Volume 59 - Number 3 - Fall 1993

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

59:30538 Auerbach, Alan J.; Kotlikoff, Laurence J. The impact of the demographic transition on capital formation. In: Demography and retirement: the twenty-first century, edited by Anna M. Rappaport and Sylvester J. Schieber. 1993. 163-87 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the impact of the demographic changes currently affecting the United States. They find that "the aging of the population, which is attributable to declining rates of fertility and mortality, has a range of implications for the level and composition of national saving and capital formation in the United States over the next several decades. In this paper, we review a variety of these implications and discuss the policy issues that they raise." A discussion by Alicia H. Munnell is included (pp. 183-7).
Correspondence: A. J. Auerbach, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6398. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30539 Biggs, John H. Implications of demographic change for design of retirement programs. In: Demography and retirement: the twenty-first century, edited by Anna M. Rappaport and Sylvester J. Schieber. 1993. 189-223 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the influences of probable demographic changes in the United States on private pension plan design in the early part of the twenty-first century. Factors considered include demographic aging; the increase in the numbers of the very old; improved health, particularly among workers aged 60-75; and increases in labor productivity. Discussions by Emily S. Andrews (pp. 205-11) and Anna M. Rappaport (pp. 212-23) are included.
Correspondence: J. H. Biggs, Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association-College Retirement Equities Fund, 730 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30540 Clark, Robert L. Population aging and retirement policy: an international perspective. In: Demography and retirement: the twenty-first century, edited by Anna M. Rappaport and Sylvester J. Schieber. 1993. 255-95 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper begins with a review of past population aging in several developed countries and considers projections of the pattern of continued aging through the first quarter of the twenty-first century. The direct discussion of population trends and retirement programs is restricted to six countries. Countries included in the analysis are Japan, the United States, France, [West] Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. These countries are of interest in their own right as specific examples of the development of national retirement programs in the context of population aging. In addition, they provide clear examples of population trends and development of retirement programs that have occurred in the other developed countries....The review of social security systems concentrates on worker retirement benefits and does not attempt to examine disability insurance, unemployment programs, or medical insurance." Discussions by G. Lawrence Atkins (pp. 285-92) and Robert J. Myers (pp. 293-5) are included.
Correspondence: R. L. Clark, North Carolina State University, NCSU POB 7505, Raleigh, NC 27695. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30541 Desjardins, Bertrand. Population ageing and the elderly. Current demographic analysis. Pub. Order No. 91-533E. ISBN 0-660-14965-6. Mar 1993. [xv], 128 pp. Statistics Canada, Demography Division: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
This study, translated from the original French, summarizes current trends in demographic aging in Canada. It includes chapters on the definition and theory of aging, past and future trends, the principal demographic factors affecting aging, geographical distribution and mobility of the elderly, family life and housing, economic and social conditions of the elderly, and their health situation.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

59:30542 Economic Planning Advisory Council [EPAC] (Parkes, Australia). Economic and social consequence of Australia's ageing population: preparing for the 21st century. Papers presented at an Office of EPAC seminar held in Canberra on 25 September 1992. EPAC Background Paper, No. 23, ISBN 0-644-27308-9. Dec 1992. v, 158 pp. Parkes, Australia. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a one-day seminar held in Canberra, Australia, on September 25, 1992, on the economic and social consequences of demographic aging in Australia. The emphasis of the nine papers is on implications for health costs and retirement incomes.
Correspondence: Economic Planning Advisory Council, PO Box E4, Queen Victoria Terrace, Parkes, ACT 2600, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:30543 Gulati, Leela. Population ageing and women in Kerala State, India. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, Mar 1993. 53-63 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"In this note we examine the ageing of the female population in the State of Kerala, India, in the light of current and future demographic trends as well as the social and economic implications of this process." Consideration is given to the gender gap in mortality, marital status among elderly women, age at marriage, the dependency ratio, and economic status and support for the elderly, including welfare programs.
Correspondence: L. Gulati, Centre for Development Studies, Prasantnagar Road, Ulloor, Trivandrum 695 011, Kerala, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30544 Kinsella, Kevin; Taeuber, Cynthia M. An aging world II. International Population Reports, Series P-95, No. 92-3, ISBN 0-16-041679-5. Feb 1993. vii, 160 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report presents a global view of demographic aging. "One focus...is a look at the past, current, and projected numbers, proportions, and growth rates of the elderly population....A second...is to summarize socioeconomic statistics for both developed and developing nations. This report shows such data for as many as 50 nations when available and reasonably comparable....[It] focuses primarily on the elderly, people 65 years old and over." Data are from a variety of sources, including the 1990 round of worldwide censuses and recent national sample surveys.
For a related report, published in 1988, see 54:10632.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30545 Ljones, Olav. Aging and social security. Norwegian viewpoints. [Eldrebolgen og pensjonssystemene i Norden. Synspunkter fra Norge.] Working Papers from Department for Statistics on Individuals and Households: Population and Living Conditions, Vol. 4, 1992. 89-107 pp. Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor.
Trends in demographic aging in Norway are analyzed and their impact on social welfare and pension systems is assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30546 McKie, Craig. Population aging: baby boomers into the 21st century. Canadian Social Trends, No. 29, Summer 1993. 2-6 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The author summarizes probable changes in the age composition of Canada's population up to the year 2036.
Correspondence: C. McKie, Canadian Social Trends, Jean Talon Building, 7th Floor, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30547 Mohanty, Bidyut. Migration, famines and sex ratio in Orissa division between 1881 and 1921. Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1992. 507-28 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author hypothesizes that the rise in the sex ratio that occurs in India following severe famines is caused to some extent by famine-induced migration. Three districts of Orissa are studied from 1881 to 1921. They suffered extensively from famine during the period 1901-1921. It is argued that migration is sex-selective, involving more men than women, and that the stresses of famine, migration, and exposure to new diseases causes higher mortality among migrants than among nonmigrants.
Correspondence: B. Mohanty, Institute of Social Sciences, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30548 Preston, Samuel H. Demographic change in the United States, 1970-2050. In: Demography and retirement: the twenty-first century, edited by Anna M. Rappaport and Sylvester J. Schieber. 1993. 19-71 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the future size and age composition of the population of the United States. The impending changes are viewed through the prism of population projections made by two federal agencies: the Bureau of the Census and the Social Security Administration. The successes and failures of the projection programs of these agencies is briefly evaluated, and we consider at greater length the plausibility of their most recent intermediate projection series. Our conclusion is that mortality is very likely to improve at a faster pace than they have projected. Exaggerating the impact of this factor on population size, but partially offsetting its impact on age structure, we anticipate that future fertility rates will be higher and immigration flows faster than projected by these agencies. These conclusions are based upon analyses of recent demographic changes in light of broader social and economic trends." Discussions by Francisco R. Bayo (pp. 49-52), Stephen C. Goss (pp. 53-6), and Barry Edmonston (pp. 57-71) are included.
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30549 Rappaport, Anna M.; Schieber, Sylvester J. Demography and retirement: the twenty-first century. ISBN 0-275-94248-1. LC 92-46552. 1993. x, 328 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This book presents the papers and comments from the Pension Research Council's Spring 1991 Symposium. It focuses on those issues related to the age structure of the [U.S.] population and patterns of retirement as well as our ability to anticipate how these might change in the future....The participants in the symposium included academicians from a variety of disciplines including economics, gerontology, demography, etc.; government representatives; plan sponsors; and advisors to plan sponsors....The symposium focused on demographics, the work behavior of older people, retirement, and the benefits provided for retirement. The scope of the benefits covered encompassed both social insurance and private benefits, including pension plans of all types and retiree health programs. Long-term care was identified several times as a potentially important issue, but was not discussed in depth. The international perspective was presented by comparing the United States with five other countries."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Praeger, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30550 Rowland, D. T. Ageing in Australia. ISBN 0-582-71261-0. 1991. xv, 235 pp. Longman Cheshire: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
This is a study of demographic aging in Australia. It "presents up-to-date research findings, provides comparisons with overseas studies and trends, introduces relevant theoretical concepts, and explains changes and their consequences....The book discusses key characteristics of the aged, and places them in the context of cross-national comparisons, policy issues, and projected developments into the twenty-first century. The theme is the social integration of the aged, which is central to understanding quality of life in old age and to the appropriate design of social policies concerning the aged. The book will be of...interest to those working in sociology, human services, health sciences, geography, gerontology and demography."
Correspondence: Longman Cheshire, Longman House, Kings Gardens, 95 Coventry Street, Melbourne 3205, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30551 Smith, Eric A. Sex ratio evolution and adult mortality: a commentary. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan 1993. 39-44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author critically analyzes arguments set forth by Barry S. Hewlett concerning the relationship between demographic structure and child care in preindustrial societies. "Hewlett...demonstrates some rather striking correlations between biased juvenile sex ratios and certain ecological and economic variables; in the process, he makes an intuitive argument about parental investment as compensation for mortality of sons, along the lines just sketched. The goal of this commentary is to explain what is wrong with this particular argument...."
For the article by Hewlett, published in 1991, see 57:30447.
Correspondence: E. A. Smith, University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:30552 Stortzbach, Bernd. Transition to a new phase of life--expectations for life in old age. [Ubergang in eine neue Lebensphase--Erwartungen fur das Leben im Alter.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1992. 291-311 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This contribution presents selected results of a 1989 survey by the [West German] Federal Institute for Population Research [on] the issue of what ideas persons of medium age have about life at old age and what positive and/or negative expectations they associate with that period of life....The results show that women's expectations with regard to material security at old age evidently depend on their actual partnership situation....With regard to the time of ending gainful employment mainly the answers of younger male respondents (40-49 years) show that the discussion on the extension of working life may have influenced their assessment. Persons of medium age on the whole give a more positive assessment of life at old age than older persons who already are in that period of life."
Correspondence: B. Stortzbach, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30553 Taeuber, Cynthia. Sixty-five plus in America. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 178RV, May 1993. x, [133] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a revised edition of a report on the growth of the U.S. population over age 65. It takes into account new official population projections issued in November 1992. "We will examine the growth of the elderly population and how it has occurred. We will focus on the diversity of America's older population in terms of age, race, gender, economic status, longevity, health characteristics, geographic distribution, and social characteristics. Throughout, we will examine possible implications of the demographic changes." Data are from the 1990 census and other official sources.
For an earlier edition of this report, published in 1982, see 59:20642.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30554 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Development (New York, New York). The sex and age distribution of the world populations. The 1992 revision. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/134, Pub. Order No. E.93.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151251-4. 1993. ix, 397, [6] pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The results of the thirteenth round of population estimates and projections prepared by the UN Population Division are presented. "This report presents estimated sex and age distribution for the period 1950-1990 and projected figures, according to medium-, high- and low-fertility variants for 1990-2025. Data are presented for countries with a population of at least 200,000 in 1990. The data for smaller countries are included in the regional population totals but are not presented separately....A magnetic tape and a set of diskettes containing the major results of the present estimates and projections are also available for purchase. A description of the tape and diskettes, and an order form, can be found in the annex to this report."
Correspondence: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Development, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30555 Valkovics, Emil. Problems of demographic ageing in new light. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 75, 1992. 241-70 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
The author analyzes demographic aging in Hungary over the period 1973-1989, then makes projections to the year 2010. The formulas used are included.
Correspondence: E. Valkovics, Demographic Research Institute, Posta fio'k 78, 1364 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30556 Van Nostrand, Joan F. Common beliefs about the rural elderly: what do national data tell us? Vital and Health Statistics, Series 3: Analytic and Epidemiological Studies, No. 28, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 93-1412. ISBN 0-8406-0477-7. LC 93-3076. Apr 1993. vi, 79 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"National data from various sources are presented to support or debunk 10 commonly held beliefs about the elderly living in rural America. Topics include: health, income, housing, social networks, population size and distribution, and access to care. Most comparisons are between nonmetropolitan and metropolitan data."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30557 Whiting, John W. M. The effect of polygyny on sex ratio at birth. American Anthropologist, Vol. 95, No. 2, Jun 1993. 435-42 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents ethnographic evidence that the secondary sex ratio (sex ratio at birth) varies with the form of marriage. Owing to the effect of the form of marriage on the frequency and timing of coitus, more females are born to polygynously married mothers than would be expected from norms based on children born to monogamous mothers." The data are primarily from Kenya and were collected over the period 1966-1973.
Correspondence: J. W. M. Whiting, Harvard University, Department of Anthropology, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30558 Williams, Robert J.; Gloster, Susan P. Human sex ratio as it relates to caloric availability. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1992. 285-91 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"The relationship between human sex ratio at birth and caloric availability per capita was examined across different countries. Significant positive correlations were obtained between the amount of food a country had available and the percentage of male births. Furthermore, increases or decreases in a country's caloric availability were related to corresponding changes in that country's sex ratio. These results provide evidence of adaptive sex ratio biasing in humans. The physiological mechanisms by which this effect operates is probably higher mortality rates for male embryos and fetuses as a result of nutritional deficiencies and associated stressors."
Correspondence: R. J. Williams, Government of Manitoba, Departments of Health and Family Services, Manitoba R8N 0C8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

59:30559 Jeyaseelan, L.; Antonisamy, B.; Rao, P. S. S. Pattern of menstrual cycle length in south Indian women: a prospective study. Social Biology, Vol. 39, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1992. 306-9 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"Data on 8,308 menstrual cycles from 1,740 South Indian women prospectively recorded were analyzed to identify the effect of age on menstrual cycle length....In no age group did 28-day cycles occur in more than 9 per cent of women. Variability as measured by the standard deviation was high among those below 19 years of age, stabilized during 25-39 years, and then increased in women aged 40 years or more. The findings are discussed in the light of other studies and possible implications in fertility control programs."
Correspondence: L. Jeyaseelan, Christian Medical College, Department of Biostatistics, Vellore 632 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30560 Suzuki, Toru. Survival of direct progenitors in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 48, No. 1, Apr 1992. 32-7 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Changes in the likelihood of having a direct living progenitor for individuals in Japan are analyzed over time. The author notes that the likelihood of an individual's mother being alive increased up to 1989 and subsequently declined; for grandmothers, the turning point was 1984; and for great-grandmothers, 1979. The relationship of these trends to the increase in age at marriage is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30561 Weir, David R. Parental consumption decisions and child health during the early French fertility decline, 1790-1914. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 53, No. 2, Jun 1993. 259-74 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author uses height at adulthood to measure the intergenerational distribution of nutritional resources within households in France during the fertility decline of 1790-1914. "The intrahousehold distribution of resources was influenced by the level of income and by the calorie demands of working adults. Results show that the early decline of marital fertility in France was accompanied by a small but significant increase in expenditures on child quality as measured by heights. Reductions in mortality, independent of the level of food intake, also contributed to improved heights." Data are mainly from records of conscripts into the French army.
Correspondence: D. R. Weir, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 63 boulevard de Brandebourg, 94205 Ivry Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

59:30562 Adams, Richard H. The effects of migration and remittances on inequality in rural Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1992. 1,189-206 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author presents "a framework for analysing the impact of internal and international remittances on rural income distribution. This framework uses predicted income equations to predict (estimate) the incomes of households in two situations: excluding and including remittances. The results are then used to evaluate the changes in income distribution that occur when internal and international remittances are excluded, compared to when they are included....Data come from a three-year study (1986-87 to 1988-89) of 727 households in three provinces in rural Pakistan." A comment by Zafar Mahmood is included (pp. 1,204-6).
Correspondence: R. H. Adams, International Food Policy Research Institute, 1176 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30563 Klevmarken, N. Anders. Demographics and the dynamics of earnings. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1993. 105-22 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper discusses how demographic changes, in particular changes in cohort size, female labor force participation and migration, influence the dynamics of wage rate profiles. A review of the literature suggests that there are demographic effects on wage rate profiles, although they are usually rather small." Data are from Sweden and other developed countries.
Correspondence: N. A. Klevmarken, Gothenburg University, Department of Economics, Viktoriagatan 30, 41125 Goteborg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30564 Quibria, M. G. International migration, increasing returns, and real wages. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 26, No. 2, May 1993. 457-68 pp. Downsview, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The present paper makes an exploratory attempt to investigate the impact of emigration on real wages in the presence of increasing returns to scale in production. The problem has been posed in the context of a 2 x 2 model of international trade, where one of the commodities is a non-traded good and is subject to a type of increasing returns to scale that are external to the firm but internal to the industry. Analysis indicates that, in this instance, international emigration unambiguously increases real wages in the source country. This result, which seems to be at odds with the general presumption in this area, is quite robust to variations in the underlying assumptions behind the analysis."
Correspondence: M. G. Quibria, Asian Development Bank, 2330 Roxas Boulevard, Manila 2800, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30565 Sorensen, Marianne. The match between education and occupation for immigrant women in Canada. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 102, Jul 1993. 26 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
Data from a subsample taken from the 1986 Canadian census are used to examine the connection between postsecondary education and occupation among immigrant women.
Correspondence: University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, 1-62 HM Tory, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30566 Waldrop, Judith. The demographics of decision makers. American Demographics, Vol. 15, No. 6, Jun 1993. 26-32 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Demographic characteristics of company managers in the United States are analyzed using 1992 data from the Bureau of the Census. The author concludes that "middle management's profile is middle-aged and middle-class, and the share of women is growing. Since 1987, the number of part-time managers increased, and the salaries of full-timers stagnated."
Correspondence: J. Waldrop, American Demographics, 127 West State Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30567 Zarca, Bernard. The transmission of independent occupation between different generations by sex and birth order. [L'heritage de l'independance professionnelle selon les lignees, le sexe et le rang dans la fratrie.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 275-306 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author examines factors affecting the transfer of independent professional status from parent to child. He finds that "the extent to which independent occupations are passed from parent to child for children of different sexes and birth orders will depend on the wealth owned by the head of the enterprise. However, an analysis of differences in the rate of transmission among artisans and shopkeepers when parent and child are the same sex (father-son, mother-daughter) and when they are of different sexes (father-daughter, mother-son), and between children of different birth orders shows that birth order remains important and that transmission does not [depend] entirely on economic rationality. It also shows that the effect of birth order is more important for transmission from mother to daughter, and when the parent and the child are of opposite sex." Parental aspirations regarding the occupations of their children are also found to be influential. Data are mainly from a 1976 French survey.
Correspondence: B. Zarca, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

59:30568 Dankert, Gabriele; Hu, Yu. Coresidence with parents: levels and trends in six provinces of China. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 451-66 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Questions on coresidence with parents or parents-in-law after marriage are important for estimates of the future size of Chinese families. In this paper the levels and trends of incidence and duration are determined [and]...the main determinants of coresidence [are identified]: the availability of parents, the number of sons, the degree of modernization, and other determinants as, for example, the economic situation and housing conditions."
Correspondence: G. Dankert, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30569 Grimes, Seamus. Residential segregation in Australian cities: a literature review. International Migration Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1993. 103-20 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"In this review of literature dealing with the postwar immigrant experience in urban Australia, some of the key interpretations of residential segregation are assessed. The article focuses on studies which have examined ethnic clusters formed by southern Europeans in Sydney and Melbourne and more recently by Indochinese refugees. Much of the analysis to date has been based on measuring static residential patterns rather than social interaction, and the need to question the significance of ethnic concentrations which sometimes characterize the early stages of immigrant adaptation is suggested."
Correspondence: S. Grimes, University College Galway, Galway, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30570 Hirosima, Kiyosi. Recent changes in gender roles and multigenerational living arrangements in Japan. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 14, Feb 1993. 31 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The author discusses "changes in the relationship between living arrangements and gender roles in Japan using newly published survey data and works; first, living arrangements of the elderly, second, that of younger generation including just married couples, and third, effects of living arrangements [are considered]."
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30571 Lichter, Daniel T.; Cornwell, Gretchen T.; Eggebeen, David J. Harvesting human capital: family structure and education among rural youth. Rural Sociology, Vol. 58, No. 1, Spring 1993. 53-75 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"This paper evaluates the extent to which higher rural than urban [school] dropout rates are attributable to spatial differences in family structure (e.g., living arrangements, family size, and early childbearing) or economic resources (e.g., poverty) and estimates the differential effects of family structure and poverty on school dropout rates in nonmetropolitan areas, suburbs, and central cities. Data are drawn from the March 1990 [U.S.] Current Population Survey. Results indicate that residential differences in family structure account for a relatively small part of the higher dropout rates found in rural areas. Rural youth's experience with poverty appears to matter more. The educational effects of family structure are nevertheless strong in rural areas, albeit somewhat smaller than in suburban areas, owing perhaps to compensating forms of social capital found in rural areas."
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30572 Mulder, Clara H.; Manting, Dorien. Strategies of nest-leavers: "settling down" versus flexibility. PDOD Paper, No. 15, Apr 1993. 15, [4] pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
Demographic events that follow leaving the parental home in the Netherlands are analyzed. These concern the household and the family (including marriage and childbearing) and housing (including migration and home ownership). Data are from the Housing Needs Surveys of 1981, 1985, and 1989.
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30573 Smolka, Martin O. Relocating the rich, expelling the poor: residential segregation and the dynamics of the property market in the city of Rio de Janeiro. [Expulsando os pobres e redistribuindo os ricos: "dinamica imobiliaria" e segregacao residencial na cidade do Rio de Janeiro.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Jul 1992. 3-21 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper explores the mediating role of [the] property market in generating residential segregation [in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]....It is shown that the market for apartments is still basically high-income oriented (in contrast with the situation in cities of the developed countries) and that the rapid (faster than family mobility) spatial deconcentration of this market...has played an important role in expelling...the poor, albeit through indirect means, from the areas subjected more intensively to new property developments."
Correspondence: M. O. Smolka, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto do Pesquisa e Planejamento Urbano e Regional, Av. Brig. Trompowski s/n, 21941 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30574 Sohoni, Neera K. Some myths concerning the demographic status of girls. Working Papers on Women in International Development, No. 233, May 1992. 26 pp. Michigan State University, Women and International Development Program: East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the disadvantaged demographic status of girls from the ages of 0 to 19, compared with (1) boys in the same age groups and (2) women." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Michigan State University, Women and International Development Program, 202 International Center, East Lansing, MI 48824-1035. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30575 Warrick, Louise; Christianson, Jon B.; Walruff, Judy; Cook, Paul C. Educational outcomes in teenage pregnancy and parenting programs: results from a demonstration. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1993. 148-55 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A comparison of five in-school educational and service approaches offered at seven sites in Arizona to 789 pregnant and parenting teenagers shows that except for those who enroll in a program in their third trimester, pregnant and parenting teenagers who attend a comprehensive, school-based, community-linked program are significantly more likely to continue in school than are those who have no access to a special program. The comprehensive program's impact is greatest among Hispanic students, younger students, those in grades 9-10, those who are living with their partner and those who enter the program in the first trimester. Two of the program components--strong outreach efforts and case management--are believed to have an especially favorable impact on continuation in school."
Correspondence: L. Warrick, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30576 Zeng, Yi; Li, Xiaoli; Ma, Zhongdong. The trend and the model schedule of leaving the parental home after marriage in China. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 421-50 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Based on the relevant survey data from...twelve provinces/municipalities [in China], this paper investigates the trend of living arrangements at the time of the first marriage and the process of leaving the parental home after marriage, following a life table analysis approach. Not surprisingly, the surveys show that at the time of first marriage, a majority of the Chinese couples live in the husband's parental home and a small proportion live with the wife's parents."
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

59:30577 Barringer, Herbert R.; Gardner, Robert W.; Levin, Michael J. Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, ISBN 0-87154-095-9. LC 92-4867. 1993. xx, 371 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is an analysis of characteristics of the Asian American and Pacific Islander populations of the United States, and is one in a series of monographs based primarily on data from the 1980 census. The first eight chapters are concerned with Asian Americans and cover such topics as immigration, population size and growth, place of birth, citizenship, fertility, mortality, age and sex distribution, residence and migration, family and households, educational status, employment and occupations, and incomes. Chapter 9 is concerned with Pacific Islanders.
Correspondence: Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

59:30578 Blurton Jones, Nicholas G.; Smith, Lars C.; O'Connell, James F.; Hawkes, Kristen; Kamuzora, C. L. Demography of the Hadza, an increasing and high density population of savanna foragers. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 89, No. 2, 1992. 159-81 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This is a report on the demography of the Hadza, a population of East African hunter-gatherers. In it, we describe the results of a census, and our estimation of age structure, survivorship, mean age of women at childbearing, number of live children, total population size and density, and rate of change since 1967....We compare aspects of Hadza demography with surrounding non-Hadza and with the !Kung. Among other things, we find that the Hadza have a higher population density, higher fertility, and a faster population growth rate than do the !Kung. These demographic differences are consistent with our expectations, which were based on differences in the costs and benefits of foraging in the two regions. We also show that Hadza demographic parameters display remarkable consistency over the past 20 years." Data are from surveys carried out in 1967, 1977, and 1985.
Correspondence: N. G. Blurton Jones, University of California, Department of Education, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30579 Castonguay, Charles. Measuring linguistic assimilation by means of censuses. [Mesure de l'assimilation linguistique au moyen des recensements.] Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1993. 45-68, 199 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Through Canadian census data, linguistic assimilation can be measured not only on an individual basis, but also intergenerationally, in terms of the language transmitted to children, or...of the replacement of generations within a language group. The relationship between these various types of assimilation is examined, as well as the difficulties encountered in comparing the available data. In particular, it is found that since 1971, individual anglicization appears to have remained at the same level among Canada's French-speaking population. At the same time, however, the latter has become solidly engaged in the process of aggregate assimilation, the drastic decline in francophone birth rates having more than offset improved transmission of French to upcoming generations."
Correspondence: C. Castonguay, University of Ottawa, Department of Mathematics, 550 Cumberland Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30580 Chernaya, N. V. The Ukrainian population of Russia and the USSR beyond Ukraine (from the eighteenth to the twentieth century): population size and distribution. [Ukrainskoe naselenie Rossii i SSSR za predelami Ukrainy (XVIII-XX vv.): dinamika chislennosti i razmeshcheniya.] Rasy i Narody, Vol. 21, 1991. 62-79, 248 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author provides a detailed historical overview and analysis of the distribution and size of the Ukrainian population within Russia and the USSR but outside the borders of what constitutes modern Ukraine. Determinants of variations in the size of this population from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries are examined. Assimilation, bilingual trends, and retention of ethnic identity are discussed. Data are from censuses conducted between 1887 and 1989 and from church, police, and other archival records for the earlier period.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30581 Divinsky, Boris. Romanies in Slovakia: a challenge to the future. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1993. 23-33 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The spatial distribution and socioeconomic characteristics of the Gypsy population in Slovakia are described. Consideration is given to educational status, unemployment rates, criminal conviction rates, and number of Gypsies per city. Data are presented in tabular and map form.
Correspondence: B. Divinsky, Comenius University, Safarikovo nam. 6, 818 06 Bratislava, Slovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30582 Evtukh, Vladimir B. Ukrainian immigration in Canada: some aspects of socio-demographic integration. [Ukrainskaya immigratsiya v Kanade: nekotorye aspekty sotsial'no-demograficheskoi integratsii.] Migracijske Teme, Vol. 6, No. 4, Dec 1990. 497-510 pp. Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In Rus. with sum. in Eng; Scr.
The author examines social and demographic characteristics of Ukrainians living in Canada, with a focus on acculturation levels and trends. "Among the indices which confirm the notion that members of the group have integrated themselves into the social-demographic structure of Canadian society, the author notices: dispersive settlement (in all the provinces and territories of the country), urbanisation which recently has surpassed the Canadian average; an increase in the number of persons born in Canada (87.5%); a growing similarity between the employment structure of the able-bodied population and the employment structure typical for Canada as a whole; growth of the incomes of Ukrainian families;...[and] increases in the level of education...."
Correspondence: V. B. Evtukh, Akademiya Nauk USSR, Institut Istorii, Kiev, Ukraine. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30583 Feldman-Bianco, Bela. Homesickness, immigration, and the construction of a Portuguese foreign community. [Saudade, imigracao e a construcao de uma nacao (portuguesa) desterritorializada.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Jul 1992. 35-49 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"Based on ethnohistorical research (1910-1990) conducted in New Bedford, an industrial town of New England, U.S.A., this paper is directed at unveiling an apparent paradox: on the one hand, the analysis of domestic structures indicated that there has been since the late 1970's both an intensification of old and the emergence of new forms of transnationalism among [New Bedford's] Portuguese families; and, on the other hand, the observation of grass-roots 'community events' sugggested a simultaneous and progressive increase of ethnic insularity."
Correspondence: B. Feldman-Bianco, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Antropologia, CEP 13081 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30584 Gall, Susan B.; Gall, Timothy L. Statistical record of Asian Americans. ISBN 0-8103-8918-5. 1993. xxxiii, 796 pp. Gale Research: Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
A selection of data on the Asian and Pacific Island populations of Canada and the United States is presented. Chapters are included on health, immigration, and population and vital statistics. The chapter on health contains data on fertility and mortality. The chapter on immigration examines movements by ethnic group, state, and city, and, for Canada, by metropolitan area and province. The chapter on population and vital statistics presents data on the characteristics of the Asian and Pacific Island populations. Data are from a wide variety of published sources.
Correspondence: Gale Research, 835 Penobscot Building, Detroit, MI 48226-4094. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30585 Gentilli, Joseph. Italians in Western Australia: an isolated community in a period of aging. [Gli italiani nell'Australia Occidentale: una comunita isolata in fase di invecchiamento.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 30, No. 109, Mar 1993. 2-28 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Characteristics of the Italian-born population of Western Australia are examined in light of the state's large size and relative isolation. "After a brief review of the gold rush of the 1890s and the agricultural settlement that followed, the paper examines the evolution in the age composition of the population, the extraordinary rapid turnover of migrants, the predominance of young males among them. Brief comparisons are made with other migrant groups in 1986. The importance of education for the attainment of a good income is examined....[The author finds that] mixed marriages (some inevitable because of the much greater number of males among the Italian-born) enrich both sides culturally but speed up the assimilation process."
Correspondence: J. Gentilli, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30586 Ibragimov, M.-R. A. The population of Dagestan in the twentieth century (ethno-demographic problems). [Narody Dagestana v XX v. (etnodemograficheskie problemy).] Rasy i Narody, Vol. 21, 1991. 100-27, 249-50 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author presents a historical analysis of the ethnic composition of Russia's Dagestan Autonomous Republic during the twentieth century. Factors considered include the geographic distribution of more than 50 ethnic groups; growth of the total, urban, and rural population; and major ethnic groups. Data are for years 1926, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979, and 1989.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30587 Kaz'mina, O. E. Population dynamics of ethnic groups in Estonia in the twentieth century. [Dinamika chislennosti natsional'nykh grupp Estonii v XX v.] Rasy i Narody, Vol. 21, 1991. 79-99, 249 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author describes and analyzes changes in the ethnic composition of Estonia during the twentieth century. "The paper points out that ethnic composition of the urban population was changing in the period under consideration much more rapidly than the ethnic structure of the rural population." Data are from censuses conducted between 1897 and 1989.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30588 Reddy, Marlita A. Statistical record of native North Americans. ISBN 0-8103-8963-0. 1993. lxvi, 1,661 pp. Gale Research: Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
This is a compilation of statistical data on the indigenous population of North America. "There are twelve chapters on broad topics such as History, Demographics, and The Family. Within these chapters, data are organized by topics. In the chapter on Demographics, for instance, topics are Population, Tribal Enrollment, Population Trends, Geographic Mobility, and Housing and Household Characteristics. These topics are arranged in order from broad to narrow coverage of data. Tables under each topic are arranged in order of the scope of coverage. Data that compare Native Peoples to other groups come first. Next are tables comparing Native Peoples to each other. Finally, data on individual tribes or reservations (where available) are presented. Canadian data are shown in a separate chapter....Historical data are presented within a separate chapter when the data are chronologically historical in nature...." A keyword index is provided.
Correspondence: Gale Research, 835 Penobscot Building, Detroit, MI 48226-4094. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30589 Singh, K. S. People of India: an introduction. National Series, Vol. 1, ISBN 81-85579-09-1. 1992. 234 pp. Anthropological Survey of India: Calcutta, India; Seagull Books: Calcutta, India. In Eng.
This book is a product of the People of India Project, begun in 1985, which attempted to generate a brief, descriptive anthropological profile of all the communities of India. Some 4,635 ethnic groups or communities were identified during the project. This introductory volume describes the project as a whole and the publications generated by it. The information collected for each population includes current size according to the census; language; demographic characteristics, including fertility and mortality; marriage patterns; family characteristics; economic activities; and religion.
Correspondence: Seagull Books, 26 Circus Avenue, 1st floor, Calcutta 700 017, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1993-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.