Volume 60 - Number 2 - Summer 1994

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

60:20583 Bonneuil, Noel. Capital accumulation, inertia of consumption and norms of reproduction. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb 1994. 49-62 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"A model of capital accumulation is built in relation with fertility and consumption. Avoiding [the imposition of] a direct analytical relationship between these three variables, the author studies the set of possible evolutions under the constraints imposed by the inertia of habit change. The conflict between the necessity to avoid impoverishment, the desire to increase consumption when possible and the reproduction intensity delineate the set of viable solutions and the set of attitudes leading to capital extinction. This qualitative view of change of behaviors provides an alternative explanation to historical fertility fluctuations outside the usual Easterlin framework." The geographical focus is on Western developed countries, with particular reference to Sweden.
Correspondence: N. Bonneuil, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20584 Brander, James A.; Dowrick, Steve. The role of fertility and population in economic growth: empirical results from aggregate cross-national data. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb 1994. 1-25 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Two recently improved sets of cross-country panel data are combined in order to re-examine the effects of population growth and fertility on economic growth. Using a 107 country panel data set covering 1960-85, we find that high birth rates appear to reduce economic growth through investment effects and possibly through 'capital dilution', although classic resource dilution is not evident in the data. Most significantly, however, birth rate declines have a strong medium-term positive impact on per capita income growth through labour supply or 'dependency' effects."
Correspondence: J. A. Brander, University of British Columbia, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20585 Clarke, Harry R. The welfare effects of labour force growth with internationally mobile capital. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb 1994. 79-98 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper examines some economic effects of population growth, due to natural increase and immigration....An objective is to assess how immigration and natural labour supply growth impact on international equilibrium when trade in produced inputs is induced by population changes. For the most part our analysis is based on theories on international factor mobility....Natural population growth will be analysed as a byproduct of the factor mobility studies."
Correspondence: H. R. Clarke, University of Melbourne, Department of Economics, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

60:20586 Adepoju, Aderanti. The impact of structural adjustment on the population of Africa: the implications for education, health and employment. ISBN 0-85255-406-0. LC 92-20329. 1993. 148 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; James Currey: London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors that examine declining living conditions in Africa, which are seen in large part to be a result of structural adjustment measures. The focus of the book is on education, health, and employment, and how these sectors have been affected by cutbacks in government expenditures associated with economic recovery programs. Chapters are included on Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Zaire, and Zambia.
Correspondence: James Currey, 54b Thornhill Square, Islington, London N1 1BE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20587 Berrios Loyola, Rodrigo; Krotki, Karol J. Economic and demographic implications of dual labour markets: a CGE model for Sub-Saharan Africa. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 481-93 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to draw conclusions from two simulations of the economy of an African country: the basic case simulation (BCS) and the wage inflexibility simulation (WIS)....The end results have been compared in terms of demographic and economic variables indicative of the developments that took place....The model consists of two macro-sectors representing the modern-traditional duality of a hypothetical African country. These macro-sectors are denoted as the modern or formal macro-sector, and the traditional or informal macro-sector."
Correspondence: R. Berrios Loyola, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20588 Bueno Sanchez, Eramis. Population and informality. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 433-47 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper will focus on [the relationship between population and the informal sector]....In particular, the paper will deal with one of the three perspectives one can distinguish in an extended framework for population studies namely demographic, economic and population-development related perspectives. While traditional population studies of the relationships between population and [the] informal sector [are] based on essentially a demographic perspective, here we stress the economic view...." The focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: E. Bueno Sanchez, Universidad de la Habana, Center for Demographic Studies, Calle San Lazaro esq. L, Vedado, Havana 4, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20589 Cabrera Acevedo, Gustavo. The population and the search for equilibrium. [La poblacion y la busqueda de equilibrios.] Comercio Exterior, Vol. 43, No. 7, Jul 1993. 612-7 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
Following a brief review of the impact of global population growth and economic development on the standard of living and on the gap between rich and poor, the author examines the same themes in Mexico. Predictions for the twenty-first century are included.
Correspondence: G. Cabrera Acevedo, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:20590 Charoenloet, Voravidh. Population and industrial development. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, Jul-Jan 1991-1992. 55-83, 158-9 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
"Concurrent with the decline in population growth rate in the 1980s, Thailand experienced an unprecedented rate of economic growth....Such phenomenal economic growth has generally been attributed to the internationalization of the Thai economy through the rapid expansion of exports, foreign investment and tourism. However, industries in the manufacturing sector...tend to be resource-based and labour-intensive. Moreover, foreign investment in export-oriented industries tends to use Thailand as a base for assembling rather than producing goods and has been attracted primarily by cheap labour cost. All these may contribute to the employment of [a] nonskilled, lowly-paid labour force, but not the development of scientific/technology based industries, the foundation for permanent and lasting economic development."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20591 Cuddington, John T. Further results on the macroeconomic effects of AIDS: the dualistic, labor-surplus economy. World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1993. 403-17 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article generalizes and extends...earlier analyses...by incorporating the presence of underemployment and dual labor markets--considerations that seem particularly important when assessing the likely impact of AIDS in many African countries. The dual-economy simulations of the economic impact of AIDS using Tanzanian data suggest that the macroeconomic consequences of the epidemic are of the same order of magnitude as those obtained using a single-sector, full-employment model....The output loss from AIDS in the dual-economy framework is roughly the same as the output gain achievable through policies designed to increase labor market flexibility."
Correspondence: J. T. Cuddington, Georgetown University, Economics Department, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:20592 Desai, Meghnad. Population and poverty in Africa. African Development Review/Revue Africaine de Developpement, Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec 1992. 63-78 pp. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In Eng.
"This paper sets out the position in Sub-Saharan Africa...regarding poverty and population. Africa has as much danger of starvation and depopulation [due to AIDS] as of over population. The paper sets out a model of poverty based on the twin concepts of capabilities and entitlements. This is [a] micro level approach and points to the importance of health and education as well as physical assets in analysing poverty. Issues of gender are always kept central. Income, access to public goods, physical assets and human capital are the four determinants of the status of any individual visavis poverty."
Correspondence: M. Desai, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Cornell University, NYSSILR Extension, New York, NY.

60:20593 Fratkin, Elliot. Problems of pastoral land tenure in Kenya: demographic, economic and political processes among Maasai, Samburu, Boran, and Rendille, 1950-1990. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1994-03, Jan 1994. 17 pp. Pennsylvania State University: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper discusses problems of pastoral land tenure in Kenya using examples from [the] Maasai, Samburu, Boran and Rendille. It is argued that population pressure, combined with political insecurity and economic transition to sedentary agriculture, is increasing problems of pastoral land use."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20594 Koffi, N'guessan; Guillaume, Agnes; Vimard, Patrice; Zanou, Benjamin. The control of population growth and development in Africa. [Maitrise de la croissance demographique et developpement en Afrique.] Colloques et Seminaires, ISBN 2-7099-1176-0. 1994. 435 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation [ORSTOM]: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a seminar held in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, November 26-29, 1991, organized jointly by L'Ecole Nationale Superieure de Statistique et d'Economie Appliquee (ENSEA), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and ORSTOM. The focus of the seminar was on the relationship between rapid population growth and social and economic development in Africa. The 24 papers included are organized under the topics of the factors affecting population growth, new models of biological reproduction and family strategies, the impact of health and family planning programs, and population growth and development strategies.
Correspondence: Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement, 213 rue Lafayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20595 Milone, Paulo C. Population and development: an economic analysis. [Populacao e desenvolvimento: uma analise economica.] ISBN 85-15-00500-X. 1991. 103 pp. Edicoes Loyola: Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por.
The author examines the relationship between population growth and economic development in developing countries, with some emphasis on Brazil. The book begins with a historical overview, then considers trends in fertility, mortality, and migration; present and future demographic change; and the development of an econometric model, which the author uses for fertility and mortality projections.
Correspondence: Edicoes Loyola, Rua 1822 n. 347, Ipiranga 04216, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20596 Mixon, J. Wilson. Economic development and family size: a comment. American Economist, Vol. 37, No. 1, Spring 1993. 81-3 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author comments on a recent article by Roberto J. Rios concerning the relationship between economic development and changes in fertility and mortality in Latin America. A reply by Rios (p. 83) is included.
For the article by Rios, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: J. W. Mixon, Berry College, Department of Economics, Mount Berry Station, Mount Berry, GA 30149. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:20597 Palloni, Alberto; Tienda, Marta. Demographic responses to economic recessions in Latin America since 1900. Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 62, No. 2, Spring 1992. 246-70 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper explores the linkages between economic cycles and demographic processes in Latin America since 1900. We identify the mechanisms through which economic conditions have an impact on demographic outcomes and assess the demographic and socioeconomic consequences of the 1980s....[Using a] heuristic framework, tentative hypotheses are derived to interpret empirical evidence about the effects of the 1929 and 1980 depressions in selected Latin American countries. Results show that the demographic consequences of the Great Depression were nontrivial. The analyses of demographic and socioeconomic responses of the post-1980 recession, however, reveal only weak linkages for some outcomes. We argue that the weak relationships may mask important transformations currently underway...."
Correspondence: A. Palloni, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20598 Rios, Roberto J. Economic development and family size. American Economist, Vol. 35, No. 2, Fall 1991. 81-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author compares the Latin American demographic transition with that in Europe. He notes that "falling mortality has in Latin America failed to reduce family size; this result is not theoretically surprising as reduced mortality makes children cheaper and is expected to reduce fertility but to increase the number of survivors. Development and modernization encouraged family limitation in Western Europe; changes similar in nature have attended the mortality decline in Latin America, but often these changes have been modest in size. Deviations from the Western European transition follow a pattern: least developed countries deviate the most, while most developed countries deviate the least."
Correspondence: R. J. Rios, City University of New York, Lehman College, Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20599 Swaminathan, N. Economic development and fertility change. ISBN 81-7044-347-4. LC 92-909677. 1992. xii, 168 pp. Printwell: Jaipur, India. In Eng.
The main focus of this study is on the relationship between rural fertility differentials and the cost of raising children in India. The data were collected in 1982 in four villages in the Komaratchi region, two of which were relatively well developed, and two were not. The author examines in particular how modernization in rural households affects the level of investment in the quality of the child-raising process, and how family planning practice is associated with such investments. The results show a strong and positive link between modernization and high investment in quality child-rearing.
Correspondence: Printwell, Rupa Books, S-12 Shopping Complex, Tilak Nagar, Jaipur 4, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20600 Talwar, Prem P.; Fornos, Werner; Guha, A. K. India: the impact of growth. Toward the 21st Century, No. 3, 1993. 15 pp. Population Institute: New York, New York. In Eng.
Population dynamics in India are reviewed, with a focus on development programs and family planning projects. Patterns of population growth, marriage, fertility and mortality, and labor force participation are described. Possible methods of reducing population growth are discussed, including education, development, family planning programs, private-sector contributions, and philanthropy and social services.
Correspondence: Population Institute, 110 Maryland Avenue NE, Suite 207, Washington, D.C. 20002. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20601 Tian, Xueyuan. Technological advances and the transformation of the cost of children. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1993. 1-10 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the importance of considering the impact of technological advances when analyzing the cost of children in China, as well as differences caused by varying technological conditions. The relationship between population growth and economic development is examined, and the role of technological advances in lowering fertility, raising productivity, and increasing per capita income is emphasized.
Correspondence: X. Tian, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20602 Turner, B. L.; Hyden, Goran; Kates, Robert W. Population growth and agricultural change in Africa. Carter Lecture Series, ISBN 0-8130-1219-8. LC 93-2860. 1993. xvii, 461 pp. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies that were presented at a workshop held at the University of Florida, Gainesville, April 30-May 2, 1988. "The contributors examine the relationship between population growth and agricultural intensification through a case study approach that is sensitive to historical data. Through an examination of different high-density populations in Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya, it is possible to see changes in technology and productivity over time and to isolate the conditions under which agricultural intensification follows population growth and is sustainable in the long term. In this approach the book offers concrete examples of positive relationships between population growth and agricultural intensification, examples with important implications for policy and land-use planning."
Correspondence: University Press of Florida, 15 Northwest 15th Street, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20603 Urbina Fuentes, Manuel; Sanchez Almanza, Adolfo. Spatial distribution and development in Mexico. [Distribucion de la poblacion y desarrollo en Mexico.] Comercio Exterior, Vol. 43, No. 7, Jul 1993. 652-61 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The relationship between economic development and spatial distribution in Mexico is examined by region. Economically driven migration to metropolitan areas and its impact on urban life are also discussed. The author predicts the need to improve rural quality of life to alleviate the problems caused by rural-urban migration.
Correspondence: M. Urbina Fuentes, Consejo Nacional de Poblacion, Avenida Angel Urraza 1137, Col. Del Valle, C.P. 03100 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:20604 Zhan, Jie; Xiao, Zhenyu. Population aging and economic development in China. In: Readings in population research: policy, methods and perspectives, edited by P. Krishnan, Chi-Hsien Tuan, and Kuttan Mahadevan. 1992. 473-82 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors discuss the potential problems that may arise as a result of population aging in China under conditions of economic underdevelopment. The need to consider future aging trends along with current fertility control measures is emphasized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

60:20605 Blomquist, N. S.; Wijkander, H. Fertility waves, aggregate savings and the rate of interest. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb 1994. 27-48 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"During the last fifty years there have in many countries been large movements in the growth of labor productivity, real wage rates, the rate of interest, and the household savings ratio. In this paper we use an overlapping generations model to study if demographic shocks, like the baby boom, can generate the kind of movements observed. Simulations show this is indeed the case. We also study the interactions between a pay-as-you-go pension system and demographic disturbances....We present some stylized facts of the historical development in Sweden for the rate of interest, the aggregate household saving ratio, growth of labor productivity and the birth rate."
Correspondence: N. S. Blomquist, Uppsala University, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 513, 75120 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20606 Braun, Juan. Essays on economic growth and migration. Pub. Order No. DA9330875. 1993. 166 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author develops a simplified general equilibrium model of migration and economic growth to examine the relationships among capital accumulation, convergence, and human mobility. The model is tested using data for five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom), Japan, and the United States. The study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at Harvard University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(6).

60:20607 Cutler, David M.; Elmendorf, Douglas W.; Zeckhauser, Richard J. Demographic characteristics and the public bundle. NBER Working Paper, No. 4283, Feb 1993. 42, [15] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper explores the relationship between the demographic characteristics of a community and the quantities of goods and services provided by its government. We consider three models of public spending: a traditional 'selfish' public choice model in which individuals care only about themselves, a 'community preference' model in which an individual's preferred spending depends on the characteristics of his or her community, and a sorting process through which individuals choose communities according to their tastes for public spending. To evaluate these models of spending, we examine how county and state spending in the United States is affected by the age and racial composition, and the total size of a jurisdiction. The estimated effects of demographic characteristics in the state equations are strikingly different from the estimated effects in the county equations, apparently because a jurisdiction's spending is affected differently by its own demographic characteristics and by the characteristics of the surrounding area."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:20608 Petersen, Jorn H. Demographic change, policy for the elderly, and economic consequences of a greater need for provision of care--some Scandinavian prospects. [Demografisk udvikling, aeldrepolitik og okonomiske konsekvenser af et oget omsorgsbehov--et skandinavisk perspektiv.] Nationalokonomisk Tidsskrift, Vol. 131, No. 3, 1993. 332-43 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper describes the social compact between the generations. The viability of the compact is exposed to severe pressure caused by the expected demographic development. The pressure is illustrated by calculations for the Scandinavian countries of the demographic burden of provision of care, the income transfer burden, and the total economic burden including benefits in kind. The economic burden is calculated on varying assumptions with respect to the average age of retirement, the procedure for indexing cash benefits and the development of expenditure on services. It is demonstrated that it is possible to determine balanced solutions to the intergenerational distributional problem."
Correspondence: J. H. Petersen, Odense Universitet, Center for Helsetjenesteforskning og Socialpolitik, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

60:20609 Abeykoon, A. T. P. L. Population, environment and sustainable development. Sri Lanka Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1993. 57-64 pp. Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
The author analyzes the relationship between population and the environment in Sri Lanka, with a focus on the growing pressure on nonrenewable resources. Trends in population growth, agricultural production and demand, labor force growth, and deforestation are discussed.
Correspondence: A. T. P. L. Abeykoon, Ministry of Health and Women's Affairs, Population Division, 231 De Saram Place, Colombo 10, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20610 Banerjee, Sonali; Das, Tuhin; Roy, Joyashree; Chakraborty, Debesh. Population growth, energy utilisation pattern and environmental degradation: a micro study. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1992. 281-90 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the problem of environmental degradation in rural areas caused by the typical energy consumption pattern and the consequent deforestation which in turn is accentuated by rapid population growth, in the context of a hill economy [in West Bengal, India]. A micro level study...has been carried out to analyse the close relationship among population growth, felling of trees for firewood, and the consequent environmental damage. We have tried to address this issue...in the context of the rural energy problem in India."
Correspondence: S. Banerjee, Jadavpur University, Department of Economics, Calcutta 700 032, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20611 Butler, Colin. Overpopulation, overconsumption, and economics. Lancet, Vol. 343, No. 8897, Mar 5, 1994. 582-4 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author develops arguments originally proposed by Douwe A. A. Verkuyl concerning the more equitable provision of family planning services in developing countries. In particular, he examines "(a) global ecological pressures resulting from overconsumption, especially in western Europe, North America, eastern Asia, and Australasia (the North); (b) overpopulation in the third world (the South); and (c) their relation to the dominant economic paradigm operating in both North and South." He suggests that we need to develop concepts to measure improvements in real national and global wealth that are more than just economic and that take into account the environmental impact of development efforts.
For the article by Verkuyl, published in 1993, see 59:30286.
Correspondence: C. Butler, 4 Queen Street, Campbell Town, Tasmania 7210, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

60:20612 Emery, K. O. Uncontrolled growth of human populations, geological background, and future prospects. Population and Environment, Vol. 15, No. 4, Mar 1994. 303-27 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Humans of many nations are following [a] trend of population growth beyond the ability of resources to insure adequate food, clothing, shelter, safety, and transport and beyond the ability of Earth to accommodate the wastes....Is this uncontrolled proliferation...to be followed by severe reduction or even extinction [as has been the case with many animal populations]? If not, how may human population be stabilized or reduced to a level commensurate with resources and waste disposal...?An approach more effective than religion or political control may be through better education...."
Correspondence: K. O. Emery, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20613 Guzevatyi, Ya. N. Demographic aspects of ecological problems. In: Readings in population research: policy, methods and perspectives, edited by P. Krishnan, Chi-Hsien Tuan, and Kuttan Mahadevan. 1992. 313-20 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author discusses the contribution of demographic factors to worldwide environmental degradation. Differences in the nature and level of ecological problems in different countries and regions are considered, and the impact of urbanization and industrialization is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20614 Hansen, Stein. Population and the environment. African Development Review/Revue Africaine de Developpement, Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec 1992. 118-64 pp. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of environmental degradation due to population pressure on economic development efforts in Africa. Topics considered include trends in agricultural productivity; biophysical indicators of environmental change; population growth, high fertility, and poverty; the rural environment; urbanization, resettlement, and the environment; and population and environmental policy needs.
Correspondence: S. Hansen, Ornev 46a, 1340 Bekkestua, Norway. Location: Cornell University, NYSSILR Extension, New York, NY.

60:20615 Keck, Andrew; Sharma, Narendra P.; Feder, Gershon. Population growth, shifting cultivation, and unsustainable agricultural development: a case study in Madagascar. World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 234, Mar 1994. xii, 63 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study of a microregion in Madagascar illustrates important linkages and synergies between population growth, unsustainable agriculture, and natural resource decline." The authors outline steps the government could take to minimize problems caused by conflicts over land rights and by the degradation of soils and forests due to slash-and-burn agricultural methods.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20616 Kim, Ock-Kyung. Demographic patterns and wildlife resources. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1992. 291-300 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this paper is to examine the impact of the patterns of population growth and its distribution on the utilization of wildlife resources. In addition, a theoretical framework is proposed to study the impact of population-related factors on the conservation of wildlife resources." Data are for Canada, Chile, France, Greenland, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Niger, and Zambia.
Correspondence: O.-K. Kim, World Conservation Union, 28 rue Mauverbey, 1196 Gland, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20617 Nerlove, Marc. Population and the environment: a parable of firewood and other tales. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 73, No. 5, Dec 1991. 1,334-47 pp. Ames, Iowa. In Eng.
The author analyzes the relationship between population and the environment, with a focus on "the role which environmental degradation and natural resources depletion may play in producing the...population pressure which lies behind such degradation and depletion especially in developing countries....The principal conclusion of this analysis is that the possibilities for a stable equilibrium between human population and its environment are quite limited....I show that parental altruism toward their children can only make matters worse, if socially unchecked, by leading to an increase of the birthrate in every environmental state in comparison with that which would occur in its absence."
Correspondence: M. Nerlove, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

60:20618 Brunetta, Giovanna. The role of women in the post-industrial economy. In: The changing population of Europe, edited by Daniel Noin and Robert Woods. 1993. 161-9 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of women's increasing labor force participation in the European Community. "Female labour has increased in all the countries of the EC, although women have not reached the same degree of employment as men. This increase has occurred mainly in the services sector of the economy and particularly in the so-called human services....The role that women will play in the future will depend to a great extent on how the conflict between their two roles, production and reproduction, will be resolved."
Correspondence: G. Brunetta, University of Padua, Department of Geography, Via 8 Febbraio 2, 35122 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20619 Choe, Minja Kim; Kong, Sae-Kwon; Mason, Karen O. Korean women's participation in the labor force: attitude and behavior. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 13, No. 2, Dec 1993. 20-32 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the employment of married women in the Republic of Korea, especially on married women's attitude toward...employment. Although the data we analyze were collected at only one point in time, our ultimate concern is with change over time. The data used in our analysis are from the Survey on Family Life Cycle conducted in 1986....Married women in Korea hold quite liberal views on women's work, with a majority of them espousing a woman's right to choose whether she works, regardless of her marital or parental status." The impact of urban or rural background, educational level, and employment before marriage is analyzed, and the effect of family members' perceived attitudes is considered.
Correspondence: M. K. Choe, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20620 Das, Dipendra N.; Vemuri, Murali D. Child labour in India, 1981: a district level analysis. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1992. 99-111 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In the present study, an attempt has been made to examine those factors which are responsible for influencing child labour in the districts of different states of India. In the study, small states and union territories are excluded and we analyse child labour only for the 14 major states...in 1981....While the main thrust of our study is to identify the important determinants of child labour, from our analysis we can also derive certain policy recipes to combat child labour." Demographic, social, and developmental variables are investigated.
Correspondence: D. N. Das, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Centre for the Study of Regional Development, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20621 Fawcett, James T.; Gardner, Robert W. Asian immigrant entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs: a comparative study of recent Korean and Filipino immigrants. Population and Environment, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jan 1994. 211-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"While a number of theoretical frameworks have been developed that explain group differences in entrepreneurship, very few studies have dealt empirically with the actual process of choosing between salaried employment and self-employment. Why do some immigrants go into business while others do not? This paper examines that question from a comparative perspective, drawing upon survey data on recent Korean and Filipino immigrants to the United States. Implications of the findings with respect to U.S. immigration policies are also discussed."
Correspondence: R. W. Gardner, 8 Noble Street, Brunswick, ME 04011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20622 Friedberg, Rachel M. Immigration and the labor market. 1993. Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The assimilation of immigrants into the labor markets of the United States and Israel is analyzed in this doctoral dissertation. Particular attention is given to the role of age and education in the assimilation process.
Correspondence: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Libraries, Room 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(6).

60:20623 Gallart, Maria A.; Moreno, Martin J.; Cerrutti, Marcela S. Education and employment in Greater Buenos Aires, 1980-1991. The current situation and prospects for further study. [Educacion y empleo en el Gran Buenos Aires 1980-1991. Situacion y perspectivas de investigacion.] Cuaderno del CENEP, No. 49, Aug 1993. xiv, 143 pp. Centro de Estudios de Poblacion [CENEP]: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
Results of a study on changes in the labor market in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, over the course of the 1980s are presented, with particular reference to changes in the educational status of the labor force. Data are primarily taken from the Continuous Household Survey (EPH). Special attention is given to the circumstances affecting the employment of women and young people.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios de Poblacion, Casilla 4397, Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20624 Garcia Ballesteros, Aurora. Unemployment: regional variations in age- and sex-specific rates. In: The changing population of Europe, edited by Daniel Noin and Robert Woods. 1993. 151-60 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes regional variations in age- and sex-specific unemployment within the European Community, with a focus on economic, demographic, and social influences. The importance of targeting women and young people with policies to reduce unemployment is emphasized.
Correspondence: A. Garcia Ballesteros, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Department of Geography, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20625 Kazi, Shahnaz; Sathar, Zeba A. Women in the urban informal labour market in Pakistan: some economic and demographic implications. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population: Montreal 1993, Volume 2. 1993. 467-79 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The present study...[investigates] two sets of questions. First, it will address issues related to women's productive activities [in Pakistan]. What are the employment patterns of women in the urban sector? What characteristics distinguish women working in the informal sector from formal sector workers...?The second part of the study explores the differentials in outcomes such as fertility (actual and desired), contraceptive knowledge and adoption and children's schooling by employment status of evermarried women." Data are from the 1990-1991 Pakistan Integrated Household Survey.
Correspondence: S. Kazi, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20626 Lalu, N. M. Multistate life tables and its application to the analysis of labour force participation. In: Readings in population research: policy, methods and perspectives, edited by P. Krishnan, Chi-Hsien Tuan, and Kuttan Mahadevan. 1992. 145-64 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper a brief exposition of the [multistate life table] theory...,its computer implementation, and an application to the study of labour force participation will be presented. The data used here are from the 'Labour Market Activity Survey' conducted in 1989 by Statistics Canada."
Correspondence: N. M. Lalu, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20627 Lezama, Jose L. Work, family, and childhood in Mexico City: convergence and divergence. [Trabajo, familia e infancia en la Ciudad de Mexico: convergencias y divergencias.] Comercio Exterior, Vol. 43, No. 7, Jul 1993. 677-87 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The impact of child labor on family structure and economic status is examined. The author interviewed 40 children working as street vendors in Mexico City and their families. The effect of work on a child's educational attainment is also assessed.
Correspondence: J. L. Lezama, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:20628 Olsen, Randall J. Fertility and the size of the U.S. labor force. Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 32, No. 1, Mar 1994. 60-100 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper reviews and interprets from an economic perspective the demographic trends in the U.S. since the turn of the century. The primary focus will be upon the interplay between the fertility and labor force participation of women and how they may be interpreted within simple economic models....We will begin by stating what economic demography is and why careful analytic methods are needed. Section II provides a brief demographic history of the U.S. Section III describes the major economic theories of fertility and Section IV discusses the empirical performance of these theories. Section V discusses the linkages between fertility and the size of the labor force, and Section VI concludes."
Correspondence: R. J. Olsen, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:20629 Pick, James B.; Butler, Edgar W.; Gonzalez Ramirez, Raul. Projection of the Mexican national labor force, 1980-2005. Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1993. 161-90 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper projects the Mexican national labor force from 1980 to 2005, with varying assumptions of vital rates, economic activity, and international migration. Projections are also made for the urban and rural components of the Mexican population, assuming inter-component migration flows. Results indicate that the Mexican labor force will grow over the projection period at an average annual rate of 907,000 to 1,183,000 workers; will age slightly; and will have a much higher proportion female. Implications are discussed in terms of Mexican-U.S. migration, possible agreements on free trade, and global trends in workforce."
Correspondence: J. B. Pick, University of Redlands, Department of Management and Business, Redlands, CA 92373. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20630 Samuel, T. John; Suriya, Senaka K. A demographically reflective workforce for Canadian policing. In: Community policing in Canada, edited by James Chacko and Stephen E. Nancoo. ISBN 1-55130-016-8. 1993. 275-87 pp. Canadian Scholars' Press: Toronto, Canada. In Eng.
The authors discuss the need for a demographically and ethnically representative police workforce in Canada, using the example of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). "The empirical research findings suggest that employment inequality exists in varying degrees among police departments across Canada in both quantitative and qualitative terms. However, in recent years some attempts have been made by police departments to correct this situation, and the example given here on the RCMP employment equity is one of them."
Correspondence: T. J. Samuel, Carleton University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20631 Shaban, Radwan A. Palestinian labour mobility. International Labour Review, Vol. 132, No. 5-6, 1993. 655-72 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Following an overview of demographic and migratory trends since the late 1960s, the article examines labour force participation and analyses the distribution of Palestinian workers between the three labour markets in which they participate: the domestic market of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the Israeli market and the Arab market, consisting chiefly of Jordan and the oil-rich Arab states. Since 1982 there has been a contraction of employment opportunities for Palestinians in the latter two labour markets. Domestic job creation is one of the main tasks confronting the Palestinian administration to be set up under the 1993 Israel/PLO agreement."
Correspondence: R. A. Shaban, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Economics, 225 N Avenue NW, Atlanta, GA 30332. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

60:20632 Simon, Julian L.; Moore, Stephen; Sullivan, Richard. The effect of immigration on aggregate native unemployment: an across-city estimation. Journal of Labor Research, Vol. 14, No. 3, Summer 1993. 299-316 pp. Fairfax, Virginia. In Eng.
"This study investigates the relationship between the rate of immigration into various [U.S.] cities in various years and the level and change in unemployment. In pooled regressions, immigration lagged one year does not show a statistically significant effect either by itself or when other lags are added. Individual regressions using the difference in unemployment rates over time show a slight, but statistically insignificant, positive displacement effect over two-year periods. The evidence indicates that there is little or no observed increase in aggregate native unemployment due to immigration, even in the relatively short run during which adjustment frictions should be most severe."
Correspondence: J. L. Simon, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

60:20633 Sztokman, Nicole. Working population: main trends and regional disparities. [Population active: grandes tendances et disparites regionales.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 307-14 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Characteristics of the economically active population in France are examined and compared. "The French working population has kept growing during the eighties because of the rising arrival of women on the labour market. But what is most characteristic of this recent evolution is the increasing unemployment and the employment precariousness which can reach up to 40-60% of the 20-25 years old working population. Regional disparities still remain...."
Correspondence: N. Sztokman, Universite de Nantes, URA 915, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Geographie et d'Amenagement, B.P. 1025, 44036 Nantes Cedex 01, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20634 Vandermotten, Christian. The geography of employment. In: The changing population of Europe, edited by Daniel Noin and Robert Woods. 1993. 135-50 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines and compares employment trends in the countries of the European Community. Variations in practices of defining employment and unemployment are described and regional unemployment structures are analyzed.
Correspondence: C. Vandermotten, Free University of Brussels, Department of Geography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20635 Waldinger, Roger. The making of an immigrant niche. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring 1994. 3-30 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article speaks to the conceptual and methodological issues in research on the making of an immigrant niche through a case study of immigrant professionals in New York City government." The author argues that "the growth of this immigrant niche resulted from changes in the relative supply of native workers and in the structure of employment, which opened the bureaucracy to immigrants and reduced native/immigrant competition. These shifts opened hiring portals; given the advantages of network hiring for workers and managers, and an immigrant propensity for government employment, network recruitment led to a rapid buildup in immigrant ranks."
Correspondence: R. Waldinger, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20636 Yoon, Young-Hee; Waite, Linda J. Converging employment patterns of black, white, and Hispanic women: return to work after first birth. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 56, No. 1, Feb 1994. 209-17 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines the determinants of women's return to work following the birth of their first child among white, black, and Mexican-origin women to test the general hypothesis that previous racial differentials--observed during the late 1960s and early 1970s--in employment of new mothers have disappeared with changes in overall employment patterns of women. Data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show the expected pattern. Several important measures of a woman's human capital, such as value of time, job experience, and work role attitudes have similar effects in predicting postnatal labor force participation for the three groups....The results are tied to changes in job characteristics, the economy, and the family."
Correspondence: Y.-H. Yoon, Institute for Women's Policy Research, 1400 20th Street NW, Suite 104, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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