Volume 59 - Number 3 - Fall 1993

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

59:30657 Conly, Shanti R.; Speidel, J. Joseph. Global population assistance. A report card on the major donor countries. 1993. 52 pp. Population Action International: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The report explores the reasons behind weak donor commitment to population programs and identifies key constraints to increasing current contributions. [It] suggests steps to increase contributions in order to accelerate the achievement of universal access to voluntary family planning. With a focus on donor policies and financial contributions rather than on the efficacy of assistance, the report includes a brief profile of each country's program and assigns...grades to each country based on recent performance." A separate 10-page executive summary is available.
Correspondence: Population Action International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30658 Dixon-Mueller, Ruth. Population policy and women's rights: transforming reproductive choice. ISBN 0-275-94504-9. LC 92-28547. 1993. xiii, 287 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This study attempts to bridge the gap between the need to regulate global population growth and the need to recognize women's rights concerning control over their own reproductive health and fertility. The book is in four parts. Part 1 considers the evolution of women's rights in the context of human rights in general. Part 2 examines the politics of feminism, family planning, and population control, with particular consideration given to how conflict has arisen between advocates of population control and feminist advocates of women's rights. Part 3 examines the condition of women's lives around the world and their sexual and reproductive choices. Part 4 concludes by attempting to lay out a policy agenda involving a woman-centered reproductive policy and program based on the concepts of sexual and reproductive health and women's rights.
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30659 Hohn, Charlotte. Population-relevant policies before and after unification of Germany. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 75, 1992. 5-27 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author reviews changes in population policy in Germany from 1949, when the two separate German states were formed, to the present. After a comparison of policy strategies in the two countries, she examines the policy needs of post-unification Germany, focusing on child care, immigration law, fertility, and demographic aging.
Correspondence: C. Hohn, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30660 Holzer, Jerzy Z. Demographic situation in Poland and its implications for population policy. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 75, 1992. 29-43 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author reviews Poland's demographic situation as of 1991, with a focus on policy implications.
Correspondence: J. Z. Holzer, Skola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30661 Hull, Terence H.; Hull, Valerie J. Population and health policies. In: The oil boom and after: Indonesian economic policy and performance in the Soeharto era, edited by Anne Booth. ISBN 0-19-588969-X. LC 91-23712. 1992. 411-36 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Singapore. In Eng.
The authors describe the development of population and health policies in Indonesia over the past 25 years. They note that although during the 1980s economic conditions worsened and the social situation became more complicated, fertility and mortality have continued to decline. They also discuss how such policies might be adapted to adjust to changing socioeconomic conditions.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:30662 Ipsen, Carl. The organization of demographic totalitarianism: early population policy in Fascist Italy. Social Science History, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1993. 71-108 pp. Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
The development of population policy in Italy during the 1920s under the Fascist regime is described. The author notes that the policy, which attempted to improve both population quantity and quality through a variety of measures designed to promote fertility, affect eugenics, and control migration, was accompanied by major improvements in the country's demographic statistical system.
Correspondence: C. Ipsen, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30663 Jillani, M. S. The population policy imperatives: the Pakistan experience. Pakistan Population Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 1992. 1-18 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
In this article, "the concern for population policy in the context of development in Pakistan has been traced to as far back as the First Five Year Plan 1955-1960. The examination shows that the political support and strategies have been...changing frequently which [has] adversely affected the family planning programme. While allocation of funds for the programme have increased...its performance has not been able to make an impact commensurate with its size and expenditure. Inadequate coverage of population and lack of systematic approach have been among the major factors."
Correspondence: M. S. Jillani, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, St. 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30664 McDaniel, Susan A. Bridges and frontiers: families, women and work in an aging Canada. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 96, Jan 1993. 38 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
The implications of both demographic change, such as demographic aging, and social change, particularly concerning women's role in the economy and the family, for future social policy in Canada are examined.
Correspondence: University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, 1-62 HM Tory, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30665 Miltenyi, Karoly. Population policy and recent changes in Hungary. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 75, 1992. 45-58 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author first reviews Hungary's population dynamics from 1876 to the present, with a focus on the influence of political factors. Current trends and policies are then examined, and the need for long-term planning is stressed.
Correspondence: K. Miltenyi, Demographic Research Institute, Posta fio'k 78, 1364 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30666 Minkov, Minko. Integrating demographic and socioeconomic policies. [Integrirane na demografskata sas sotsialno-ikonomicheskata politika.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1991. 3-17 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
"The article offers a theoretical model of integration between demographic and socioeconomic policy [in Bulgaria]....The author examines the changes in the population's demographic structures: changes in the sex ratio; ageing; [and] family nuclearisation....The conclusion is drawn that in order to boost the effectiveness of the demographic policy, social practice and its scientific back-up should be even more fully integrated."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30667 Romanenkova, Galina. Regional demographic policy: goals, principles, possible solutions. [Regionalnata demografska politika: tseli, printsipi, vazmozhni resheniya.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1991. 35-42 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
Problems involved in developing a more effective population policy in the former Soviet Union are discussed. Some examples from selected other countries are included for comparison.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30668 Stolnitz, George J. More population policy needed, not less. In: Population transition in south Asia, edited by Ashish Bose and M. K. Premi. 1992. 19-27 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author notes that, despite recent UN estimates of falling global population growth rates, "the realities in both the developing and developed regions point to increasing, not decreasing, demographic pressures on resources and productive capacities. Global and regional potentialities for attaining rising levels of living in the face of prospective increases in numbers appear to be diminishing, not expanding....[He finds that] population policy, both in the industrially advanced and developing regions, can no longer be regarded as a peripheral part of development programming efforts."
Correspondence: G. J. Stolnitz, Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30669 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (New York, New York). Population policies and programmes. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Policies and Programmes. Cairo, Egypt, 12-16 April 1992. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/128, Pub. Order No. E.93.XIII.5. ISBN 92-1-151252-2. 1993. x, 267 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a report on one of the six preparatory meetings scheduled to precede the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. It provides a report on the meeting, recommendations, and papers prepared for the meeting. The first section contains background papers describing population policies in the various regions of the world. The second section examines population programs, with case studies of Rwanda and Indonesia. The third section is concerned with the mobilization of resources, including international and bilateral population assistance. A final section includes a selection of papers spelling out the policies and programs of some of the major organizations involved. The geographical scope is worldwide, with particular emphasis on policies and programs in developing countries.
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

59:30670 Cross, Harry E. Policy issues in expanding private sector family planning. Policy Paper Series, No. 3, Apr 1993. 23 pp. Options for Population Policy: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper draws upon the experiences of the OPTIONS [for Population Policy II] Project and its predecessor projects to provide project designers, evaluators, and technical experts with a broad understanding of some of the policy issues affecting private sector family planning." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Options for Population Policy, Futures Group, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30671 Dordevic, Zivota; Matkovic, Gordana; Mijatovic, Bosko. Population policy measures in Serbia. [Sistem mera za ostvarivanje politike obnavljanja stanovnistva u Srbiji.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 24, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1991. 45-69 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The authors review population policy in Serbia as of 1991. "The demographic situation in Serbia and vast regional differences required formulation of a unique system with common purposes, criterions, and principles but with differences in particular pronatalist and antinatalist measures. Achievement of the replacement level of fertility and narrowing down of regional demographic differences were established as a primary purpose of the policy."
Correspondence: Z. Dordevic, Ekonomski Institut, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30672 Gregory, Lisa B. Examining the economic component of China's one-child family policy under international law: your money or your life. Journal of Chinese Law, Vol. 6, No. 1, Spring 1992. 45-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This note seeks to examine the economic rewards and sanctions relating to China's population policy in order to determine whether these sanctions violate international human rights or fall within legal parameters....[It] argues that from a theoretical point of view, the economic inducements which constitute an essential component of [China's] population policies do not in fact violate international human rights laws relating to a couple's procreative rights."
Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:30673 Hoem, Jan M. Public policy as the fuel of fertility: effects of a policy reform on the pace of childbearing in Sweden in the 1980s. Acta Sociologica, Vol. 36, No. 1, Mar 1993. 19-31 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"In 1980, Sweden made a 'speed premium' on childbearing statutory by letting parents retain the parental leave benefits paid after the birth of one child until after the next birth if it arrived within two years; in 1986 this eligibility interval was extended to thirty months. For longer birth intervals, benefit rights must be re-established by earning a work-related income. During a period of a general rise in fertility in Sweden, parents reacted by increasing their fertility particularly strongly before the end of the eligibility interval. This paper displays these developments. It is a rare demonstration of a direct causal effect of a policy reform on demographic behavior. The general development of fertility levels at the various birth orders has some independent interest and is presented as a background."
Correspondence: J. M. Hoem, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30674 Kapostash, Ferents; Mesarosh, Arpad. Changes in fertility and the link to Hungary's demographic policy. [Izmeneniya v plodovitostta i tyakhnata vzaimna vrazka s demografskata politika v Ungariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1991. 25-34 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng.
"The article presents an analysis of changes in the...birth rate and the relationship between these changes and the demographic policy implemented in Hungary....The author makes a survey of the comprehensive measures of demographic policy in the past and today for boosting fertility and birth control, and their practical results. On the basis of an analysis of socio-economic factors...a conclusion is made [concerning the future role of] demographic policy in...boosting [the] birth rate."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30675 Kenney, Genevieve M. Assessing legal and regulatory reform in family planning: manual on legal and regulatory reform. Policy Paper Series, No. 1, [1993?]. 28 pp. Options for Population Policy: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author describes how laws and regulations that inhibit the development of family planning "can be conceptualized and assessed with the ultimate objective of achieving policy and regulatory reform." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Options for Population Policy, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30676 Salzmann, Bruno. Population policy in South Korea. [Bevolkerungspolitik in Sud-Korea.] In: Vortrage auf den Tagungen des Arbeitskreises "Demographie der Entwicklungslander" der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft in Kiedrich und in Bielefeld. 1992. 15-36 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
The author analyzes the role of population policy in contributing to demographic change, particularly fertility decline, in South Korea. Topics covered include the East Asian Model of development, demographic structure in South Korea, population policy measures, and the effects of family planning policy, son preference, modernization, and socioeconomic change.
Correspondence: B. Salzmann, Ruhlmannstrasse 25, 3000 Hannover 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30677 Sehgal, B. P. Singh. Women, birth control and the law. ISBN 81-7100-320-6. 1991. viii, 183 pp. Deep and Deep: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines Indian population policy and laws directly affecting female fertility. The focus is on recommended changes to existing laws that might help reduce the rate of population growth. Subject areas considered include population policy, the status of women, abortion, sterilization, and contraception.
Correspondence: Deep and Deep Publications, F-159 Rajouri Garden, New Delhi 110 027, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30678 Yishai, Yael. The hidden agenda: abortion politics in Israel. Journal of Social Policy, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1993. 193-212 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Political factors affecting changes in abortion law in Israel are analyzed. The author notes that two largely incompatible political objectives have played a major role: to control fertility among the poor and to encourage fertility among the Jewish population as a whole. The liberal abortion policy existing until recently was largely ineffective because it was not supported by adequate family planning services. Recent changes in the law, aimed at restricting abortion for social reasons, have not resulted in higher fertility because they were not followed up by economic incentives.
Correspondence: Y. Yishai, University of Haifa, Department of Political Science, Mount Carmel, 31 905 Haifa, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

59:30679 Davidson, Christine. A comparison of alien admissions before and after IRCA. Immigration Issues, No. 1, Jan 1991. 7 pp. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service [INS]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The following analysis reviews the main categories of aliens admitted to the United States during the 1984 through 1989 period, and examines differences in admissions during the pre- and post-IRCA [Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986] periods, 1984-86 and 1987-89."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30680 Hollifield, James F. The French state and immigration: problems involved in implementing a public policy. [L'etat francais et l'immigration: problemes de mise en oeuvre d'une politique publique.] Revue Francaise de Science Politique, Vol. 42, No. 6, Dec 1992. 943-63, 1,087 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author uses the example of France to examine why it is so difficult for a liberal democratic state to control immigration. He examines the political process in France, particularly the capacity of the government to intervene in matters of social and economic activity. Even though France is seen as a strong, centralized state with the capacity to intervene when it needs to do so, the author concludes that "economic and social conditions are found to play a much greater role in channeling migratory flows than the 'actions' of the state, as expressed in public policy."
Correspondence: J. F. Hollifield, Auburn University, Department of Political Science, 7080 Haley Center, Auburn, AL 36849-5208. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:30681 Jenks, Rosemary E. Immigration and nationality policies of leading migration nations. Population and Environment, Vol. 14, No. 6, Jul 1993. 567-92 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study of the immigration and nationality practices of eleven countries and the European Community (EC) deals with major immigrant sending or receiving nations [including]...the United States, Canada and Australia." Consideration is given to international migration policies, naturalization procedures, and labor force concerns. Separate sections cover the United States and Mexico in more depth.
Correspondence: R. E. Jenks, Center for Immigration Studies, 1815 H Street NW, Suite 1010, Washington, D.C. 20006-3604. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30682 Kubat, Daniel. The politics of migration policies: settlement and integration. The first world into the 1990s. 2nd ed. ISBN 0-913256-34-X. LC 92-42228. 1993. xxxi, 379 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
This is a revised edition of a work devoted primarily to migration policies in developed countries. The 19 papers are divided into five parts, which are concerned with the immigration policies of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States; immigration policy in the United Kingdom; countries of in-migration in Europe, including Austria, the Benelux countries, France, West Germany, Scandinavia, and Switzerland; countries of out-migration in Europe, including Greece, Portugal and Spain, Italy, Turkey, and Yugoslavia; and the future of immigration policy in Japan and the implications of post-Soviet emigration.
For the first edition, published in 1979, see 45:3650.
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30683 Stafford, James. Welcome but why? Recent changes in Canadian immigration policy. American Review of Canadian Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2, Summer 1992. 235-58 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Recent changes in Canadian immigration policy are reviewed, focusing on the 1986 decision to increase levels of immigration. "The purpose of this paper is threefold: to explain the reversal in government policy, to examine critically the validity of the arguments supporting an increase in immigration, and to provide a framework within which to carry out discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of increasing immigration levels in Canada. It begins with a description of immigration policy as it was applied since World War II, and [goes] on to examine changes in the policy and factors behind these changes. The focus is on the economic aspects of Canadian immigration policy."
Correspondence: J. Stafford, Lakehead University, Department of Sociology, Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30684 United States. Immigration and Naturalization Service [INS] (Washington, D.C.). An immigrant nation: United States regulation of immigration, 1798-1991. Jun 18, 1991. v, 41 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The...document is a brief historical survey of United States immigration law and the Immigration and Naturalization Service. It follows the course of immigration law enforcement and administration over the years, stopping at times to more fully discuss important issues, trends, or developments. Appendices include a general bibliography, statistical and other charts, and a glossary of INS terms used throughout the text." Chapters are included on early immigration and legislation, the impact of increased immigration during and after the 1880s, immigration and national security, amendments and reform in the late twentieth century, and future prospects.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1993-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.