Volume 59 - Number 3 - Fall 1993

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

59:30623 Borsch-Supan, Axel. Population aging, social security design, and early retirement. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics/Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Staatswissenschaft, Vol. 148, No. 4, Dec 1992. 533-57 pp. Tubingen, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"The aging of the industrialized countries will dramatically strain their social security systems. In Germany, for example, 100 employed persons now support about 40 elderly, but 85 elderly will have to be sustained by the same number of employed persons in the year 2030. This pressure is exacerbated by the observed trend towards earlier retirement ages. This paper presents cross-national evidence and an option value analysis of the retirement decision to argue that the distortions created by the actuarially unfair design of the social security systems in the United States and particularly in Germany have significantly contributed in this trend."
Correspondence: A. Borsch-Supan, University of Mannheim, Department of Economics, P.O.B. 103462, 6800 Mannheim 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30624 Conrad, Christoph. The emergence of modern retirement: Germany in an international comparison (1850-1960). Population. English Selection, Vol. 3, 1991. 171-200 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author compares the retirement situation in Germany with that in Britain, France, and the United States over the period 1850-1960.
This is a translation of an article originally published in 1990 in French and cited in 57:10682.
Correspondence: C. Conrad, Freie Universitat Berlin, Altensteinstrasse 40, 1000 Berlin 33, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30625 Parada, Soledad. Women, development and demographic trends in Central America: a general overview. May 1989. 38 pp. UN International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women [INSTRAW]: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Eng.
This is "an analysis of those demographic changes during the period 1950-1980 in Central America which have had the greatest bearing on the status of women, and should be considered in the design of development policies." Separate chapters are included on women's reproductive behavior, including fertility, fertility control, and abortion; female mortality; changes in the age structure of the female population; and female migration.
Correspondence: UN International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, P.O. Box 21747, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30626 Schmelz, Uziel O.; DellaPergola, Sergio. Papers in Jewish demography 1989. Jewish Population Studies, No. 25, ISBN 965-222-259-3. 1993. 320 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Avraham Herman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
"This volume...includes the proceedings of the sessions in Jewish Demography that were held at the Tenth World Congress of Jewish Studies in Jerusalem in August 1989....Although the term demography appears in the title of this publication, its contents clearly reveal ample extensions into the field of statistics, economics, sociology, cultural anthropology, and education. The papers deal with a variety of aspects of Jewish populations and communities. The common denominator is intended to be a quantitative social science approach to the study of Jewry past and present." Papers are grouped into sections on historical demography; the United States; Canada, Latin America, Western Europe, and the USSR; and Israel.
Correspondence: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Avraham Herman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Gaster Building, Mt. Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30627 Turshen, Meredeth; Holcomb, Briavel. Women's lives and public policy. The international experience. ISBN 0-275-94523-5. LC 92-33331. 1993. xix, 217 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This book considers the impact of public policy on various aspects of women's lives, including sex and birth, marriage and death, work and child rearing, and women's responses to those policies. Written by scholars who have lived on five continents, the work spans the First and Third Worlds, with several chapters providing case illustrations from Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Interdisciplinary in scope, the volume includes the fields of economics, politics, planning, and literature. The work is divided into two sections, with chapters in the first part considering the impact of economic and demographic policies on women and those in the second part considering policies relating to women's interpersonal relationships. Urban culture is considered in an epilogue."
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30628 United Nations. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean [ECLAC] (Santiago, Chile); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Population, social equity and changing production patterns. No. LC/G.1758(CONF.83/3); LC/DEM/G.131, Mar 26, 1993. 153 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng.
This report, translated from the original Spanish, presents the results of recent research at ECLAC and CELADE on the population factor in the development process in Latin America and the Caribbean, with particular reference to changing patterns of production and efforts to improve social equity. It begins with a review of current demographic trends in the region, including fertility, mortality, and age distribution. Other related topics examined are women's issues, environmental issues, population policy, and international migration.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30629 Verbon, Harrie. Public pensions. The role of public choice and expectations. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1993. 123-35 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper the public-choice approach to explaining the evolution of public pension schemes [in developed countries] is surveyed. Emphasis is laid on the relation between expectations on future political decisions and future demographic and economic developments, on the one hand, and current political and economic decisions, on the other hand."
Correspondence: H. Verbon, Tilburg University, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

59:30630 Henderson, Conway W. Population pressures and political repression. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 74, No. 2, Jun 1993. 322-33 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This study divides the concept of population pressures into a measure for population size (Population Density) and a rate of growth variable (Natural Increase). Only Natural Increase was found to induce governments to use political repression. Even after control variables were introduced into the regression models, Natural Increase remained important. The growing population of the world, especially in the hard-pressed Third World countries, can be expected to intensify repression."
Correspondence: C. W. Henderson, University of South Carolina, 800 University Way, Spartanburg, SC 19303. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30631 Lester, David. The effect of war on marriage, divorce and birth rates. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, Vol. 19, No. 1-2, 1993. 229-31 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
The impact of war on marriage, divorce, and birth rates in the United States from 1933 to 1986 is explored. The author concludes that "the involvement of the nation in military activities was accompanied by a decrease in marriage and birth rates but not by any change in divorce rates. Mobilization of the armed forces and demobilization had no discernible impact on divorce, marriage or birth rates."
Correspondence: D. Lester, Center for the Study of Suicide, 5 Stonegate Court, Blockwood, NJ 08012. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

59:30632 Maroney, Heather J. "Who has the baby?" Nationalism, pronatalism and the construction of a "demographic crisis" in Quebec, 1960-1988. Studies in Political Economy, No. 39, Autumn 1992. 7-36 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The author analyzes the development of demographic pronatalism in Quebec between 1980 and 1988. Topics considered include "the relation of the demographic discussion to Quebec's unresolved national question on the one hand, and to gender, class and ethnic/race inequities on the other; actual population patterns; and the positioning of feminist, nationalist and political actors on the discursive field constituted by the demographic debate. In addition, it is important to consider the political role of demographers themselves, with particular regard to their long-standing efforts to institutionalize their own profession."
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

59:30633 Bah, Sulaiman M. Epidemiologic and health transition in Mauritius. Journal of Population Studies, No. 15, Dec 1992. 137-58 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"This paper aims to describe the evolution of [the] Mauritian epidemiologic transition over the period 1969-1986 and interpret the changes in the light of existing theories of the epidemiologic and health transition."
Correspondence: S. M. Bah, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30634 Becker, Stan; Peters, David H.; Gray, Ronald H.; Gultiano, Connie; Black, Robert E. The determinants of use of maternal and child health services in Metro Cebu, the Philippines. Health Transition Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Apr 1993. 77-89 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The determinants of the of use of family planning, prenatal care, childhood immunizations and oral rehydration salts (ORS) were studied with survey data of 8,000 women in Metro Cebu, the Philippines. Polytomous logistic regression methods were of used. The level of maternal education was the most consistent and important determinant of use of these four health services in both urban and rural areas....Economic status and access to service variables had less consistent patterns: women's work status, for example, was associated only with contraceptive of use."
Correspondence: S. Becker, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30635 Boonchalaksi, Wathinee; Guest, Philip. AIDS and children: prospects for the year 2000. IPSR Publication, No. 168, ISBN 974-587-615-1. Jul 1993. x, 32 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
"The research results described in this paper provide estimates of the potential impact of HIV/AIDS upon the lives of Thai children during the decade of the 1990s. The results are obtained through standard cohort component methods of demographic projection....The projections for children undertaken in this research are based on published projections of new adult HIV infections. In addition, standard parameters for paediatric HIV transmission, transition from HIV to AIDS and from AIDS to death, are employed."
Correspondence: Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Phutthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30636 Caldwell, John C.; Santow, Gigi; Orubuloye, I. O.; Caldwell, Pat; Anarfi, John. Sexual networking and HIV/AIDS in west Africa. Health Transition Review, Vol. 3, Suppl., 1993. i, 191 pp. Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This supplement to Health Transition Review provides a record of early behavioural research in West Africa on sexual networking (relations with multiple sexual partners) that has been catalysed by the outbreak of the AIDS epidemic in parts of the region. Most of the authors belong to the West African Research Group on Sexual Networking (WARGSN)...." Topics considered include families and AIDS, social and economic choices available to divorced or married women and prostitutes, sexual networking, migration and AIDS, women's control of their sexuality and the spread of STDs and HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS counseling programs, the role of religious leaders in changing sexual behavior, changes in adolescent sexuality and the perception of virginity, female reproductive tract infections, and incidence of antibodies to HIV in seropositive cases. The individual studies are concerned with Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, or Uganda.
Correspondence: Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30637 Choe, E. H.; Ogawa, N.; Tsuya, N. O.; Wongsith, M. Health status of the elderly and their labor force participation in the developing countries along the Asia-Pacific rim. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jul 1992. 151-75 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
The authors examine the health status and labor force participation of and support systems for the elderly in developing countries in east, Southeast, and south Asia and compare them with Western norms. They find that "there are numerous psychological and emotional elements involved in institutionalizing support for the elderly, and the marked differences in social and cultural factors between the Asian countries and Western industrialized nations make it difficult for the former to use...old-age support systems prevailing in the latter as a model."
Correspondence: E. H. Choe, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30638 Cook, Rebecca J. International human rights and women's reproductive health. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 73-86 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews legal aspects of global women's reproductive health issues. She asserts that "neglect of women's reproductive health, perpetuated by law, is part of a larger, systematic discrimination against women. Laws obstruct women's access to reproductive health services. Laws protective of women's reproductive health are rarely or inadequately implemented. Moreover, few laws or policies facilitate women's reproductive health services....Empirical evidence can be used to evaluate how effectively laws are implemented and whether alternative legal approaches exist that would provide greater protection of individual rights. International human rights treaties, including those discussed in this article, are being applied increasingly to expose how laws that obstruct women's access to reproductive health services violate their basic rights."
Correspondence: R. J. Cook, University of Toronto, Faculty of Law, International Human Rights Programme, 78 Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2C5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30639 Crimmins, Eileen M.; Ingegneri, Dominique G. Trends in health among the American population. In: Demography and retirement: the twenty-first century, edited by Anna M. Rappaport and Sylvester J. Schieber. 1993. 225-53 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper will address the issue of recent and future trends in health among the American population middle aged and older....In the first section of the paper we will describe the changing relationship between morbidity and mortality in recent years and how this has led to disagreement among researchers as to the expected direction of change in health over the past 25 years. Next we will turn to the issue of measuring change in health. In the third section of the paper we will present data on observed changes in health over a twenty year period. Finally, we will discuss the implications of the recent changes in health for the future." Discussions by Eric R. Kingson (pp. 243-8) and Marc M. Twinney (pp. 249-53) are included.
Correspondence: E. M. Crimmins, University of Southern California, Andrus Gerontology Center, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30640 Duncan, S. R.; Scott, Susan; Duncan, C. J. The dynamics of smallpox epidemics in Britain, 1550-1800. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 3, Aug 1993. 405-23 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Time-series analysis...has been used to determine the periodicity of smallpox epidemics during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in two contrasting representative situations: 1) London, a large city where smallpox was endemic, and 2) Penrith, a small rural town. The interepidemic period was found to be two years in London and five years in Penrith. Equations governing the dynamics of epidemics predict 1) a two-year periodicity and 2) that oscillatory epidemics die out quickly. It is suggested that epidemics were maintained by a periodic variation in susceptibility linked either to a five-year cycle of malnutrition or to an annual cycle. Computer modeling shows how the very different patterns of epidemics are related to population size and to the magnitude of the oscillation in susceptibility."
Correspondence: C. J. Duncan, University of Liverpool, Department of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30641 Elizondo, Jorge; Shultz, James M.; Baum, Marianna K.; Herrera, Gisela. The epidemiology of AIDS and HIV infection in Costa Rica. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1993. 145-50 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article describes and assesses the epidemiology of AIDS and HIV infection in Costa Rica....[The country can currently be considered] a Pattern I country--one where the disease is transmitted primarily among homosexual/bisexual males. However, increasing numbers of heterosexual and perinatal cases, high rates of HIV infection among pregnant women, and existing patterns of bisexuality are consistent with a possible shift toward a Pattern I/II epidemic."
Correspondence: J. Elizondo, Ministry of Health, Department of AIDS Control and Prevention, Apartado 697-1150, La Uruca, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30642 Gould, Peter. The slow plague: a geography of the AIDS pandemic. ISBN 1-55786-418-7. LC 92-38653. 1993. xvi, 228 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a study on the spread of AIDS from the perspective of a geographer. The author examines the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), its origins, and the extent to which it now affects human lives. Emphasis is on how the virus can spread by jumping from city to city and creating regional epicenters from which it can then spread into surrounding areas. Four case studies demonstrate the effects of the disease in Africa, Thailand, the United States in general, and the Bronx, New York, in particular. "The author argues that a real understanding of AIDS has been hampered by conscious or unconscious beliefs that those affected are, and will continue to be, confined to specific minority groups and to parts of the Third World. He shows that such views have led to fundamental misconceptions about the pattern of the spread of the disease and about those who will be most at risk, now and in the immediate future."
Correspondence: Blackwell Publishers, 238 Main Street, Suite 501, Cambridge, MA 02142. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30643 Govindasamy, Pavalavalli; Stewart, M. Kathryn; Rutstein, Shea O.; Boerma, J. Ties; Sommerfelt, A. Elisabeth. High-risk births and maternity care. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 8, Jun 1993. vi, 47 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report uses DHS-I data to examine two...service-related dimensions of unmet need: the use of maternity care and the use of contraception by women whose fertility characteristics place themselves and their children at high risk [in developing countries. It] examines the potential mortality reductions which could be achieved through increased use of family planning and wider access to maternity care. First, differentials in the coverage and utilization of maternity care are examined. Next, the fertility-related factors that place women and their children at high risk are explored. Data on women who fall into high-risk categories are then used to calculate a new measure of unmet need for family planning with the goal of avoiding high-risk births. All analyses are presented in simple tabular form, without controlling for potentially confounding variables."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30644 Kallan, Jeffrey E. Race, intervening variables, and two components of low birth weight. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 3, Aug 1993. 489-506 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The present study examines the determinants of race differences in the two main components of LBW [low birth weight]--preterm birth (PRETERM) and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)--within a partially causal framework that includes social and proximate explanatory variables. The data come from the 1988 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth....The findings reveal differences in how race (and other exogenous variables) act through downstream variables to affect PRETERM and IUGR, as well as differences in the net determinants of these pregnancy outcomes. The models are better able to account statistically for race differences in IUGR (which is explained by intervening sociodemographic, attitude, and behavior variables) than in PRETERM (which is explained partly by intervening health variables)."
Correspondence: J. E. Kallan, National Research Council, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, Studies and Surveys Unit, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30645 Kinsella, Kevin. Population and health transitions. International Population Reports, Series P-95, No. 92-2, Dec 1992. 52 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The primary intent of this report is to highlight the broad demographic and epidemiologic changes currently taking place in developing countries and to consider the possible impact of these changes on national population and health profiles." The first part looks at probable population trends up to the year 2020. Next, the current epidemiological transition taking place in the developing world is described. The author then compares mortality in Guatemala and Costa Rica and in Hungary and Austria. A chapter is included on changing patterns of disability. Finally, the implications of these changes for the provision of health services are discussed.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30646 Kumar, B. Gopalakrishna. Low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala reconsidered. Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 1, Mar 1993. 103-21, 220, 222 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The achievements of Kerala as measured by conventional quality-of-life indicators (such as literacy and the expectation of life) have attracted considerable interest. A number of surveys indicate, however, that Kerala has the highest morbidity rate in India. This article examines the available secondary data on this question and analyzes primary data collected during fieldwork in two villages of Kerala. Three types of explanations for the apparent paradox of the Kerala figures are offered: (1) morbidity as a statistical illusion; (2) morbidity as a matter of perception; and (3) morbidity as real illness burden. While the first two explanations cannot be entirely discarded, the evidence suggests that the third factor is also significant."
Correspondence: B. G. Kumar, Centre for Development Studies, Prasantanagar Road, Ulloor, Trivandrum 695 011, Kerala State, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30647 LeGrand, Thomas K.; Mbacke, Cheikh S. M. Teenage pregnancy and child health in the urban Sahel. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 3, May-Jun 1993. 137-49 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Longitudinal data for more than 20,000 live births in the cities of Bamako (Mali) and Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) are used to study the effects of young maternal age (less than 18 years and 18-19) on birth weight, child health care and feeding behavior, and child mortality, after controlling for other socioeconomic and demographic factors. Teenage pregnancies are associated with significantly worse prenatal health care and vaccination behavior, lower birth weights, earlier weaning, and, especially during the second year of life, higher mortality. A proxy for mother's school enrollment at the time of pregnancy is strongly linked to worse prenatal health behavior and weakly associated with other poor behaviors and health outcomes. Overall, the results highlight the importance of behavioral factors relative to strictly biological factors for explaining child health differentials."
Correspondence: T. K. LeGrand, Universite de Montreal, Department of Demography, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30648 Marckwardt, Albert M.; Ochoa, Luis H. Population and health in Latin America. [Poblacion y salud en America Latina.] Mar 1993. 88 pp. Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]: Washington, D.C.; Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Spa.
The authors examine data on health and population in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. The data were collected in demographic and health surveys between 1986 and 1989. Sections are included on fertility, contraception, family planning, infant and child mortality, pre- and post-natal care, breast-feeding and infant nutrition, child immunization, prevalence and treatment of diarrhea, and reproductive risk factors.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30649 Orubuloye, I. O.; Caldwell, Pat; Caldwell, John C. The role of high-risk occupations in the spread of AIDS: truck drivers and itinerant market women in Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jun 1993. 43-8, 71 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A study of 258 truck drivers and 467 itinerant female hawkers in Ibadan, Nigeria, reveals that occupational demands have resulted in a network of multiple sex partners that may spread AIDS to and through Nigeria. Although 78% of the truck drivers are currently married, only 5% report having no regular sex partners besides their wife. The drivers say they have an average of six regular sex partners, about one woman at each of their overnight stops. During the year prior to the 1991 interview, the drivers report having an average of 12 partners besides their wife, and the lifetime number of partners is 25. Forty-four percent of the drivers have been treated for a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Nearly all drivers have heard of AIDS, but only 15% use condoms regularly. The female hawkers, who sell a wide variety of goods at truck stops, average 20 years of age and report their median age at onset of sexual activity to be 14. Most of the women are single, 95% are sexually experienced, and half acknowledge supplementing their income from hawking goods by providing sex for money. More than 20% report having had an STD."
Correspondence: I. O. Orubuloye, Ondo State University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Ado-Ekiti, Ondo State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30650 Ranger, Terence; Slack, Paul. Epidemics and ideas: essays on the historical perception of pestilence. Past and Present Publications, ISBN 0-521-40276-X. LC 91-19775. 1992. ix, 346 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This volume contains 12 papers on epidemics and how they have affected ideas; helped shape theological, political, and social thought; and been understood in the intellectual context of their time. "The first chapters look at classical Athens, early medieval Europe and the Islamic world, in order to establish the intellectual traditions which influenced later developments. Then there are contributions on responses to different epidemics in early modern and modern Europe, where western notions of 'public health' were defined; and chapters on the ways in which disease was perceived outside Europe, in India, Africa and the Pacific, where different intellectual traditions and different disease patterns came together. The final chapter brings us back home, looking at the ways in which policies towards AIDS have been formulated in the 1980s and drawing striking parallels as well as contrasts with the social construction of disease in the more remote past."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30651 Schieber, Sylvester J. Can our social insurance systems survive the demographic shifts of the twenty-first century? In: Demography and retirement: the twenty-first century, edited by Anna M. Rappaport and Sylvester J. Schieber. 1993. 111-62 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the long-term viability of Social Security and Medicare [in the United States]. These programs are currently solvent and are projected to be so for some time into the future....After the scope of the paper is outlined, the financial measures used in the analysis are discussed. The discussion of measurement methodology is followed respectively by sections on the financial viability of the Social Security cash benefits program and Medicare....[The focus is on] whether our major social insurance programs aimed at the elderly can survive the demographic shifts of the 21st Century." Discussions by Dwight K. Bartlett (pp. 151-4) and Patricia M. Danzon (pp. 155-62) are included.
Correspondence: S. J. Schieber, Wyatt Company, Research and Information Center, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30652 Sciarra, John J. Reproductive health: a global perspective. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 168, No. 6, Jun 1993. 1,649-54 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
The author asserts the need for physicians to take a more active role to assure better reproductive health for all women rather than focusing only on their individual patients. Components defining reproductive health are described, and public policy and private agency initiatives around the world are briefly reviewed.
Correspondence: J. J. Sciarra, Northwestern University Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 333 East Superior Street, Chicago, IL 60611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30653 Smith, Herbert L. On the limited utility of KAP-style survey data in the practical epidemiology of AIDS, with reference to the AIDS epidemic in Chile. Health Transition Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Apr 1993. 1-16 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author questions the effectiveness of KAP surveys in the study of AIDS epidemiology in populations with low seroprevalence, using the example of Chile. "An alternative perspective gleaned from extensive interviews with several dozen of the known individuals with AIDS in Santiago, and a survey of the current HIV-surveillance and blood-screening programs in the Santiago area [is introduced. The author concludes] with brief comments on the need to distinguish conceptually between the relevance of AIDS-related behavioural data for individuals and for populations."
Correspondence: H. L. Smith, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30654 Zurayk, Huda; Khattab, Hind; Younis, Nabil; El-Mouelhy, Mawaheb; Fadle, Mohamed. Concepts and measures of reproductive morbidity. Health Transition Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Apr 1993. 17-40 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper presents a conceptual and methodological framework developed by an interdisciplinary group of researchers to diagnose reproductive morbidity at the community level. The paper also presents a determinants structure that delineates the health and social factors hypothesized to influence reproductive morbidity. The high prevalence of reproductive-morbidity conditions revealed by implementation of the study framework in two villages of Giza in Egypt is reported."
Correspondence: H. Zurayk, Population Council Regional Office, P.O. Box 115, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

59:30655 Allen, G.; Eriksson, A. W.; Fellman, J.; Parisi, P.; Vandenberg, S. G. Twinning and the r/K reproductive strategy: a critique of Rushton's theory. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae: Twin Research, Vol. 41, No. 1, 1992. 73-83 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"The theory of r selection, favoring population growth, as opposed to K selection, favoring more efficient utilization of resources, has in recent years been applied by [J.P.] Rushton to contrast human ethnic groups in terms of their r/K reproductive strategies, suggesting the existence of a continuum from r groups, producing many offspring but providing little parental care, to K groups, producing few offspring but providing much parental care. Rushton's theory, which is largely based on ethnic differences in twinning rates, is here critically examined. It is pointed out that twinning rate differences are not necessarily genetic in origin since various environmental factors clearly play a role, and also that twinning, as a mode of reproduction, is not necessarily an r strategy, considering the high prenatal and perinatal selection to which it has been, and still is, associated....The claim that ethnic differences in twinning rates provide evidence for an r/K typology in human populations with respect to reproductive strategies does not appear to be warranted."
Correspondence: G. Allen, 9326 W. Parkhill Drive, Bethesda, MD 20814-3967. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30656 Fellman, Johan O.; Eriksson, Aldur W. Biometric analysis of the multiple maternities in Finland, 1881-1990, and in Sweden since 1751. Human Biology, Vol. 65, No. 3, Jun 1993. 463-79 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"In this study the inaccuracy of Hellin's law [on multiple maternities] is studied and the discrepancies are explained mathematically....We consider secular data from Finland for 1881-1990 and from Sweden since 1751. Using Hellin's law, we compare the triplet rates and the twinning rates and study the time trends of the observed twinning and triplet rates. The data are standardized. Our theoretical results are applied to multiple maternity data for Finland....This analysis shows a decreasing linear time trend in the triplet series for the period 1881-1950 but not in the twinning series. The triplet rate has an increasing trend after 1960, which seems to be mainly caused by artificial induction of ovulation."
Correspondence: J. O. Fellman, Folkhalsan Institute of Genetics, Population Genetics Unit, P.O. Box 211, 00251 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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