Volume 60 - Number 2 - Summer 1994

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

60:20519 Bailey, Jonathan. 1991 census results for local authority districts in Great Britain. Population Trends, No. 73, Autumn 1993. 8-17 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Summary statistics from the 1991 Census have been published for each of the counties of England and Wales, and for the regions and islands areas of Scotland. This article gives some key statistics for all local authority districts in Great Britain, contrasting areas with the most extreme values. The results show the variation in the social characteristics [including age distribution, ethnicity, economic status, and home ownership] of people and households."
Correspondence: J. Bailey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Census Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20520 Brewis, Alexandra A. Sex ratios at birth in a Micronesian atoll population. Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1993. 207-14 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The recent suggestion that typically masculinized sex ratios at birth in Micronesian populations may be related to a distinct 'Micronesian pattern' of life-course coital behavior is applied to data on the sex ratio of livebirths on Butaritari Atoll in Kiribati. The data show that sex ratios on Butaritari are highly masculinized and do not vary significantly with changes in maternal age. However, there is a discernible relationship between the length of close intervals preceding male and female births. The lack of age-related change in sex ratios in the Butaritari sample is inconsistent with ethnographic data regarding levels of marital coital activity in relation to increasing age and marriage duration. The Butaritari sex ratio data is argued to support the suggestion of a 'Micronesian pattern,' although it is posed that further tests of this association are required."
Correspondence: A. A. Brewis, University of Auckland, Department of Anthropology, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20521 Bull, C. Neil. Aging in rural America. Sage Focus Editions, No. 162, ISBN 0-8039-4885-9. LC 93-25528. 1993. xvi, 279 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of studies on aspects of the social gerontology of the rural elderly in the United States. A section of three papers examines the characteristics of the rural elderly. Other sections examine resource development, physical and mental health, and social supports.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, 2455 Teller Road, Newbury Park, CA 91320. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20522 Clifford, William B.; Lilley, Stephen C. Rural elderly: their demographic characteristics. In: Aging in rural America, edited by C. Neil Bull. 1993. 3-16 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter has as its focus the demographic characteristics of people 65 years of age and over who live in the nonmetropolitan areas of the contemporary United States. First we define rural and nonmetropolitan. Then we examine trends in the numbers and proportions of elderly across rural America and discuss age, race, and gender composition among this group. Third, we report on the marital, family, educational, poverty, and income statuses of the rural elderly. Finally, we describe the mortality and migration experiences of this population."
Correspondence: W. B. Clifford, North Carolina State University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Raleigh, NC 27695. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20523 Fischer, Lucy R. The oldest-old in rural Minnesota. In: Aging in rural America, edited by C. Neil Bull. 1993. 30-42 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter provides a profile of the oldest-old in rural Minnesota, with data from the Minnesota Senior Study. What are the charactersitics of this population? What are their most important needs? What are their resources and their [activities?]" Data concern non-institutionalized persons aged 60 and older.
Correspondence: L. R. Fischer, Group Health Foundation, Minneapolis, MN. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20524 Ham-Chande, Roberto. Mexico: a country in the process of aging. [Mexico: pais en proceso de envejecimiento.] Comercio Exterior, Vol. 43, No. 7, Jul 1993. 688-96 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
Following a brief overview of the concept of demographic aging, the author examines the process in Mexico. Population projections by age group to the year 2030 are included. Consideration is also given to the spatial distribution, economic activity or lack thereof, and the social security prospects of the country's older population.
Correspondence: R. Ham Chande, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:20525 Hatmadji, Sri H.; Kiting, Ayke S.; Anwar, Evi N. Business prospects in eastern Indonesia. [Penduduk Indonesia Timur dan peluang bisnis.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 20, No. 39, Jun 1993. 51-78 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper shows the demographic prospect of population in the Eastern part of Indonesia, especially in four provinces: Bali, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi and South East Sulawesi." The focus is on the sociodemographic characteristics of consumers in the region, and the implications for commerce.
Correspondence: S. H. Hatmadji, Universitas Indonesia, Fakultas Ekonomi, Lembaga Demografi, P.O.B. 295, Jalan Salemba Raya 4, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20526 James, W. H. Cycle day of insemination, sex ratio of offspring and duration of gestation. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 21, No. 3, May-Jun 1994. 263-6 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"It has been reported that the regression of human sex ratio (number of males per 100 females at birth) on cycle day of [natural] insemination is U-shaped. The point is not yet established, so a search was made for possible effects of this phenomenon on the regression of sex ratio on duration of gestation (from last menstrual period to delivery). A previously unremarked feature of this latter regression is that it, too, is U-shaped. It is accordingly suggested that the one regression is responsible for the other, and a simple mathematical model indicates that the magnitudes of the two regressions are compatible with this conclusion....Two sources were consulted, viz (a) the annual 'Natality' volumes of the U.S. Vital Statistics 1966-1976 inclusive, and (b)...one large-scale British study...which gives sex by duration of gestation [in England and Wales for 1967-1971]...."
Correspondence: W. H. James, University College London, Galton Laboratory, Wolfson House, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20527 Jarque, Carlos M. The population of Mexico in the last decade of the twentieth century. [La poblacion de Mexico en el ultimo decenio del siglo XX.] Comercio Exterior, Vol. 43, No. 7, Jul 1993. 642-51 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
Using data from the 1990 general census of population and housing, the author examines the population of Mexico's socio-demographic, educational, economic, and housing characteristics. Sections on fertility, age structure, mortality, migration, and population density are included.
Correspondence: C. M. Jarque, Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia e Informatica, Avenida Insurgentes Sur No. 795, Col. Napoles, Del. Benito Juarez, 03810 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:20528 Karjalainen, Elli. Change in the population structure in Finland. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 31, 1993. 81-90 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author discusses causes and consequences of the changing population structure in Finland. "On an international scale, the number of aged people (65 years and older) in Finland is still relatively low but showing rapid increase. The primary reason is the strong decrease of fertility which leads to a decline in the share of the younger age groups. As the average life expectancy is on the increase, this will further contribute to the growing share of the aged population. Migration affects considerably the regional population structures: selective migration has distorted the age and sex structures especially in the rural areas. Population aging brings on new challenges in community planning and social policy."
Correspondence: E. Karjalainen, University of Oulu, Unit of Kainuu, Research Institute of Northern Finland, Kirkkokatu 11A, PL 191, 90570 Oulu, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20529 Karki, Y. B. Sex ratio in Nepal. Economic Journal of Nepal, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1992. 30-7 pp. Katmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
"This article deals with [the] sex ratio in Nepal since...the first population count was conducted. The author was prompted to investigate this issue because [the] sex ratio in 1981 was the highest among all population counts and censuses of Nepal and slightly above the upper limit of [the] normal range of sex ratio prevalent in other countries of the world."
Correspondence: Y. B. Karki, Tribhuvan University, Central Department of Population Studies, Kirtipur, Katmandu, Nepal. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

60:20530 Leoprapai, Boonlert. The population of Thailand after the reproductive revolution. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, Jul-Jan 1991-1992. 21-53, 157-8 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
The "population of Thailand is one among the few population groups in [modern times] which has experienced [a] rapid decline in fertility level within two decades. Thailand's population completed the reproductive revolution process so quickly that its age structure has not had time to adjust and still holds the potential for growth for several decades to come....During the period of reproductive revolution from 1970 to 1990, the population increased by 20 million....As for the effect of reproductive revolution on the age structure of the population, the pattern is that the proportion of children (under 15 years of age) declines while the number and proportion of population in working-age group (15-59 years of age) and the elderly (60 years and over) tend to increase....The reproductive revolution also results in a number of positive economic and social implications such as a higher per capita income, [a larger] work force, a gradual reduction in the number of new entrants into the labour market and the decrease in the number of school age population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20531 Maskova, Miroslava. Demographic aspects of population aging in the Czech Republic. [Demograficke aspekty starnuti obyvatelstva Ceske Republiky.] Demografie, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1993. 236-46 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author analyzes various demographic aspects of population aging in the Czech Republic in the period 1950-1985. The impact of fertility decline, mortality, and migration is considered. Changes in the size of the aged population and in the sex ratio are discussed. Future changes in the age structure are projected.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20532 Ozsoy, Ali E.; Koc, Ismet; Toros, Aykut. Sex ratios in Turkey. [Turkiye'de cinsiyet oranlarinin belirlenmesi.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 15, 1993. 89-109 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
"The article [provides] examples of error in the censuses and surveys and questions the reliability of age specific sex ratios in the 1990 Census of Turkey...[and derives] sex ratio at birth from census and survey results as well as from hospital records. Finally the 1990 population is reconstructed by surviving birth cohorts [from] 1900 until 1990 using historical trends of birth rates and cohort, age and time specific survival rates using the East Family of Coale-Demeny Model Life Tables."
Correspondence: A. E. Ozsoy, Hacettepe Universitesi, Nufus Etutleri Enstitusu, Arastirma Gorevlisi, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20533 Qiao, Xiaochun. Initial study of sex-age structure of the 1990 census. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1993. 143-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses the accuracy of the ten percent machine aggregate data from the 1990 Chinese census, with a focus on sex and age distribution.
Correspondence: X. Qiao, Chinese People's University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20534 Sharma, S. P.; Xenos, Peter. Ageing in India: demographic background and analysis based on census materials. Occasional Paper, No. 2 of 1992, 1992. 156 pp. Office of the Registrar General: New Delhi, India; Census Commissioner: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This report, based on data from India's 1991 and earlier decennial censuses, examines such demographic aspects of India's population aging as population size and growth, fertility, mortality, life expectancy, age structure, and various characteristics of the elderly population. It also presents data on literacy, the marital status of the elderly, and workers and nonworkers among the elderly population. Numerous tables and graphs are provided.
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, Ministry of Home Affairs, 2/A Mansingh Road, New Delhi 110 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20535 Thumerelle, Pierre-Jean. Age and sex structures. In: The changing population of Europe, edited by Daniel Noin and Robert Woods. 1993. 76-81 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author describes age and sex structures in the European Community. Current and future variations among countries are calculated. He finds that "the population of the European Community (EC) has one of the world's oldest age structures....The strengthening of the EC's economic potential is [therefore] counter-balanced by the weakening of its human capital."
Correspondence: P.-J. Thumerelle, University of Lille, Department of Geography, 42 rue Paul Duez, 59800 Lille, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20536 Ulusoy, Mahir. Clustering of provinces according to socio-economic variables. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 15, 1993. 69-78 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
This study is concerned with the identification of provinces in Turkey with similar characteristics. The author suggests that "it is possible to form groups of observations in terms of the differences of values of a set of variables and order them according to their relative positions. In this study, using 45 variables derived from 1985 General Census, 18 provinces with first degree priority in development were clustered....Provinces with high priority could be displayed more explicitly and efficient action could be taken to improve the conditions in those provinces."
Correspondence: M. Ulusoy, Hacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20537 Underwood, Jane H. Secondary sex ratios in Micronesian populations. Social Biology, Vol. 40, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1993. 200-6 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Secondary sex ratio (SSR) values in excess of 109 male for every 100 female livebirths have been reported from several Micronesian populations. Analyses of linked family records dating from before 1942 for the native people of Guam reveal a highly masculinized SSR even at high birth orders and parental ages of married fertile couples. These findings contrast with reported declines in SSR with parity and parental age among historical and modern populations in Europe and North America where such declines often have been ascribed to the effects of decreasing mean coital frequencies associated with marital duration and spousal age. This study challenges implicit assumptions about the supposed universality of Euroamerican patterns of marital sexual behavior and supports the coital frequency hypothesis of SSR determination."
Correspondence: J. H. Underwood, University of Arizona, Department of Anthropology, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20538 Warnes, Anthony M. Demographic ageing: trends and policy responses. In: The changing population of Europe, edited by Daniel Noin and Robert Woods. 1993. 82-99 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter...has three principal aims: to present a short account of the diversity of ageing trends and dynamics among the nations of Europe; to examine the contribution of late-age mortality change to survival and population ageing; and to examine critically the political responses to the phenomenon....The key demographic problems associated with ageing are how fast it is occurring and how large the elderly population's share will become. The principal control is the level of fertility, but another influence is the level of mortality in later life. If fertility does not recover and mortality continues to improve, then by the middle of the next century the elderly population will make up as much as one-third of the total."
Correspondence: A. M. Warnes, University of London, King's College, Department of Geography, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20539 Wu, Cangping. The aging of population in China. ISBN 92-9103-013-9. 1991. 100 pp. International Institute on Aging [INIA]: Valletta, Malta; Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
This is one in a series of country monographs on the demographic and socioeconomic aspects of demographic aging. The publications are the product of a cooperative project between INIA and CICRED carried out over the course of the 1980s. The present report concerns China, and contains chapters on trends in population aging; the determinants of aging; spatial distribution and migration; family, household, and housing; socioeconomic characteristics of the elderly; income; health status; and policy implications.
Correspondence: International Institute on Aging, 117 St. Paul Street, Valletta VLT 07, Malta. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20540 Wu, Yuying; Jian, Zhenghua. Analysis of the trend in population development in China based on the size of each age group. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1993. 89-93 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss the impact of cohort size variations on population dynamics in China. They "introduce...the age-specific standardized cohort function, which measures the size of a cohort."
Correspondence: Y. Wu, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Institute of Population Studies, 26 Xianning Road, Xian 710049, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

60:20541 Carnes, Bruce A.; Olshansky, S. Jay. Evolutionary perspectives on human senescence. Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1993. 793-806, 906, 908 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"What we call senescence may simply be the inadvertent consequence of surviving beyond the reproductive period. As survival is further extended, inevitable declines in physiological function and a proliferation of fatal and nonfatal degenerative diseases that become progressively less amenable to modification would be predicted."
Correspondence: B. A. Carnes, Argonne National Laboratory, Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20542 Sengupta, Sarthak; Gogoi, Gitimallika. Menarche and menopause among the Kaibarta women of Dibrugarh, Assam. Journal of the Assam Science Society, Vol. 35, No. 2, Jun 1993. 113-9 pp. Gauhati, India. In Eng.
"Investigation on the onset of menarche and menopause among [175]...Kaibarta females [living in Dibrugarh, in Assam, India,] is reported. Results are compared with those of the other populations in Assam. From the analysis, it emerges...that some of the observed differences between the population might be due to the effect of ethnic, genetic and rural-urban residence, etc. Secular trends in the age at menarche among populations of Assam are also discussed."
Correspondence: S. Sengupta, Dibrugarh University, Anthropology Department, Rajabheta, Dibrugarh 786 004, Assam, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20543 Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tulinius, H.; Larusdottir, M. A decline and a halt in mean age at menarche in Iceland. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 21, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 179-86 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"In this study the trend in age at menarche in successive birth cohorts, starting in 1900, was investigated...in Iceland. This was based on recall data obtained as part of a cervical cancer screening programme covering the whole country. Around 78% of the female population at the ages targeted for screening responded to questions on reproductive factors in the years 1964-89, or over 73,000 women aged 20-69 years. Investigation of the validity and reliability indicated that the estimated mean age is likely to be unbiased, and that for 90% of the women the information was reliable. Mean age at menarche declined from 14.9 years to 13.5 years in successive cohorts of Icelandic women born 1900 to around 1950. In cohorts born 1951-67 the mean age has remained stable."
Correspondence: L. Tryggvadottir, Icelandic Cancer Society, Unit of Epidemiological Investigations, P.O. Box 5420, 125 Reykjavik, Iceland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20544 Veronesi, Fosca M.; Gueresi, Paola. Trend in menarcheal age and socioeconomic influence in Bologna (northern Italy). Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 21, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1994. 187-96 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Temporal variations in menarcheal age in the Bologna province (northern Italy) were investigated in a sample of 2,930 women born between 1930 and 1973, examined by retrospective method. A decrease in mean menarcheal age between birth decades 1930-39 and 1950-59 was noticed. The trend was more intense in lower social classes living in extra-urban environments. This led to a disappearance in menarcheal age differences between city and province and between socioprofessional categories. From birth decade 1950-59 onwards an increase in menarcheal age is registered, and an influence of physical activity and family structure on the age of menstrual cycle onset is observed."
Correspondence: F. M. Veronesi, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche P. Fortunati, Via delle Belle Arti 41, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

60:20545 Ananta, Aris. Demographic characteristics of consumers in Indonesia? [Siapa konsumen di Indonesia bagian barat?] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 20, No. 39, Jun 1993. 1-30 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper presents a mosaic of business opportunities arising from the different demographic characteristics of the provinces in the western part of Indonesia. The author discusses the total number of population, density, and per capita income to [shed] some light on the volume of the market. He also presents the business impact of the [changes] in fertility, mortality, and the...life style of those aged 40-64."
Correspondence: A. Ananta, Universitas Indonesia, Fakultas Ekonomi, Lembaga Demografi, P.O.B. 295, Jalan Salemba Raya 4, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20546 Buchegger, Reiner; Zweimuller, Josef. Raising children: private expenditure and foregone earnings. Labour, Vol. 6, No. 1, Spring 1992. 181-200 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"From the point of view of an individual household there are two major types of private cost of children, viz. direct household expenditure for the offspring plus (usually) mothers' foregone earnings. Both aspects have been studied theoretically and empirically, but thus far only separately. The joint empirical analysis of these main costs of children are the subject of this paper. Employing the Austrian Consumer Survey of 1984/85 and 1983's Microcensus, household expenditure on one, two and three children and mothers' foregone earnings are estimated for a comparable sample of households....There are decreasing marginal costs for the second child and rather constant costs for the third child, except for the case of 'low attachment' to the labour force, where marginal cost also declines for the third child."
Correspondence: R. Buchegger, Federal Academy of Public Administration, Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

60:20547 Deaton, Angus S.; Paxson, Christina H. Saving, growth, and aging in Taiwan. NBER Working Paper, No. 4330, Apr 1993. 30, [20] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper examines issues of household saving, growth, and aging in Taiwan. The Taiwanese patterns of high income growth, declines in fertility, and increases in life expectancy all have implications for life-cycle saving. We use data from fifteen consecutive household income and expenditure surveys, from 1976 to 1990, to examine whether observed profiles of consumption and saving are consistent with life-cycle theory. The patterns of consumption and saving across households of different ages and cohorts appear to be broadly consistent with a life-cycle model. However, the data also indicate that household consumption tracks income closely, and this evidence casts doubt on simple life-cycle theory."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

60:20548 Dharmalingam, A. Old age support: expectations and experiences in a south Indian village. Population Studies, Vol. 48, No. 1, Mar 1994. 5-19 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Future expectations of support in old age and current conditions of living among the elderly are analysed in the context of changing socio-economic structures in a South Indian village. Evidence shows that the traditional means of support--sons--are becoming less reliable. The experience of the elderly, on the other hand, shows that the elderly are in a worse economic situation than would be expected from the Indian cultural ideal. In particular, the poor and women are most affected in terms of old-age support....While existing living conditions make children the main source of support in old age, they are becoming less reliable as a result of recent economic and social changes."
Correspondence: A. Dharmalingam, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20549 Florez, Carmen E. The fertility transition and family urban income distribution in Colombia. Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 62, No. 2, Spring 1992. 169-84 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effect of social and demographic changes on family income distribution in the largest Colombian cities between 1967 and 1968 and 1984 and 1985, two periods representing the conditions before and after Colombia's sharp fertility decline. The results indicate that urban family income distribution worsened between the two periods, when income shares from the middle-income groups declined while those received by the richest 10 percent increased and the shares received by the poorest 50 percent were unchanged. A decomposition of the Theil index revealed that the deterioration in urban family income inequality could be traced to groups whose representation in the population increased, namely: households with more educated heads, with working wives, with smaller families, and with fewer children."
Correspondence: C. E. Florez, Universidad de los Andes, Carrera 1A No. 18-A-70, Apartado Aereo 4976, Bogota, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20550 Gold, Steven J. Patterns of economic cooperation among Israeli immigrants in Los Angeles. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring 1994. 114-35 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines economic activities developed among Israeli immigrants in Los Angeles. Previous studies have asserted that little cooperation exists among Israelis in the United States. However, our findings, based on participant observation and in-depth interviews, suggest that Israelis are involved in a host of collective social and economic endeavors....Forms of cooperation among two...groups, Kibbutzniks and Persian-origin Israelis, are discussed here. Israeli immigrants' use of ethnic labor markets [is] explored, as well as the nature of co-ethnic cooperation in various industries. Conclusions suggest that Israeli immigrant cooperation is a complex matter, shaped by national loyalties, subgroup ties and the larger social and economic contexts in which they function."
Correspondence: S. J. Gold, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90608. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20551 Grenier, Gilles. Immigration and the relative earnings of female, young, and poorly educated workers in Canada. [L'immigration et les revenus relatifs des femmes, des jeunes et des personnes peu scolarisees au Canada.] Actualite Economique, Vol. 68, No. 4, Dec 1992. 697-713 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of immigration on the market of some disadvantaged groups of Canadian workers, i.e., women, younger workers, and workers with low levels of schooling. The analysis is done with the micro-data from the 1981 and 1986 Canadian Censuses. Based on their distribution by industry and occupation, recent immigrants are more likely to compete with the disadvantaged groups of Canadian workers than with advantaged ones. However, an analysis of relative earnings by region shows that the relationship between the earnings differentials and the proportion of immigrants is not the same for all the disadvantaged groups. In particular, earnings differentials between men and women tend to be lower in the regions with a high proportion of immigrants than in those with a low proportion."
Correspondence: G. Grenier, University of Ottawa, Department of Economic Science, 550 Cumberland Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

60:20552 Khoo, Siew-Ean. Correlates of welfare dependency among immigrants in Australia. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring 1994. 68-92 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article investigates some of the factors that are associated with welfare dependency among immigrants in Australia. It examines the role of factors such as gender, age, migration category, birthplace, period of arrival and educational background in explaining immigrants' dependence on government pensions and benefits as their main source of income." The author finds that there are "significant differences in welfare dependency...by birthplace and migration category even after controlling for age, education and employment status. Immigrants from Vietnam, Lebanon and Turkey were more likely than others to be dependent on welfare. Refugees were also more likely than other immigrants to be dependent on welfare; however the effect of refugee status on welfare dependency diminished with duration of residence in Australia."
Correspondence: S.-E. Khoo, Bureau of Immigration Research, P.O. Box 25, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20553 Lefranc, Christophe. Demographic influences on income distribution: a study of household survey data from Peninsular Malaysia. Pub. Order No. DA9330621. 1992. 224 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study uses 1988 data from the second Malaysian Family Life Survey, and was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(6).

60:20554 Lichter, Daniel T.; Johnson, Gail M.; McLaughlin, Diane K. Changing linkages between work and poverty in rural America. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1993-17, Oct 1993. 24, [6] pp. Pennsylvania State University: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
Data from the 1980 and 1990 March supplements of the U.S. Current Population Survey are used to analyze the changing relationship between work and poverty in rural America. "The results imply that poverty is likely to remain a persistent if not increasingly harsh reality for workers in rural America."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20555 Lichter, Daniel T.; Eggebeen, David J. Child poverty and parental work patterns. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 1993-19, Nov 1993. 23, [7] pp. Pennsylvania State University: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
Data from the 1990 Current Population Survey are used to evaluate the extent to which parental employment or unemployment contributes to the high poverty rates of U.S. children. The authors conclude that "the problem is not one of finding a job, but rather a meaningful job that lifts the family (and its children) out of poverty."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20556 O'Hare, William P. Assessing post-census state poverty estimates. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1993. 261-75 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study uses administrative data produced regularly by government sources as independent variables in a regression-based ratio-correlation model designed to estimate state poverty rates [in the United States]. The accuracy of the ratio-correlation model and a second regression-based model are assessed in relation to the 1989 poverty rates reported by the decennial census. Errors reflected in these models are compared to the errors that result from the Current Population Survey-based estimates reported by the Census Bureau. The utility of the 1989 state poverty estimates is also assessed by comparing the errors from the 1989 estimates to the errors that would result if analysts were forced to rely on 1979 state poverty estimates (the most recent available absent any post-census estimates)."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: W. P. O'Hare, University of Louisville, Center for Urban and Economic Research, Louisville, KY 40292. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20557 Sechet, Raymonde. Welfare benefits and integration in rural backgrounds. The example of Mayenne. [RMI et insertion en milieu rural, l'exemple mayennais.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 325-33 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Characteristics of those receiving French welfare benefits are analyzed. "By their demographic characteristics, the beneficiaries of the RMI (Revenu minimum d'insertion) in the French department of Mayenne are similar to the national average; youth, mostly persons living alone, many single-parent families, concentration in cities. Meanwhile, this department is a relevant area to analyze the application of the RMI in rural backgrounds...."
Correspondence: R. Sechet, Universite de Rennes II, UFR Sciences Sociales, 35043 Rennes Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20558 Sorensen, Elaine; Bean, Frank D. The Immigration Reform and Control Act and the wages of Mexican origin workers: evidence from Current Population Surveys. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 1, Mar 1994. 1-17 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper examines labor market effects of immigration [to the United States] during the 1980s, a period that included the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control ACT (IRCA) in 1986. Analysis of Current Population Survey data from 1979 to 1989 containing information on wages and immigration leads to three major findings concerning changes after the passage of IRCA in the wages of various immigrant and native-born groups...:(1) the wages of recent Mexican immigrants...did not change much through the period covered by the surveys, either before or after IRCA; (2) the wages of Mexican immigrants who have been in the country more than 10 years declined by about 15 percent after IRCA was passed; and (3) a post-IRCA decline did not occur among U.S. native-born Mexican origin workers, suggesting that U.S. native-born and immigrant workers may be less likely to compete with one another in the labor market than immigrant groups do with each other."
Correspondence: E. Sorensen, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:20559 Wu, Chingfa. Income differentials among elderly non-migrants, elderly internal migrants, and elderly immigrants in Florida. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 94-114, Dec 1993. 31 pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
Changes in the income of elderly nonmigrants, internal migrants, and in-migrants in Florida are analyzed over the course of the 1980s, using data from the one-percent sample of the 1980 and 1990 U.S. census Public-Use Microdata Samples (PUMS).
Correspondence: Monica Boyd, Editor, Working Paper Series, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20560 Zhang, Junsen; Nishimura, Kazuo. The old-age security hypothesis revisited. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 41, No. 1, Jun 1993. 191-202 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Children's altruism toward parents is allowed in a two-overlapping-generations model with endogenous fertility. Parents raise children because, when retired, they expect gifts from their children who are essentially a capital good. Individuals' behavior between generations is examined by analyzing a Nash equilibrium, which is then compared with a social planner's optimal allocation. The pay-as-you-go public pension program is viewed as the optimal gifts from the optimal allocation when the latter is implemented. The effect on fertility of the introduction of a capital market is also analyzed. The validity of the old-age security hypothesis is shown to depend on the parameters of utility and cost functions."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

60:20561 Ahn, Namkee. Teenage childbearing and high school completion: accounting for individual heterogeneity. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1994. 17-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The main objective of this article is to elucidate the relationship between teenage childbearing and high school completion by estimating separately the effects of [the birth itself, differences in family background, and unobserved individual heterogeneity independent of age at first birth or family background]....I use the proportional hazards model while applying a nonparametric method to estimate baseline hazards." Data are from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-1987). Results indicate that "differences in high school completion rates between women who have a teenage birth and those who do not are affected by the birth itself, family background characteristics and individual heterogeneity. Merely having a teenage birth leads to a 50% reduction in the likelihood of high school completion, compared with not having a teenage birth....Family background variables, such as maternal education and parental marital stability, also have positive effects on school completion."
Correspondence: N. Ahn, University of the Basque Country, Apartado 1397, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20562 Augustin, Jean-Pierre. The town, the school system, and social inequalities. [La ville, la scolarisation et l'inegalite des chances.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 355-64 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The progress toward universal education in France is assessed, using data from a 1986 survey conducted in the city of Bordeaux. Special consideration is given to inherent social inequalities despite increases in educational status within the region. Socioeconomic consequences of continued progress toward the democratization of schooling are also examined.
Correspondence: J.-P. Augustin, Universite Michel de Montaigne, Bordeaux III, CESURB 33405 Talence Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20563 Boyd, Monica; Norris, Doug. Generating success: educational and occupational achievements of the second generation in Canada. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 94-117, [1994]. 27, [5] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1986 Canadian General Social Survey, this paper compares the educational and occupational achievements of first, second and third generation women and men, age 25-64 who held a job in the preceding 12 months. The results of the analysis imply second generation success, especially for persons with both parents foreign born."
Correspondence: Monica Boyd, Editor, Working Paper Series, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20564 Chivallon, Christine. Social inequalities and spatial organization in Martinique. [Inegalites sociales et logiques spatiales a la Martinique.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 419-25 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author develops a model to illustrate the social inequalities among seven major regional groups in Martinique, examining such indicators as income, employment, and consumption.
Correspondence: C. Chivallon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, TIDE, Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, Campus Universitaire, 33405 Talence, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20565 Crenshaw, Edward; Ameen, Ansari. Dimensions of social inequality in the third world: a cross-national analysis of income inequality and mortality decline. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1993. 297-313 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This cross-national assessment of the empirical determinants of income inequality and infant mortality employs policy-relevant variables suggested by the major macrosocial theories of development and stratification. Findings based on sample sizes ranging from 34 to 61 LDCs indicate that modernization and ecological-evolutionary theories provide more consistent explanations of social inequalities than either dependency/world-systems theory or urban bias theory. Our analyses point to economic growth and the development of rural infrastructure and social complexity as the most expedient methods for facilitating mortality reduction and income equalization. We conclude that simplistic policy-orientations stressing such phenomena as urban bias or population growth should be replaced by more complex perspectives that include an emphasis on rural social organization."
Correspondence: E. Crenshaw, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 190 North Oval Mall, 300 Bricker Hall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20566 Farley, Reynolds; Frey, William H. Changes in the segregation of whites from blacks during the 1980s: small steps toward a more integrated society. American Sociological Review, Vol. 59, No. 1, Feb 1994. 23-45 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We evaluate [black-white] segregation patterns in 1990 and trends in segregation between 1980 and 1990 for the 232 U.S. metropolitan areas with substantial black populations. We review the historical forces that intensified segregation for much of the twentieth century, and identify key developments after 1960 that challenged institutionalized segregation. The results suggest that the modest declines in segregation observed during the 1970s continued through the 1980s. While segregation decreased in most metropolitan areas, the magnitude of these changes was uneven. Testing hypotheses developed from an ecological model, we find that the lowest segregation levels in 1990 and the largest percentage decreases in segregation scores between 1980 and 1990 occurred in young, southern and western metropolitan areas with significant recent housing construction."
Correspondence: R. Farley, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20567 Herin, Robert. School education and inequalities in opportunities: geographical dimensions. [La formation scolaire: les dimensions geographiques de l'inegalite des chances.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1993. 343-54 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in school dropout rates by region in France are analyzed and compared, with a focus on the economic consequences for areas with high dropout rates.
Correspondence: R. Herin, Universite de Caen, URA-CNRS 915, Departement de Geographie, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20568 Liu, Qiming; Chen, Ping. A gray system decision model of the multiple factors for the educational levels among regional population. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1993. 57-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using 1% statistics and 10% sample aggregate data of the fourth census, the authors analyze various comprehensive indexes reflecting the educational levels among the Chinese population, on the basis of which a multi-regional gray system decision model is established. The authors also conduct a preliminary analysis of the results of the calculation." Grayness is defined here as "incompleteness and uncertainty of information."
Correspondence: Q. Liu, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20569 Mukhopadhyay, Barun K. A study on literacy development of females with particular reference to the weaker section in Bihar. Demography India, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1992. 59-64 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In the present paper an attempt has been made to see how much literacy development has occurred [among] females relative to that among males in [the] overall population with particular reference to Scheduled caste Hindus and Muslims....Some estimates on literacy were obtained...from data in a household survey conducted in the rural areas of districts around Patna [India] in 1983."
Correspondence: B. K. Mukhopadhyay, Indian Statistical Institute, Population Studies Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20570 Nam, Charles B.; Terrie, E. Walter; Schmertmann, Carl P. Comparison of the 1980 updated Duncan and Nam-Powers occupational scores. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 94-112, [1993]. 20, [20] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
Differences between the Duncan Socioeconomic Index for All Occupations (SEI) and the Nam-Powers occupational scores for measuring social stratification are examined using data from the 1980 U.S. census. "This paper discusses differences in the two sets...in terms of variations in underlying concepts, measurement procedures, interpretation of the scores themselves, and properties of the score distributions."
Correspondence: C. B. Nam, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20571 Plotnick, Robert D.; Hoffman, Saul. Using sister pairs to estimate how neighborhoods affect young adult outcomes. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 94-2, Dec 1993. 21, [8] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"Using sister pairs from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we compare cross-section and fixed effect methods to examine the extent to which unobservable family characteristics bias estimates of neighborhood effects. We examine three outcomes for young adult women: whether a woman had a nonmarital birth as a teenager, whether she obtained any post-secondary education, and whether she received AFDC at age 25."
Correspondence: R. D. Plotnick, University of Washington, Graduate School of Public Affairs, DC-13, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

60:20572 Berti, Bela. The position of Slovaks in truncated Hungary in the interwar years. Review of Historical Demography/Historisch-Demographische Mitteilungen, No. 8, 1993. 117-32 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
The number and location of Slovaks living in Hungary from 1920 to 1941 is analyzed. The focus is on border changes between Hungary and Czechoslovakia as a result of treaties and wars, and how these affected the counting of the Slovak population.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20573 Brozek, Andrzej. Ethnic features of statistical investigations in countries with Polish communities abroad. Review of Historical Demography/Historisch-Demographische Mitteilungen, No. 8, 1993. 133-49 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
Estimations of the size and characteristics of the Polish population living outside Poland are made. The focus is on the difficulties in collecting data on these expatriates, with examples given from several countries with large Polish populations. The author also describes how census questions on language spoken in the home, and on place of birth may be used in such estimations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20574 Chauvire, Yvan. Spatial distribution of the principal ethnic groups in France. [Repartition spatiale des principales nationalites etrangeres en France.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1993. 533-40 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre.
The spatial distribution of the resident foreign population of France is analyzed by nationality, using data from the 1990 census. The author notes that the main factors affecting this distribution are the labor force requirements at the time of migration, although the existence of migrant networks can result in continued immigration to areas where the demand for immigrant labor has declined.
Correspondence: Y. Chauvire, Universite de Paris I, Institut de Geographie, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20575 Hout, Michael; Goldstein, Joshua R. How 4.5 million Irish immigrants became 40 million Irish Americans: demographic and subjective aspects of the ethnic composition of white Americans. American Sociological Review, Vol. 59, No. 1, Feb 1994. 64-82 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In 1980, for the first time, the U.S. Census contained a subjective question about ethnic identity. Natural increase, intermarriage, and subjective identification contribute to the current size of each ethnic group. Simulations for the British-, Irish-, German-, and Italian-origin populations show the interaction among time of arrival, overall fertility and mortality trends, and differential fertility in determining natural increase. The subjective identification with some ethnic groups, notably the Irish and Germans, exceeds what natural increase would imply, while identification with other ethnic groups falls short of what demographic processes would imply. Loglinear models of ethno-religious intermarriage show that religious diversity is an important factor in the diffusion of Irish and German identities, while the relative religious homogeneity of the British and Italians limits the diffusion of those identities."
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. Hout, University of California, Department of Sociology, 410 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20576 Kaplan, David H. Population and politics in a plural society: the changing geography of Canada's linguistic groups. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 84, No. 1, Mar 1994. 46-67 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the role of population change as it reflects and shapes the political and cultural relations between French and English speakers in Canada." The focus of the study is on the political choice the country faces: to give greater authority to regional language majorities or to promote spatial intermingling and the preservation of linguistic minorities. "I argue that these questions are conditioned by the linguistic landscape and by the nature and direction of population change. The analysis demonstrates that linguistic affiliation determines one's propensity to remain within a region and guides the choice of destinations, resulting in linguistically differentiated migration fields. The linguistic environment, in turn, affects linguistic retention and makes the retention of French especially difficult in English-majority regions. Population projections indicate a precipitous decline in the English presence within Quebec and a continued containment of the French presence to Quebec and two buffer regions just outside Quebec."
Correspondence: D. H. Kaplan, University of St. Thomas, Department of Geography, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

60:20577 Katus, Kalev. The ethnic composition of Estonia. [Mitmerahvuseline Eesti.] Rahvastiku-Uuringud/Population Studies Series B, No. 16, 1991. 70 pp. Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre: Tallinn, Estonia. In Est.
This is a collection of short articles presenting basic data on Estonia's 10 largest ethnic minorities. Data are from preliminary results of the 1989 census, and concern total population at census years, distribution by sex and county, and urban-rural residence. Information is also included on mother tongue and knowledge of a second language.
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 200090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20578 Mirnics, Karoly. Methodology problems in studying the identity of Hungarians in the Voivodeship. Review of Historical Demography/Historisch-Demographische Mitteilungen, No. 8, 1993. 70-104 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
Problems in studying the dynamics of the population of ethnic Hungarians in the former Yugoslavia are discussed. Topics covered include minority classification in census and survey data, measurements of language spoken, and problems with vital statistics data, particularly birth registries and the failure to record nationality of parents. The focus is on the autonomous region of Vojvodina.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20579 Popely, Gyula. Changes in the number, composition and settlement-structure of the Hungarians in Slovakia. Review of Historical Demography/Historisch-Demographische Mitteilungen, No. 8, 1993. 105-16 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
Demographic trends among the Hungarian population in Slovakia and Czechoslovakia are analyzed. The period covered is 1921-1980. Special consideration is given to assimilation and cultural repression, as well as to other political factors. Implications for the future are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20580 Prins, C. J. M. Moslems and Hindus in the Netherlands: revised time series. [Islamieten en Hindoes in Nederland: herziening van de tijdreeks.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 2, 1994. 22-7 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Estimates of the numbers of Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist residents of the Netherlands are presented and techniques for producing such estimates described. "Since 1971...estimated numbers of Moslems and Hindus/Buddhists have been...computed annually with the aid of data taken from the international migration statistics. Population growth due to births and deaths was calculated by assuming that the crude rates for Turks, Moroccans, [Tunisians], Pakistani and Indonesians living in the Netherlands apply to the Moslems, and those for the Surinamese apply to the Hindus/Buddhists. More recently other estimates have been achieved on the basis of enumerations from municipal population registers."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20581 Shabbir, S. The Muslims and family planning. ISBN 81-7192-007-1. 1991. x, 228 pp. Dattsons: Nagpur, India. In Eng.
This is an analysis of Muslim reproductive behavior in India, with particular reference to the impact of minority status on fertility. The data concern 341 male and female respondents from the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. The study examines Muslim views on marriage and the family as well as family planning knowledge, awareness, and practice, including psychosocial factors associated with nonacceptance.
Correspondence: Dattsons, J. Nehru Marg, Nagpur-1, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

60:20582 White, Paul. Ethnic minority communities in Europe. In: The changing population of Europe, edited by Daniel Noin and Robert Woods. 1993. 206-25 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The focus of this chapter is on...communities [in Europe] whose origins lie in recent migration into a nation-state where their ethnic character differs from that of the majority or of those groups that make up the hegemony of controlling interests." The author describes the impact on these communities of political processes, family reunification, internal community processes, geographical factors, refugee flows, and economic restructuring. The difficulty of precisely defining the size of ethnic minority communities is emphasized.
Correspondence: P. White, University of Sheffield, Department of Geography, Sheffield S10 2TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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