Volume 59 - Number 4 - Winter 1993

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

59:40679 Berthold, Norbert. Family, fertility, and income distribution: is there a reason for political activities? [Familie, Fertilitat und Einkommensverteilung: Besteht ein wirtschaftspolitischer Handlungsbedarf?] Jahrbucher fur Nationalokonomie und Statistik, Vol. 209, No. 5-6, May 1992. 523-41 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"State interventionism in the family...is usually justified as a necessary correction of allocative and/or distributive distortions. A critical analysis of this argument, however, reveals three related aspects: 1) A changed regenerative behaviour is often less the result of inefficient inter-family decisions; rather it results from an efficient reaction to changed economic and political conditions. 2) Optimal inter-family decisions can be prevented by imperfect capital markets and interventionism of the welfare state. 3) A receding rate of fertility leads probably not only to a more even inter- and intra-family distribution of income, but also influences the inter-generational distribution in a positive way."
Correspondence: N. Berthold, Universitat Wurzburg, Lehrstuhl fur Volkswirtschaftslehre, Wirtschaftsordnung und Sozialpolitik, Sanderring 2, 8700 Wurzburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:40680 Dumon, Wilfried. National family policies in EC-countries in 1991. [1993?]. ix, 158; vi, 266 pp. Commission of the European Communities, European Observatory on National Family Policies: Louvain, Belgium; Directorate General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
This two-volume report summarizes family policies and laws in the member countries of the European Community. Volume 1 examines topics such as the family dimension of the fiscal system, family benefits, the family and labor market policy, and caretaking policy, and includes a special topic which is the family dimensions of housing policies. Volume 2 looks at similar topics on a country-by-country basis.
For the report for 1990, see 58:20676.
Correspondence: European Observatory on National Family Policies, c/o Sociological Research Institute, E. Van Evenstraat 2c, 3000 Louvain, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40681 France. Haut Conseil de la Population et de la Famille (Paris, France). French cooperation with developing countries on population matters. [La cooperation francaise avec le tiers monde en matiere de population.] ISBN 2-11-002619-7. May 1991. 46 pp. La Documentation Francaise: Paris, France. In Fre.
This report examines population problems in developing countries and the role that France can play in providing population assistance. It first summarizes the demographic situation in developing countries. Next, it describes the response of the international community to problems arising from that situation. Finally, it looks at the specific actions France has taken and possibilities for the future.
Correspondence: La Documentation Francaise, 22 quai Voltaire, 75007 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40682 Gauthier, Anne H. Towards renewed fears of population and family decline? European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1993. 143-67 pp. Hingham, Massachusetts/Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the extent to which governments [in developed countries] have been concerned by the demographic changes which have taken place since the 1960s. The comparative analysis, based on a review of selected demographic-related state initiatives, reveals major differences across countries in the attitudes of governments to population and family issues. The paper also contrasts the differences between the post-1960s situation and the 1930s one when the low fertility levels and the transformations undergone by the family had also captured the attention of governments. The paper then concludes by looking at the role played by non-governmental social actors in the discussion surrounding population and family issues."
Correspondence: A. H. Gauthier, Department of Applied Social Studies and Social Research, Barnett House, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2ER, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40683 Latuch, Mikolaj. Contemporary views on solving the population problems of the world. [Wspolczesne widzenie i rozwiazywanie swiatowych i regionalnych kwestii ludnosciowo-spolecznych.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 35, No. 3-4, 1992. 112-21, 145 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The author presents a review of UN initiatives and decisions concerning...[predominant] social and population problems, which should be undertaken and solved by the international community."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40684 McIntosh, Alison. Population policy and environmental impacts in rural Zimbabwe. In: Population-environment dynamics: ideas and observations, edited by Gayl D. Ness, William D. Drake, and Steven R. Brechin. 1993. 133-51 pp. University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This chapter outlines the responses of the post-Independence government [in Zimbabwe] to the joint problems of population density and environmental degradation and examines the potential role of population policy as a partial solution to the problem. The paper will review the complex of historical, cultural, political, and economic factors that have created the problem and shaped the perceptions of both people and government as they cope with it."
Correspondence: A. McIntosh, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:40685 Ness, Gayl D. The powers and limits of state and technology: rice and population in Southeast Asia. In: Population-environment dynamics: ideas and observations, edited by Gayl D. Ness, William D. Drake, and Steven R. Brechin. 1993. 109-32 pp. University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"There are two parallel processes of state induced technological use in managing the population-environment relationship. This chapter will examine the general process of state power, and its limits, in technology use." The focus is on rice output and population in Southeast Asia.
Correspondence: G. D. Ness, University of Michigan, College of Literature, Science, and Arts, Department of Sociology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:40686 Sozialwissenschaftliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft [SWA] (Vienna, Austria). Austria can't manage without a population policy--and Vorarlberg? [Osterreich kommt ohne Bevolkerungspolitik nicht aus--und Vorarlberg?] Dec 1990. 84 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger.
Problems of demographic aging, natural population decrease, and immigration in Austria are examined, with an emphasis on the state of Vorarlberg. Topics discussed include trends during 1961-1981 and projections to 2011; the effects of new problems, such as intercultural integration, on the demographic situation; the impact of demographic trends on socioeconomic policy; and recommendations for social and population policy.
Correspondence: Sozialwissenschaftliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Johannesgasse 4, 1010 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

59:40687 da Rocha, Maria I. B. Population policy and parliament. Debates and decisions about birth control. [Politica demografica e parlamento. Debates e decisoes sobre o controle da natalidade.] Textos NEPO, No. 25, Feb 1993. 141, [13] pp. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao [NEPO]: Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The focus of this project is the political process whereby Brazil's population policy regarding fertility was discussed and decisions were made in the period between 1967 and 1991, with particular emphasis on the National Congress and on the Constituent Assembly of 1988."
Correspondence: Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Caixa Postal 6166, CEP 13081 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40688 David, Henry P.; Pierotti, Daniel. Demographic and social effects of population policies in Europe. [1993?]. 41 pp. World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for Europe: Copenhagen, Denmark; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This publication is a product of the Copenhagen Consultation on the Third Child in Europe held October 7-8, 1991. It consists of an overview of population policies in general and experience with pronatalist policies in particular. Brief country reports are included concerning Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, and Sweden.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40689 Green, Marshall. The evolution of U.S. international population policy, 1965-92: a chronological account. Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jun 1993. 303-21, 425, 427 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This factual review of the evolution of U.S. international population policy and assistance focuses on the statements and actions of the Executive Branch of the United States Government. Quoted statements of Presidents, officials in the Department of State, AID Administrators, and other American officials are supplemented by documentation of actions of the Executive and Legislative branches of the government relating to population policy decisions. The emphasis is on policy, not implementation. The overall record of the United States in international population/family planning assistance is supportive of developing country efforts to reduce rates of population growth in the interest of human welfare and overall economic development."
Correspondence: M. Green, Population Action International, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40690 Montenay, Yves. Fertility policies in the third world. [Les politiques de natalite dans le Tiers Monde.] Defense Nationale, Vol. 49, No. 4, Apr 1993. 55-65 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author describes the growing awareness among governments of developing countries of the need for policies to control fertility, particularly since the mid-1970s. The effectiveness of such policies is discussed, especially with regard to the effect of other social and economic development efforts on fertility.
Correspondence: Y. Montenay, Institut de Demographie Politique, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:40691 Norrie, Kenneth McK. Family planning practice and the law. ISBN 1-85521-035-5. LC 90-46053. 1991. xviii, 203 pp. Dartmouth: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this book is...to identify precisely what family planners can, and cannot, do for their patients within the law, and to discuss the legal consequences of their actions." The book primarily covers Scots and English law but refers to other legal systems where appropriate. It has separate chapters on contraception and sterilization, abortion, postcoital birth control, the rights of the sexual partner, family planning and the child, birth control for the mentally disabled, civil liability in family planning practice, and consent to family planning procedures.
Correspondence: Dartmouth Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hants GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:40692 Shirkhani, Mohammad-Ali. The state, individual empowerment, and population control: the case of Iran. Pub. Order No. DA9312465. 1992. 293 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author develops the hypotheses that the governments in power both before and after the Islamic Revolution have failed to achieve a voluntary reduction in fertility in Iran because their social policy did not empower the poor majority. The study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Idaho.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(12).

59:40693 Xu, Zhong. A survey on the migrant population from twelve townships of Wuwei County in Anhui Province. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1992. 367-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We conducted a survey on July 1, 1989 on the migrant population from 12 townships in Wuwei County [China] in order to gain a better understanding of the situation regarding marriage, reproduction and contraception among the migrant population and [to] determine the method in implementing the family planning policy among [this] population." Factors considered include age and sex distribution, direction of migration and type of employment desired, women's marital status and educational level, number of children, and contraceptive use.
Correspondence: Z. Xu, Family Planning Commission, Wuwei County, Anhui, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

59:40694 Barke, Michael; Sowden, Clive. Population change in Tanzania 1978-88: a preliminary analysis. Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol. 108, No. 1, Apr 1992. 9-16 pp. Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
"Preliminary results from the Tanzanian census of 1988 are examined against the background of two decades of policies attempting to influence the distribution of population within the country....The changes which have occurred in...population growth rates, population density, and male/female sex ratios, are examined for the inter-censal period for both rural districts and urban areas." It is found that "spatial planning policies have had only a limited impact upon the regional distribution of population in Tanzania in the 1978-88 period, and that 'spontaneous' processes have been far more significant."
Correspondence: M. Barke, Newcastle upon Tyne Polytechnic, Department of Environment, Lipman Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:40695 Buckley, Cynthia. The myth of managed migration: migration restrictions and marketization in the Russian Republic. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 13.13, 1992-1993. 44 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The author explores "the structural barriers to internal migration put in place during Soviet rule and their influence on migration patterns and access to entitlement programs."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40696 de la Garza, Rodolfo O.; Falcon, Angelo; Garcia, F. Chris; Garcia, John A. Ethnicity and attitudes towards immigration policy: the case of Mexicans, Puerto Ricans and Cubans in the United States. Texas Population Research Center Paper, No. 13.11, 1992-1993. 31 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper compares 'Anglo' views of immigration policy [in the United States] to those of the nation's Mexican, Puerto Rican and Cuban origin populations."
Correspondence: University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, Main 1800, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40697 Fernhout, Roel. "Europe 1993" and its refugees. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 16, No. 3, Jul 1993. 492-506 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The article describes the evolution of immigration policy within the European Community (EC), drawing out the implications of the Schengen Treaty and the Dublin Convention for the entry and treatment of refugees. It is argued that recent policy developments will have the effect of limiting the rights of refugees to enter the EC in order to seek asylum. The legal implications of this restriction are identified and discussed, followed by an evaluation of their impact."
Correspondence: R. Fernhout, PO Box 9049, 6500 KK Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:40698 Gaillard, Serge; Salzgeber, Renate. A neoclassical four-sector model for estimating the structural effects of liberalization of the labor market. [Ein neoklassisches Viersektorenmodell zur Abschatzung der Strukturwirkungen einer Arbeitsmarktliberalisierung.] Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Revue Suisse d'Economie Politique et de Statistique/Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 129, No. 3, Sep 1993. 527-45 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This paper describes the basic set-up of a macroeconomic model disaggregated into 4 sectors. The purpose of the model is to analyze the structural effects of immigration policy. In a first section, the working of the model is illustrated by computing multipliers for various exogenous changes. In particular, the sensitivity of the multipliers with respect to the parameter values is discussed. The next section deals with the incorporation of the labour market and presents some simulation results based on theoretically plausible parameter values." The geographical focus is on Switzerland.
Correspondence: S. Gaillard, Konjunkturforschungsstelle, ETH, Weinbergstrasse 35, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:40699 Jenks, Rosemary E. Immigration and nationality policies of leading migration nations. ISBN 1-881290-22-0. Aug 1992. [60] pp. Center for Immigration Studies: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This compendium describes the migration policies of 11 countries and the European Community, and their roles as major sending or receiving nations. "Our purpose is to examine past and contemporary migration and nationality policies in a format that lends itself to comparative analysis....Each [country] study follows the same basic outline, though there are occasional gaps where data either were unavailable or unreliable. Information was gathered from a variety of sources including government agencies, national research institutions and immigration consultants in the relevant countries. We relied on official government statistics wherever possible, since immigration numbers often differ substantially from one source to another." The countries included are Argentina, Australia, West Germany, France, Italy, Mexico, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Correspondence: Center for Immigration Studies, 1815 H Street NW, Suite 1010, Washington, D.C. 20006. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40700 Keely, Charles B. The politics of migration policies in the United States. [La politica de politicas migratorias en los Estados Unidos.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 8, No. 23, Apr 1993. 77-83 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
The author reviews the political processes behind the formation of policies regulating immigration to the United States. The impacts of the end of the Cold War, the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement, and rapidly changing worldwide technologies are assessed.
Correspondence: C. B. Keely, Georgetown University, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40701 Lazzeri, Ilaria. Regulations and policies for non-EC immigrants in the European Community. [Gli extracomunitari nella Comunita Europea: quadro normativo attuale.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 30, No. 110, Jun 1993. 239-64 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Policies concerning migration and asylum in member countries of the European Community are analyzed and compared, and the need to implement a cohesive migration policy is stressed. The focus is on the implications of the increase in migration from developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40702 Meckl, Jurgen. The influence of politically determined wage rates on migration between Germany's new and old states. [Lohnpolitik und innerdeutsche Arbeitskraftewanderung.] Jahrbucher fur Nationalokonomie und Statistik, Vol. 209, No. 5-6, May 1993. 407-18 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper investigates the influence of politically determined wage rates on migration between Germany's new and old states. Apart from their direct influence on expected income and hence on migration, nominal wages affect migration indirectly by the unemployment they generate. Under reasonable assumptions the relation between nominal wages and migration is negative. The long-run influence of wages on capital accumulation and hence employment opportunities emphasizes that wage policy can be used either to control the long-run population stock or to stop migration immediately. That latter requires instantaneous wage-rate adjustments and initial wage-rate undershooting."
Correspondence: J. Meckl, Universitat Konstanz, Sonderforschungsbereich 178, Postfach 5560, 7750 Constance 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:40703 Postel-Vinay, Andre. North-South: migration, a casualty? French policy concerning immigration. [Nord-Sud: les flux migratoires, une fatalite? La politique francaise en matiere d'immigration.] Futuribles, No. 171, Dec 1992. 3-33 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines the growing pressures for migration from developing to developed countries and their implications for French immigration policy. He suggests that current policies should be made more restrictive, and greater efforts should be made to assist the integration of immigrants and their families. Separate consideration is given to labor migration, family reunification, and refugees. The need for more international efforts to provide aid to developing countries and thereby reduce emigration pressures is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:40704 Pteroudis, Evangelos. Politics of migration and the labor force. An approach for neo-corporatist arrangements. [Politique migratoire et marche du travail. Une approche par les arrangements neo-corporatistes.] Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Revue Suisse d'Economie Politique et de Statistique/Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 129, No. 3, Sep 1993. 415-36 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the relationship between migration policy and the labor market in Switzerland. "The hypothesis we are developing in this article is that a neo-corporatist approach can explain how a migration policy is constructed. The process of this construction is in some way portending of the effects of this policy on the labor market and on the relations between the actors and organisations participating in it. This analysis is also an entry to some much more general problems that are linked with the implication of private actors in the public policies."
Correspondence: E. Pteroudis, Universite de Lausanne, Institut de Geographie, BFSH 2, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:40705 Schmid, Gabriele. The development of migration policies and their contradictions. Innovation in Social Sciences Research, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1992. 41-50 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The present article looks at the contradictions of [European] migration policies that reveal how [they] are ultimately directed by labour market demands. Contradictions in migration regulation policy arise not only across different time periods but spatially as well; hence, the different attitudes of European governments towards the Eastern European countries and Third World countries; also in terms of how similar phenomena are variably interpreted: the case of brain drain illustrates this very well."
Location: University of California Research Library, Los Angeles, CA.

59:40706 Schnapper, Dominique. The Europe of immigrants. [L'Europe des immigres.] ISBN 2-87686-117-8. 1992. 196 pp. Francois Bourin: Paris, France. In Fre.
Immigration policy developments in the last 30 years in Europe are compared. The author examines differences among migration philosophies, including the German emphasis on the right of ethnic Germans to immigrate, the French focus on assimilation regardless of ethnicity, the anti-racist legislation developed in the United Kingdom, and the multicultural approaches developed by the Netherlands and Sweden. The author concludes that large-scale integration and assimilation are inevitable despite some opposition from the public and policymakers.
Correspondence: Editions Francois Bourin, 27 rue Saint-Andre-des-Arts, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:40707 Simon, Gildas. France: a land of long-time yet unrecognized immigration. Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 12, No. 3, Autumn 1991. 115-26 pp. Nagoya, Japan. In Eng.
The author examines ambiguities in French policies toward both immigration and migrants living in France. He reviews France's long immigration history and distinguishes two phases: the postwar reconstruction and expansion phase of 1946-1974, and the period after the 1974 economic crisis. Migration policies during those phases are compared with current regulations.
Correspondence: G. Simon, Universite de Poitiers, 15 rue de Blossac, 86034 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:40708 Wettern, Joern. Restrictive immigration policies: a framework for analysis. Pub. Order No. DA9313323. 1992. 480 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author analyzes changes in immigration policy and the determinants of such changes for Western Europe in the period since 1974, using data for Germany, France, and Switzerland. The study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Oregon.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(1).

59:40709 Yamanaka, Keiko. New immigration policy and unskilled foreign workers in Japan. Pacific Affairs, Vol. 66, No. 1, Spring 1993. 72-90 pp. Vancouver, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper examines Japan's de facto admission of unskilled foreign workers, and the changing complexion of that work force since the mid-1980s. Included in the discussion are push and pull factors behind the massive arrival of workers from developing countries; the 1989 Reform; the different groups of arriving workers...; and the implications for Japan's immigration policy. Underlying Japan's ad hoc response to the arrival of unskilled foreign workers is a fear of disrupting social homogeneity, a poorly conceived policy regarding the labor shortage faced by small-scale employers and a lack of recognition of contemporary patterns of migration, worldwide."
Correspondence: K. Yamanaka, Harvard University, Program in U.S.-Japan Relations, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

Copyright © 1993-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.