AID intended to reinforce and extend the scope of other policy-related activities; it was designed to reach a broader audience of leaders and to leave in place country subprojects and materials which would make policy-relevant research findings accessible for at least a few years."
Correspondence: E. M. Murphy, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20685 Ohadike, Patrick O. Population, policy development and implementation in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Development Review/Revue Africaine de Developpement, Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec 1992. 273-97 pp. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In Eng.
Population policy in Africa is reviewed, and policymakers' growing awareness of the impact of population growth on economic development is examined. The focus is on Sub-Saharan Africa since the 1974 World Population Conference held in Bucharest, Romania.
Correspondence: P. O. Ohadike, University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies, P.O. Box 96, Legon, Ghana. Location: Cornell University, NYSSILR Extension, New York, NY.

60:20686 Ouedraogo, Dieudonne; Piche, Victor. From awareness to the integration of demographic variables into planning: experiences in the Sahel (1960-1990). [De la prise en compte a l'integration des variables demographiques dans la planification: les experiences saheliennes (1960-1990).] Working Paper du CERPOD, No. 11, Jul 1993. 18 pp. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali. In Fre.
The authors describe how various African countries in the Sahel region have become aware of the impact of demographic factors on the socioeconomic development process since 1960. The extent to which such factors are now taken into account in the development planning process, using the experiences of Mali and Burkina Faso as examples, is described.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20687 Shenstone, Michael. World population growth and population movements: policy implications for Canada. Policy Planning Staff Paper, No. 92/7, 1992. xi, 77 pp. External Affairs and International Trade Canada: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
This report examines rapid global population growth and the increase in large-scale international migration and the implications for policy in Canada. Policy recommendations concern international cooperation, information activities, population aid overseas, and immigration policy.
Correspondence: External Affairs and International Trade Canada, Policy Planning Staff, 125 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0G2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20688 Wongboonsin, Kua; Ruffolo, Vipan P. The future of Thailand's population policy: potential directions. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1993. 3-18 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The authors discuss population and development planning in Thailand. "After describing how, within one or two generations, parents' attitudes towards child-bearing and child-rearing have changed almost completely: from desiring a high quantity of children to desiring a high quality of children, [the article] explains why issues such as population ageing and labour shortages cannot be addressed by reversing current fertility trends. It concludes that fertility in the long-term is unlikely to fall below the replacement level, unless there is a substantial change in the country's social and cultural context."
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. Wongboonsin, Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

60:20689 Ahn, Namkee. Effects of the one-child family policy on second and third births in Hebei, Shaanxi and Shanghai. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb 1994. 63-78 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper uses the proportional hazards model to assess the effect of the Chinese one-child policy on second and third births. The differential effects of the policy between the urban and rural areas and by the sex of previous children are highlighted. First, the urban-rural differentials have increased much after the policy, suggesting a more rapid increase in the costs of children and stricter government controls in the urban areas. Second, the sex of children has become a more important factor after the policy. The considerably higher risks to a subsequent birth among sonless families indicate the persistent strong son preferences among Chinese parents, especially in less developed areas."
Correspondence: N. Ahn, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Facultad de Ciencias y Empresariales, Departamento de Fundamentos del Analisis Economico, Avenida Lehendakari Aguirre 83, 48015 Bilbao, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20690 Bravo-Casas, German A. Population policies concerning fertility. [Politiques demographiques en matiere de fecondite.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 5, No. 3, ISBN 2-87209-313-3. Dec 1993. 106 pp. Academia-Erasme: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article presents a global overview of fertility policies according to the experience of both developed and developing countries. For each...grouping, the author analyses successively the government's perceptions of their fertility levels and the adopted measures to respond to these issues. In particular, the analysis examines the adoption of fertility targets, measures concerning the access to modern fertility regulation methods, the legislation on the minimum age at marriage, measures related to the promotion of the condition and status of women, and the diverse schemes on incentives and disincentives."
Correspondence: Academia-Erasme, 25/115 Grand Rue, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20691 Cooney, Rosemary S.; Li, Jiali. Household registration type and compliance with the "one child" policy in China, 1979-1988. Demography, Vol. 31, No. 1, Feb 1994. 21-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This research analyzes how type of household registration, which reflects the degree of government control, affects compliance with China's 'one child' policy for women at risk during the first decade of implementation. Although socioeconomic and cultural factors have significant effects on four fertility events after first live birth, household registration type is the most important. Furthermore, household registration type interacts with urbanization in such a way that the modernization influence associated with urbanization is more evident for women under less government control. The notable success of China's family planning program is linked to its unique system of government control."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. S. Cooney, Fordham University, Department of Sociology, Bronx, NY 10458. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20692 David, Henry P. Population policy and reproductive behavior: incentives and disincentives. Advances in Population: Psychosocial Perspectives, Vol. 1, 1993. 1-33 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"It is the purpose of this chapter to summarize what is known about the influence of incentives and disincentives on private reproductive behavior, consider ethical implications, and present illustrative case material from selected European and Asian countries....The goal is to emphasize behavioral science aspects and discuss some of the difficulties confronting much needed research on the interaction between public policy and private reproductive behavior....While family planning is not a new concept in any culture, the evidence is fairly persuasive that, when given a voluntary choice, people can be motivated to postpone or prevent pregnancies only when their perspectives and expectations have broadened sufficiently so that they can see themselves as playing an active role in planning their own future and improving their own quality of life."
Correspondence: H. P. David, Transnational Family Research Institute, 8307 Whitman Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20693 Hecht, Jacqueline; Leridon, Henri. Fertility policies: a limited influence? In: The changing population of Europe, edited by Daniel Noin and Robert Woods. 1993. 62-75 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors describe the main components of current fertility policies in the European Community. The impact of pronatalist policies is considered, and various approaches to evaluating policy effectiveness are discussed.
Correspondence: J. Hecht, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20694 Kligman, Gail. The politics of reproduction in Ceausescu's Romania: a case study in political culture. East European Politics and Societies, Vol. 6, No. 3, Fall 1992. 364-418 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
The author analyzes "the politics of reproduction in Romania...[in order] to comprehend better the...legacy of the Ceausescu era....This study also enables us to focus on the social implications and human costs of restrictive reproductive legislation and policies, especially as they impact on the lives of women and children....In this report, I will explore the relationship between official rhetoric, policy, and everyday practice through an analysis of the politics of reproduction during Ceausescu's reign. I will discuss Ceausescu's pronatalist policies, and comment on the human dramas born of them: illegal abortion, child abandonment, infant AIDS, and international adoption."
Correspondence: G. Kligman, Georgetown University, Department of Government, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Pennsylvania State University Library, University Park, PA.

60:20695 Kojima, Hiroshi. A policy-oriented analysis of fertility behaviors and attitudes in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 49, No. 3, Oct 1993. 29-50 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"This study aims to assess the potential effects and the potential targets of possible pronatalistic family policies in Japan." The author considers the impact on family size of income, wife's employment status, home ownership and indebtedness, and living in the parental home.
Correspondence: H. Kojima, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20696 Li, Jiali; Cooney, Rosemary S. Son preference and the one child policy in China: 1979-1988. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1993. 277-96 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using data from the Two-Per-Thousand National Fertility Survey, this research analyzes how son preference...affects compliance with China's one child population policy for women at risk during the period of 1979 to 1988. Four events after the first live birth are used to evaluate compliance with the policy: (1) certificate acceptance (an indicator of future fertility intention); (2) the use of contraceptives (an indicator of intention to prevent a subsequent pregnancy); (3) the occurrence of a pregnancy subsequent to the first live birth (a potential violation of the one child policy); and (4) among those pregnant, the likelihood of an abortion (an indicator of compliance by preventing a second live birth). It is found that son preference is still prevalent in China. Although the effect of son preference is not the most important, urbanization, education, and occupation have not fundamentally changed its influence on women's compliance. In addition, the effect of son preference on the compliance is not altered by government control."
This article is based on a paper presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. S. Cooney, Fordham University, Sociology Department, Rose Hill Campus, Dealy Hall, Room 407, 441 East Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20697 Menniti, Adele. Facts and opinions about family policies. [Fatti e opinioni sulle politiche familiari.] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 02/93, [1993]. 53 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The results of public opinion surveys carried out in Europe as a whole and Italy in particular on the appropriateness of government intervention to influence fertility through family policy are presented. General support is found in Italy for policies designed to protect and promote the family.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20698 Rahman, A. S. M. Atiqur; Nazneen, Dil R. Z. A. Population explosion and population control programmes in Bangladesh: an overview. Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 38, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1992. 432-48 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The authors discuss in detail efforts made by [the] Bangladesh Government to control its population through planned efforts since 1953. Covering persistent setbacks and reasons thereof in governmental efforts, the authors highlight shifts in policies and strategy....The [government family planning] programme provides a wide range of contraceptive choice to eligible couples in a manner as acceptable and convenient as possible to the client. The programme is totally voluntary and the government is firmly opposed to coercion or pressure on couples to accept contraception. As a strategy, the programme has integrated health and [family planning] while various ministries have attempted to encourage the acceptance of low-fertility behaviour through socio-economic incentives and educational motivation programmes."
Location: Temple University Library, Philadelphia, PA.

60:20699 Sun, Te-Hsiung; Chang, Ming-Cheng. Demographic transition and fertility control policies in Taiwan. In: Readings in population research: policy, methods and perspectives, edited by P. Krishnan, Chi-Hsien Tuan, and Kuttan Mahadevan. 1992. 25-57 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper intends to analyze the demographic transition in Taiwan and the role the family planning programme played in the process of this transition. A discussion on the prospects of future policies is also presented. It is hoped that the experience in Taiwan would be useful to other developing countries in lowering their fertility level."
Correspondence: T.-H. Sun, 12F No. 4 Section 1, Chung-hsiao West Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

60:20700 Bahr, Jurgen; Kohli, Jorg. Migration policies. In: The changing population of Europe, edited by Daniel Noin and Robert Woods. 1993. 198-205 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The migration flows into and between the countries of the European Community (EC) are regulated by two different types of legal measures. On the one hand, each of the member countries has its own migration policies and measures based on these policies, which apply primarily to citizens of non-Community countries. On the other hand, EC-wide agreements regulate the freedom and impose limitations on labour movements within the Community for EC citizens."
Correspondence: J. Bahr, University of Kiel, Department of Geography, Olshausenstrasse 40, 2300 Kiel 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20701 Chang, Parris; Deng, Zhiduan. The Chinese brain drain and policy options. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1992. 44-60 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
"Brain drain has become a growing problem in China's overseas education, especially since the Tiananmen incident of June 1989....Concerned with the brain drain, Beijing is reconsidering its policy on foreign study. Of the policy alternatives, a continuation of the open policy appears to remain optimal, though some adjustments are necessary. In addition, several technical solutions to the brain drain problem are worth considering."
Correspondence: P. Chang, Pennsylvania State University, Center for East Asian Studies, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:20702 Corten, Andre. Migration policy and rent societies. [Politique migratoire et societes de rente.] Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies/Revue Canadienne des Etudes Latino-Americaines et Caraibes, Vol. 16, No. 32, 1991. 5-34 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Approximately 90 percent of the half million Haitians who work and live in the Dominican Republic do not have any legal status. This article proposes to evaluate the conditions for the application of a neo-liberal policy to regulate the problem presented by the presence of Haitians in the Dominican Republic. This policy proposes the repatriation of all Haitians not born in the country."
Correspondence: A. Corten, Universite du Quebec, C.P. 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

60:20703 Costa-Lascoux, Jacqueline. Continuity and change in French immigration politics: the law of 1993. [Continuite ou rupture dans la politique francaise de l'immigration: les lois de 1993.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1993. 233-61 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre.
Recent changes in French legislation regarding international migration inflows are reviewed. Topics covered include past laws and policies, current conditions for entry, the visa and resident-card application process, bases for refusal of entry or resident status, family reunification policies, attaining nationality by marriage, naturalization procedures, and regional concerns within France and the European Community.
Correspondence: J. Costa-Lascoux, Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, CEVIPOF, 10 rue de la Chaise, 75007 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20704 Doron, Abraham; Kargar, Howard J. The politics of immigration policy in Israel. International Migration, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1993. 497-512 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the policies adopted by the former Likud government--and largely continued by the present Labour-led coalition government which took office in the second half of 1992--to absorb the 400,000 new immigrants (most from the former Soviet Union) who arrived in Israel between 1989 and 1992. As part of that examination, we will critically review the major features of current absorption policies, such as the policy of 'direct absorption', the 'basket of absorption services' provided as a right to new immigrants, and immigration-related housing policies. In addition, we will explore the effects of employment policy on the new immigrant population."
Correspondence: A. Doron, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Paul Baerwald School of Social Work, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20705 Fischer, Judith L. Effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act on families. Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 19, No. 3-4, 1993. 233-9 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and its effect on families wishing to migrate to the United States. "This paper describes one of the key provisions of the new act, elaborates on the effects on potential client populations, and presents some challenges to helping professionals." A major change in the 1986 legislation was the switch in focus from family reunification to the granting of visas on an individual basis.
This article is also published in the book titled Families on the Move: Migration, Immigration, Emigration, and Mobility, edited by Barbara H. Settles et al., Binghamton, New York, Haworth Press, 1993.
Correspondence: J. L. Fischer, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 4349, Lubbock, TX 79409. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:20706 Giorgi, Liana; Pohoryles, Ronald; Pohoryles-Drexel, Sabine; Schmid, Gabriele. The internal logic and contradictions of migration control: an excursion into theory and practice in relation to East-West migration. Innovation, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1992. 25-37 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Eng.
"The present paper is organized in two parts. In part I, we briefly discuss the current state of the political debate vis-a-vis migration, and specifically migration control, with particular reference to the contemporary restrictive asylum laws across West European countries. Part I also attempts to assess empirically the success of migration control by drawing on data on Romanian asylum seekers in Austria, Hungary and Germany in the period between 1989 and 1992....Part II addresses the question of whether this success can be regarded as such within a longer term perspective. It is based on a theoretical elaboration on the underlying causes and influencing factors of East-West migration."
Correspondence: L. Giorgi, Interdisciplinary Centre for Comparative Research in the Social Sciences, Hamburgerstrasse 14/20, 1050 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20707 Goldin, Claudia. The political economy of immigration restriction in the United States, 1890 to 1921. NBER Working Paper, No. 4345, Apr 1993. 28 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This paper explores the economic and political forces that prevented restrictive legislation on immigration being adopted in the United States between 1897 and 1921. The author notes that economic recessions and resulting unemployment created pressure for restrictive legislation, but that the political clout of immigrants was enhanced by their concentration in major cities. After 1910, the dilution of immigrant flows and the negative impact of migrants on native wages were factors in the passage of legislation restricting immigration.
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:20708 Hamburger, Charlotte. The development of policy on denizens in Denmark. New Community, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jan 1992. 293-310 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article offers an analysis of Danish migration policy from 1960-90. The framework employed is the Swedish sociologist Thomas Hammar's concentric 'gate' model and his concept of 'denizens'. Non-Danish citizens' access to Danish society is regulated by 'gates' and security and rights increase in proportion with the number of 'gates' passed, culminating in naturalisation and full social, legal and political rights. After an initial profile of the various groups of foreigners living in Denmark, I discuss the development of policy measures regulating immigration with particular reference to the 'Law for Foreigners'. Finally I turn to the critical issue of policy on denizens."
Correspondence: C. Hamburger, Aarhus Universitet, Institute of Political Science, Ndr. Ringgade, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20709 Hayashi, Mizue. Residency regulations and the situation for foreign workers in Japan. [Regime de sejour et situation des travailleurs etrangers au Japon.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1993. 43-60 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author discusses the status of foreign laborers in Japan. The focus is on the impact of government regulations concerning labor migration, particularly denial of entry to workers without professional skills.
Correspondence: M. Hayashi, Ushigome Haimu 1311, Hara Machi 2.30, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20710 Legoux, Luc. The asylum request in France: the peak of 1989 and the theory of dissuasion. [Le demande d'asile en France: le pic de 1989 et la theorie de la dissuasion.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1993. 31-41 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author investigates trends in the number of persons seeking asylum in France, with a focus on the impact of changes in government policies regarding refugees. Factors considered include reductions in the length of the official decision-making process and the suppression of automatic work privileges for asylum seekers.
Correspondence: L. Legoux, Universite de Paris I, Institut de Demographie, 22 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20711 Straubhaar, Thomas; Zimmermann, Klaus F. Towards a European migration policy. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1993. 225-41 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The objective of our paper is to show why migration will be one of the most important subjects in the Europe of the next century. We will provide some evidence that (1) immigration flows from the outside into the EC will increase, (2) migration flows within the EC will decrease, (3) immigration from the outside is likely to be beneficial for the EC, (4) the EC needs a common immigration policy to collect the benefits from migration, and (5) in either case, there is a need for migration policy which should incorporate the interests of emigration and immigration countries. With this in mind, we will concentrate on economically motivated migration...."
Correspondence: K. F. Zimmermann, University of Munich, SELAPO, Ludwigstrasse 28 RG, 80539 Munich, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20712 Sussman, Marvin B.; Settles, Barbara H. Policy and research issues regarding family mobility and immigration. Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 19, No. 3-4, 1993. 209-32 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
The authors review literature on migration policy in the United States, with a focus on studies concerning the migration of families to the United States. Changes in U.S. migration policy are also outlined, and the socioeconomic factors affecting such changes discussed.
This article is also published in the book titled Families on the Move: Migration, Immigration, Emigration, and Mobility, edited by Barbara H. Settles et al., Binghamton, New York, Haworth Press, 1993.
Correspondence: M. B. Sussman, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:20713 Velling, Johannes. Schengen, Dublin, and Maastricht--stages on the road toward a single European immigration policy. [Schengen, Dublin und Maastricht--Etappen auf dem Weg zu einer europaischen Immigrationspolitik.] Labour Economics and Human Resources Series Discussion Paper, No. 93-11, Mar 1993. 31 pp. Zentrum fur Europaische Wirtschaftsforschung: Mannheim, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the development of a common migration policy among the member countries of the European Community. Specifically, he "discusses the international treaties relevant for a European immigration policy which have been decided upon so far and tries to evaluate the consequences and the reasoning of the recent developments." The discussion is developed in the light of increasing pressure from migrants wishing to enter the Community.
Correspondence: Zentrum fur Europaische Wirtschaftsforschung, Kaiserring 14-16, 6800 Mannheim 1, Germany. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:20714 Weil, Patrick. France and its foreigners: the story of immigration policy, 1938-1991. [La France et ses etrangers: l'aventure d'une politique de l'immigration, 1938-1991.] ISBN 2-7021-2029-6. 1991. 403 pp. Calmann-Levy: Paris, France; Fondation Saint-Simon: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author describes France's development of an immigration policy from the late 1930s to the present, focusing on policies developed behind the scenes rather than those that were legislated openly. He considers such issues as the initial welcome extended to foreigners, the developing search for a way to control the number of immigrants, the effort to reduce illegal immigration, the defense of public order, the protection of the rights of immigrants, naturalization policy, and the provision of social services to immigrants. He also examines problems associated with policy implementation, particularly since 1974.
Correspondence: Calmann-Levy, 3 Rue Auber, 75009 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20715 Yoon, Bang-Soon L. Reverse brain drain in South Korea: state-led model. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1992. 4-26 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
"[South] Korea's reverse brain drain (RBD) has been an organized government effort, rather than a spontaneous social phenomenon....Particular features of Korea's RBD policies are the creation of a conducive domestic environment...and importantly, the empowerment of returnees (via, i.e., exceptionally good material benefits, guarantees of research autonomy)....Korea's future RBD, however, needs to pay closer attention to the following four problems: research autonomy; equality issues; skill-based repatriation of technicians and engineers rather than Ph.D.'s; and subsidies to small and medium industry for RBD."
Correspondence: B.-S. L. Yoon, Central Washington University, Department of Political Science, Ellensburg, WA 98926. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

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