Volume 59 - Number 3 - Fall 1993

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

59:30082 Andreev, E.; Scherbov, S.; Willekens, F. Mortality in the former Soviet Union: past and future. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-93-13, Mar 1993. v, 90 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
An analysis of trends in differential mortality by sex and cause of death in the former USSR is presented using official data for the period 1980-1990.
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30083 Baran, Alina. Mortality in the years 1950-1990. [Umieralnosc w latach 1950-1990.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 37, No. 10, Oct 1992. 19-24 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
"The author of the paper has attempted to show...trends in...mortality by sex, age, place of residence and [the] selected most important death causes in Poland. The crude and the specific as well as standardized death rates and life expectancy have been analyzed for the period...1950-1990."
Correspondence: A. Baran, Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30084 Bradshaw, D.; Dorrington, R. E.; Sitas, F. The level of mortality in South Africa in 1985--what does it tell us about health? South African Medical Journal/Suid-Afrikaanse Mediese Joernaal, Vol. 82, No. 4, Oct 1992. 237-40 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
"Estimates of mortality levels in blacks for 1985, derived using indirect demographic techniques, have provided an opportunity to analyse South African mortality in a health context....Apart from comparing life expectancy and infant and adult mortality rates for the different population groups, we also compared the overall South African mortality rates with those of selected countries....If these estimates are accurate, South African mortality rates do not reflect a healthy population."
Correspondence: D. Bradshaw, South African Medical Research Council, Centre for Epidemiological Research in Southern Africa, Parowvallei, 19070 Tygerberg 7505, CP, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30085 Brooks, Francis J. Revising the conquest of Mexico: smallpox, sources, and populations. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 24, No. 1, Summer 1993. 1-29 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author questions some estimates of the size of central Mexico's population in the early sixteenth century, at the time of the Spanish conquest. He also examines the available data concerning the decline of the indigenous population following the conquest, with a focus on the role that smallpox may have played. He concludes that there is no reliable evidence for a massive pandemic of smallpox in Mexico that would have had a significant effect on Aztec mortality.
Correspondence: F. J. Brooks, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA 5402, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

59:30086 Chevarley, Frances M.; Godfrey, A. Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Harry M.; Kochanek, Kenneth D.; Feinleib, Manning. Mortality Surveillance System: models from the first year. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 20: Data from the National Vital Statistics System, No. 21, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 93-1858. ISBN 0-8406-0468-8. LC 92-48958. May 1993. vi, 70 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents the statistical charts and text from the first year of the Mortality Surveillance System (MSS), as published in 12 issues of the Monthly Vital Statistics Report (MVSR)...and briefly describes the methodology that was used. Also presented are the monthly data used in fitting the models depicted in the published charts and the model statistics for the fitted curves....The MSS consists of a series of charts and text published each month in the MVSR, depicting trends in provisional mortality data for selected causes of death and population groups. Emphasis is given to graphic presentation that permits timely identification of departures from mortality trends observed in the recent past."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30087 Gage, Timothy B.; Mode, Charles J. Some laws of mortality: how well do they fit? Human Biology, Vol. 65, No. 3, Jun 1993. 445-61 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"The goodnesses of fit over the entire life span of four models of mortality are compared using life tables from Australia and the United States. The results indicate that the five-parameter Siler model fits considerably better than the more complex eight-parameter Heligman-Pollard and Mode-Busby models. On the other hand, the ten-parameter model proposed by Mode and Jacobson fits human mortality patterns better than the Siler model. We conclude that the Heligman-Pollard and Mode-Busby models are probably misspecified. Additional research is necessary to determine (1) whether the Heligman-Pollard model can be improved by specifying it as a true hazard model and (2) whether the respecified Heligman-Pollard and Mode-Jacobson models are statistically robust, particularly with abridged life tables."
Correspondence: T. B. Gage, State University of New York, Department of Anthropology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30088 Hill, Gerry. The entropy of the survival curve: an alternative measure. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1993. 43-57 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The 'entropy' of a life table, [Keyfitz's H] was introduced by Keyfitz as the elasticity of the expectation of life, E, with respect to uniform change in age-specific mortality rates. [Keyfitz's H] is not a true measure of entropy in the probability sense....A more direct measure is...the entropy of the distribution of age at death. The mathematical relationships between these indexes are reviewed, and their behaviour compared using historical cohort life tables from various countries, with Gompertz functions being fitted to survival from age 30 to age 85 for each sex." Data from Canada, England, France, the United States, and Wales are used in the study.
Correspondence: G. Hill, Health and Welfare Canada, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30089 Kohn, Robert E. Premature mortality in a general equilibrium model of air pollution control. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 1, Mar 1993. 1-8 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A general equilibrium model is developed in which production of a good generates toxic pollution that imposes the risk of premature mortality. This risk is reduced to an optimal level by a Pigouvian tax that causes consumers to demand less of the polluting good. Whereas the value of human life on which courtroom decisions are commonly made is one of lost output, in this model the value of human life includes both a lost output component and a psychological willingness to pay component." The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: R. E. Kohn, Southern Illinois University, Department of Economics, Edwardsville, IL 62026. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:30090 Krishnan, Parameswara. Mortality modelling with order statistics. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 95, Jan 1993. 12 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"The parameters of the distribution of age at death are estimated with the help of several order statistics." Some Canadian data are used as illustrations.
Correspondence: University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, 1-62 HM Tory, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30091 Loschky, David; Childers, Ben D. Early English mortality. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 24, No. 1, Summer 1993. 85-97 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors review available literature on mortality in England before 1500. They conclude that mortality probably fell significantly at some time during the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries.
Correspondence: D. Loschky, University of Missouri, Department of Economics, Columbia, MO 65211. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

59:30092 Malcolm, Murray S.; Salmond, Clare E. Trends in amenable mortality in New Zealand 1968-1987. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 22, No. 3, Jun 1993. 468-74 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Trends in amenable mortality rates for Maori and non-Maori New Zealanders were analysed and compared using regression models. The contribution of medical services to the decline in mortality rates was estimated. Mortality from causes amenable to medical intervention declined at a greater rate than non-amenable mortality for both groups. The proportion of the decline in mortality attributable to improvement in the impact of medical services was greater for non-Maori than for Maori, especially for females." Data are from the annual Mortality and Demographic Data Series and concern the period 1968-1987.
Correspondence: M. S. Malcolm, Christchurch School of Medicine, Department of Community Health, P.O. Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30093 Mannan, M. A. Mother and child health in Bangladesh: evidence from field data. BIDS Research Report, No. 117, Feb 1990. [xi], 59 pp. Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies [BIDS]: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
This is a general review of maternal and child mortality in Bangladesh, the causes of such mortality, and ways in which improvement might be achieved. Data are primarily from the Bangladesh Health Finance and Expenditure Study Project of 1987-1988.
Correspondence: Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, E-17 Agargaon, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30094 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). An evaluation of the recording of vital statistics on deaths (life tables in Morocco). [Evaluation de l'enregistrement des deces de l'etat civil (tables de mortalite au Maroc).] Apr 1993. 44 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
An attempt is first made to estimate the current level of underregistration of deaths in Morocco, as well as changes over time in this level. The study then presents estimates of current levels of infant, child, and adult mortality based on corrected vital statistics data for 1990, which take the estimates of underregistration into account. Finally, life tables for 1990 are provided by sex for both rural and urban areas.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30095 Pampalon, Robert. Avoidable mortality in Quebec and its regions. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 6, Sep 1993. 823-31 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Comparisons are made of avoidable mortality in the Canadian province of Quebec in the periods 1969-1973 and 1982-1990. The results indicate that "avoidable mortality has dropped substantially in Quebec, except in the case of asthma, and now displays excellent scores at the international level. Only three causes of death show significant regional variations: tuberculosis, hypertensive and cerebrovascular diseases and perinatal mortality. These variations are mainly associated with socio-economic factors but also with health services. Furthermore, the highest rates of avoidable death have been observed in Gaspesie, Saguenay/Lac St-Jean and in the two northern regions [of Kativik and Baie-James."
Correspondence: R. Pampalon, Ministere de la Sante et des Services Sociaux, 1075 Chemin Ste-Foy, Quebec G1S 2M1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30096 Phillips, David P.; Smith, Daniel G. Postponement of death until symbolically meaningful occasions. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 263, No. 14, Apr 11, 1990. 1,947-51 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This study shows that mortality dips before a symbolically meaningful occasion and peaks just afterward. Mortality among Chinese [in California]...dips by 35.1% in the week before the Harvest Moon Festival and peaks by the same amount (34.6%) in the week after....In terms of percentage, cerebrovascular diseases displayed the largest dip/peak pattern, followed by diseases of the heart, and then malignant neoplasms. The dip/peak mortality pattern does not appear in various non-Chinese control groups....After testing alternative explanations for the findings, we concluded that the dip/peak pattern occurs because death can be briefly postponed until after the occurrence of a significant occasion." Comparisons with an earlier study of mortality among Jews around the time of Passover are made. Data concern all Chinese deaths from natural causes in California from 1960 through 1984.
For the earlier study by Phillips and E. W. King, published in 1988, see 54:40121.
Correspondence: D. P. Phillips, University of California at San Diego, Department of Sociology, La Jolla, CA 92093. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30097 Sardon, Jean-Paul. A period measure of mortality: the example of France. [Un indicateur conjoncturel de mortalite: l'exemple de la France.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 347-68 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author applies two indexes to the measurement of mortality using data for France. "The first of these indices will be a period measure of mortality and shows the numbers of deaths that would be registered (on the assumption of zero migration), if the annual number of births were to remain constant. It, therefore, shows changes in the timing of deaths over different cohorts. The second index is the average of this distribution. Life expectancy at birth calculated from this table will always be lower than that calculated from a traditional table. The application of these indices to French data shows that use of these new indices can complement the analysis of mortality by means of traditional life tables."
Correspondence: J.-P. Sardon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30098 Sardon, Jean-Paul. Quotients, frequencies, and events. [Quotients, frequences et evenements.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1993. 489-95 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author briefly examines and compares three methods of mortality estimation.
Correspondence: J.-P. Sardon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30099 Schwartz, Joel. Air pollution and daily mortality in Birmingham, Alabama. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 137, No. 10, May 15, 1993. 1,136-47 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This study examines the relationship between levels of particulate air pollution and mortality using data for Birmingham, Alabama, for the period 1985-1988, taking different weather patterns into account and using different methods of analysis and covariate control. The results indicate a significant association between inhalable particles and daily mortality.
Correspondence: J. Schwartz, Harvard School of Public Health, Environmental Epidemiology Program, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:30100 Takahashi, Shigesato. Future life expectancy and causes of death in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 48, No. 4, Jan 1993. 1-15 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines projected trends in life expectancy and mortality by cause in Japan to the year 2025.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30101 Tu, Jow-ching; Chen, Kuanjeng; Chen, Chaujong. Active life expectancy in Taiwan: compression or expansion? Journal of Population Studies, No. 15, Dec 1992. 17-30 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper applies the multiple-decrement life table to the analysis of mortality and self-reported disability [for Taiwan], annually from 1986 until 1989....It was found that during this period of time, the shifts in 'mortality' and 'disability' curves conform to the compression hypothesis. The area in between the two curves [has] shrunk in the 4 year period....The sex differential in disability has been examined. It is concluded that though at the younger ages women tend to spend less person-years in disability, the situation is quite different at older ages. Women tend to have greater chance [of] and longer duration suffering from disability at old age than men."
Correspondence: J.-c. Tu, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Division of Social Sciences, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30102 van Hoorn, W. D. Mortality in the Netherlands population forecasts. [De sterfte in de nationale bevolkingsprognose.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 41, No. 4, Apr 1993. 12-25 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in life expectancy in the Netherlands are reviewed, using mortality data from the 1992 official Netherlands population forecasts. Data are presented by age and sex. "A main conclusion is that mortality in recent years has developed more favourably for men than for women."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30103 Whitcombe, Elizabeth. Famine mortality. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 28, No. 23, Jun 5, 1993. 1,169-79 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author uses official data from the British colonial government to analyze famine mortality in late nineteenth-century India. She notes that "the giant misery of starvation caused by the alarming incidence of famine...was compounded by the appalling conditions of migration and over-crowding into which the starving poor were driven, often literally to death, conditions exacerbated by the official measures devised for famine relief. Worse, in the great famine years..., rain which might have been expected to bring respite to the survivors of the drought instead intensified their suffering: epidemic malaria took its colossal toll. In other years drought, where it persisted, ironically limited mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30104 Woods, Robert. On the historical relationship between infant and adult mortality. Population Studies, Vol. 47, No. 2, Jul 1993. 195-219 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The changing relationship between infant, early childhood and adult mortality under conditions where life expectancy at birth is very low is considered in this paper. The feasibility of predicting life expectancy at birth from the infant mortality rate, and conversely, is discussed....Attention is also given to the nature of distinctive cause-specific age-at-death patterns, and the effects they may have on the balance between infant and early childhood mortality during the historical epidemiological transition. The paper concludes by outlining some of the implications for research on mortality levels in contemporary Third-World populations, especially the debate over the relative influence of medical intervention and socio-economic development."
Correspondence: R. Woods, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, POB 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

No citations in this issue.

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

59:30105 Armenian, Haroutune K.; McCarthy, James F.; Balbanian, Sevan G. O. Patterns of infant mortality from Armenian parish records: a study from 10 countries of the diaspora, 1737-1982. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 22, No. 3, Jun 1993. 457-62 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using parish records from 10 different countries with small Armenian communities, this study compared patterns of infant mortality [IMR] in these countries over a period of 245 years....Over the past 245 years, IMR have fallen substantially in all parishes. However, there were notable exceptions to this general pattern of declining IMR over time....The observed variation in IMR between the various communities and during different time periods may be due to differences in registration procedures and also may reflect differences in socioeconomic or environmental conditions." The countries studied are Bangladesh, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Palestine, Singapore, and Yugoslavia.
Correspondence: H. K. Armenian, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30106 Bittles, A. H. Infant and child mortality in rural Egypt: a comment. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jul 1993. 415-6 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author comments on an "analysis of infant and child mortality in rural Egypt, derived from data collected as part of the World Fertility Survey in 1980 [in which] Casterline, Cooksey & Ismail (1992) specifically noted the significant differentials in neonatal and early infant mortality which existed between Lower and Upper Egypt....It is suggested that in all countries and communities where consanguineous marriages are strongly favoured,...data on the biological relationship between spouses should be collected and analysed as an essential variable in biosocial studies." A reply by John B. Casterline is included (p. 416).
For the article by J. B. Casterline et al., see 58:20132.
Correspondence: A. H. Bittles, King's College London, Biomedical Sciences Division, London WC2R 2LS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30107 Boerma, J. Ties; Stroh, George. Using survey data to assess neonatal tetanus mortality levels and trends in developing countries. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 3, Aug 1993. 459-75 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We analyze birth history data from 37 national surveys in developing countries to assess the quality of neonatal mortality data and to estimate levels and trends in mortality occurring at 4-14 days. It is shown that mortality at 4-14 days has declined considerably during the last decade in most developing countries, concomitant with development and expansion of programs to reduce neonatal tetanus. These declines show that reductions in neonatal tetanus mortality probably have been an important contributor to the decline of neonatal and infant mortality during the 1980s."
Correspondence: J. T. Boerma, Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30108 Carme, B.; Guillo du Bodan, H.; Lallemant, M. Infant and child mortality and malaria in the Congo: the trends in the suburbs of Brazzaville between 1981 and 1988. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1992. 177-80 pp. New York, New York/Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
The authors examine levels and trends in infant and child mortality in the suburbs of Brazzaville, Congo, between 1981 and 1988. The focus is on deaths due to malaria. "Our results show that by 1988 there had not been an obvious increase in malaria mortality in the suburban areas of Brazzaville where malaria transmission remains intense. Early treatment of fever still seems sufficiently effective to prevent the occurrence of severe malaria in this population who have a good level of malaria immunity."
Correspondence: B. Carme, CHRU d'Amiens, Hopital Sud, Faculte de Medecine, Avenue Rene Laennec, 80054 Amiens Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30109 Crook, Nigel R. Persistence of inequalities in childhood mortality in the 1980s: a matter of economics or behaviour? Health Transition Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Apr 1993. 91-5 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author critiques an article by John Cleland, George Bicego, and Greg Fegan "that claims to examine and interpret the change in socioeconomic inequalities in childhood mortality [in developing countries] between the 1970s and 1980s. In particular the paper seeks to answer two questions: 'are socioeconomic disparities in child survival widening or narrowing? And to what extent can mortality decline be attributed to changes in the socioeconomic composition of population?'" A reply by Cleland et al. is included (pp. 94-5).
For the article by Cleland et al., published in 1992, see 58:30119.
Correspondence: N. R. Crook, School of Oriental and African Studies, Economics Department, Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H 0XG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30110 Ewbank, Douglas C.; Gribble, James N. Effects of health programs on child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa, Pub. Order No. B165. ISBN 0-309-04941-5. LC 93-84761. 1993. xv, 191 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report is one in a series of studies that have been carried out under the auspices of the Panel on the Population Dynamics of Sub-Saharan Africa of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Population....This volume, one of...four cross-national studies, attempts to document the effects of general health and child survival programs on mortality....The disease-specific orientation of this report draws attention to a variety of strategies and interventions that have been developed in an effort to reduce the mortality effects of many of the most important diseases. It also examines the effects of general health programs that have been implemented in various settings of Sub-Saharan Africa."
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30111 Gonzalez Cervera, Alfonso S.; Cardenas Elizalde, Rosario. The measurement of infant mortality: problems and alternatives. [La medicion de la mortalidad infantil: los problemas y las alternativas.] Collecion Ensayos, ISBN 970-620-091-6. 1992. 76 pp. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Departamento de Atencion a la Salud: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The authors first examine four methods for calculating rates of infant mortality: direct estimation, the registered live births method, life table models, and indirect estimation. They then describe a new method and test it on data both from countries that lack sufficient statistics and from those where complete data are available.
Correspondence: Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Seccion de Produccion Editorial, Calz. del Hueso 1100, Col. Villa Quietud, 04960, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30112 Gu, Xing-yuan. Infant and child mortality of eight provinces of China. In: Fertility in China. Proceedings of the International Seminar on China's In-Depth Fertility Survey, Beijing, February 13-17, 1990. 1991. 167-76 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper the infant and child mortality of 8 provinces in China were analysed using data from the China In-Depth Fertility Survey (Phase I and II) [conducted in 1985 and 1987]."
Correspondence: X.-y. Gu, Shanghai Medical University, Department of Medical Demography, 138 Yixueyuan Lu, Shanghai 200032, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30113 Hartmann, Michael. A parametric method for census based estimation of child mortality. Journal of Official Statistics, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1991. 45-55 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"A parametric method for estimating child mortality from reports concerning children ever born and surviving children is presented. In contrast with previously proposed methods, it facilitates use of single-year age reports by mothers on the survival of their children. In addition, the new method makes it possible to incorporate a priori knowledge of child mortality and fertility in the estimation process. The new method is illustrated by means of an application to data from the 1976 Western Samoa census."
Correspondence: M. Hartmann, Karolinska Institute, Department of Social Medicine, 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden. Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

59:30114 Kalipeni, Ezekiel. Determinants of infant mortality in Malawi: a spatial perspective. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 2, Jul 1993. 183-98 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the spatial variation of infant mortality in Malawi between 1977 and 1987. Data from the 1977 and 1987 censuses are used in simple correlation and forward stepwise regression analysis to explain and/or predict the variation and change of infant mortality at district (county) level. The results indicate that, at the macro-level, the variation of infant mortality is strongly associated with a number of demographic and socioeconomic variables. Region in which a district finds itself also matters as far as levels of infant mortality are concerned."
Correspondence: E. Kalipeni, Colgate University, Department of Geography, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30115 Kiani, M. Framurz K. Differentials in child mortality and health care in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Pt. 2, Winter 1992. 1,051-61 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author uses data from the 1984-1985 Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey to examine child mortality and health care. The paper "attempts to analyse the differentials in child mortality by parent's education, health care, and rural-urban residence. An attempt has also been made to assess maternal health care by urban-rural residence." A comment by Khaleda Manzoor is included (pp. 1,059-61).
Correspondence: M. F. K. Kiani, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30116 Mahmood, Muhammad A. Socio-economic factors, personal illness control and infant and child mortality in Pakistan. Pakistan Population Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 1992. 67-86 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The hypothesis of the inverse relationship of socio-economic status of the parents and child infant mortality rates has been retested by introducing 'personal illness control' as an intervening variable. The data obtained in the 1984/1985 Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey have been used. The infant and child mortality rates have been estimated by using indirect techniques." The author finds that infant and child mortality rates are lower among upper socioeconomic groups, with mother's educational status being particularly important.
Correspondence: M. A. Mahmood, Ministry of Population Welfare, Directorate of Survey, Statistics and Data Processing, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30117 Majumder, Abul K.; Islam, S. M. Shafiqul. Socioeconomic and environmental determinants of child survival in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jul 1993. 311-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Differentials in child survival in Bangladesh have been examined using a number of socioeconomic and environmental factors on data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey. Multivariate analysis reveals that both wife's and husband's education and household electricity show a significant positive association with child survival. The respondent's working status exerts a significant negative influence. Wife's education has a greater influence on child survival in Bangladesh than that of husband's education."
Correspondence: A. K. Majumder, University of Chittagong, Department of Statistics, University Post Office, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30118 Paim, Jairnilson S.; Costa, Maria da C. N. Decrease and inequalities in infant mortality: Salvador, 1980-1988. [Decrescimo e desigualdade da mortalidade infantil: Salvador, 1980-1988.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 114, No. 5, May 1993. 415-28 pp. Washington, D.C. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"This study sought to describe the changes in mortality among infants under one year of age in different areas of the city of Salvador, Bahia, [Brazil] during the period 1980-1988....The results showed that infant mortality in that age group had declined over the period, but that at the end of the period inequalities persisted in the distribution of infant deaths, which confirmed that conditions remained adverse for certain segments of the population."
Correspondence: J. S. Paim, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Rua Padre Feijo, 29-4o Andar, 40.140 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30119 Popkin, Barry M.; Guilkey, David K.; Schwartz, J. Brad; Flieger, Wilhelm. Survival in the perinatal period: a prospective analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jul 1993. 359-70 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A prospective study of 3,080 Filipino mothers and non-twin births in 33 communities is used to study the determinants of mortality in week 1 postpartum. The results show significant nonlinear birth weight effects and the importance of environmental contamination, particularly for infants born by traditional methods at home, and several other intermediate and underlying determinants of perinatal mortality. The pathways through which important sociodemographic factors affect perinatal mortality are also presented....The study site, Metropolitan Cebu, embraces urban and rural portions of the Island of Cebu in the Central Philippines...."
Correspondence: B. M. Popkin, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30120 Sandhya, S. Socio-economic and cultural correlates of infant mortality: a demographic appraisal. ISBN 81-7022-372-5. 1991. 128 pp. Concept Publishing: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the factors affecting infant mortality in India. It is primarily based on data from a 1981 survey of some 600 households, half from an economically developed district and half from an underdeveloped district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Equal consideration is given to sociocultural and economic correlates of infant mortality and to environmental and infrastructural correlates.
Correspondence: Concept Publishing Company, A/15-16 Commercial Block, Mohan Garden, New Delhi 110 059, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30121 Swenson, Ingrid E.; Thang, Nguyen Minh; San, Pham Bich; Nham, Vu Qui; Man, Vu Duy. Factors influencing infant mortality in Vietnam. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jul 1993. 285-302 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Selected determinants of overall infant mortality in Vietnam were examined using data from the 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey, and factors underlying neonatal and post-neonatal mortality were also compared. Effects of community development characteristics, including health care, were studied by logistic regression analysis in a subsample of rural children from the 1990 Vietnam Accessibility of Contraceptives Survey....Logistic regression analysis showed that the most significant predictor of infant mortality was residence in a province where overall infant mortality was over 40 per 1,000 live births. In the rural subsample, availability of public transport was the most persistent community development predictor of infant mortality. Reasons for the low infant mortality rates in Vietnam compared to countries with similar levels of economic development are discussed."
Correspondence: I. E. Swenson, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30122 United Nations. Comision Economica para America Latina y el Caribe [CEPAL] (Santiago, Chile); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). The previous-child method for estimating mortality in children. [El procedimiento del hijo previo para estimar la mortalidad en la ninez.] CELADE Serie E, No. 36, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G 122. Jan 1993. 215 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
This report contains articles by various authors on the estimation of child mortality in Latin America using the previous-child method. Following an overview of the method, case studies conducted in Argentina, Bolivia, the Dominican Republic, and Honduras are provided. A brief description of software developed by CELADE for use with previous-child data is included.
Correspondence: UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30123 Van den Broeck, Jan; Eeckels, Roger; Vuylsteke, Jacques. Influence of nutritional status on child mortality in rural Zaire. Lancet, Vol. 341, No. 8859, Jun 12, 1993. 1,491-5 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between mild to moderate undernutrition and infant and child mortality is explored using data for a random cluster sample of 5,167 children aged 0-5, collected in the period 1989-1991 in the rural area of Bwamanda, Zaire. The results indicate that although severe malnutrition was associated with an increased risk of death, "mild to moderate stunting or wasting were not associated with higher mortality in the short term...or in the long term....The commonest causes of death were malaria and anaemia."
Correspondence: J. Van den Broeck, University of Leuven, Centre for Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:30124 Vazquez-Vizoso, F.; Castilla, J.; Pollan, M.; Lopez-Abente, G. Assessment of trends in geographical inequalities in infant mortality. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 3, Aug 1993. 413-7 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is two-fold: (a) to propose an overall measure by which geographical inequality in infant death can be quantified, and (b) to suggest a methodology for assessing time-trends and percentage-changes that such geographical inequality might undergo. With this purpose in mind, we present the evolution of four indicators based on infant death--Infant, Neonatal, Postneonatal and Perinatal Mortality--between 1975 and 1986 [in Spain]." Official vital statistics data are used in the analysis.
Correspondence: F. Vazquez-Vizoso, National Centre for Epidemiology, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30125 Victora, Cesar G.; Huttly, Sharon R. A.; Fuchs, S. C.; Barros, F. C.; Garenne, M.; Leroy, O.; Fontaine, O.; Beau, J. P.; Fauveau, V.; Chowdhury, H. R.; Yunus, M.; Chakraborty, J.; Sarder, A. M.; Kapoor, S. K.; Bhan, M. K.; Nath, L. M.; Martines, J. C. International differences in clinical patterns of diarrhoeal deaths: a comparison of children from Brazil, Senegal, Bangladesh, and India. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Vol. 11, No. 1, Mar 1993. 25-9 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"Population-based data on deaths due to diarrhoea among children less than 5 years of age were obtained from areas of Brazil (227 deaths), Senegal (531), Bangladesh (236) and India (146)....Persistent diarrhoea accounted for over 60% of infant diarrhoeal deaths in Brazil, 47% in India, 36% in Senegal, and 26% in Bangladesh....Among children 1-4 years old dying from diarrhoea, persistent episodes were the most common in Senegal and India, whereas dysentery was the leading pattern in Bangladesh. These differences may be related to the use of oral rehydration therapy and the utilisation of health care, as well as to environmental characteristics, and are relevant for planning control strategies."
Correspondence: C. G. Victora, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Departamento de Medicina Social, Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30126 Wadhera, Surinder; Strachan, Jill. Selected infant mortality and related statistics, Canada, 1921-1990. [Statistiques choisies sur la mortalite infantile et statistiques connexes, Canada, 1921-1990.] Pub. Order No. 82-549. ISBN 0-660-54876-3. Mar 1993. 83 pp. Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This publication is a compilation of historical data relating to the demographic aspects of infant deaths, maternal deaths and stillbirths from 1921-1990 for Canada, the ten provinces, and the two territories. Major topics included in this publication relate to: Infant and perinatal deaths and rates, maternal deaths and rates, and stillbirth numbers and rates."
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

59:30127 Williams, Naomi. Death in its season: class, environment and the mortality of infants in nineteenth-century Sheffield. Social History of Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 1, Apr 1992. 71-94 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Drawing on results of a nominative record-linkage study for Sheffield [England], this paper examines the geographical and social inequalities in infant mortality within the urban environment. It compares the seasonal pattern of infant deaths on a class-specific basis across a broad range of differing sanitary areas within the town. Although the summer months posed the greatest threat for all infants, these risks varied considerably according to socio-economic background and also according to the part of the town where the infant lived. And although both factors exerted an independent contribution to the pattern of infant mortality, the effects were cumulative. These results are discussed in relation to historical interpretations and also the nineteenth-century debates about the causes of infant mortality."
Correspondence: N. Williams, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Roxby Building, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30128 Zenger, Elizabeth. Siblings' neonatal mortality risks and birth spacing in Bangladesh. Demography, Vol. 30, No. 3, Aug 1993. 477-88 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper studies the familial association of neonatal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh and its relationship to birth-spacing effects on mortality. Findings show that familial association is strongest for siblings of adjacent birth orders. Moreover, birth-spacing effects on neonatal mortality are stronger when the preceding child has survived the neonatal period than when it has died. Transitional (Markov), random-effects, and marginal models for correlated data are introduced, and are contrasted in interpetation and technique. Familial association of neonatal mortality can be approximated well by a first-order Markov model using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to allow for higher-order correlation."
Correspondence: E. Zenger, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

59:30129 Duchene, Josianne; Thiltges, Evelyne. Mortality of those over 15 in Belgium: regional differences, 1985-1987. [La mortalite des plus de 15 ans en Belgique: les disparites regionales en 1985-1987.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1993. 61-74 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Regional variations in adult mortality in Belgium during the period 1985-1987 are examined. The authors find that "regional inequalities of adult mortality are lesser today than in the past. The rapid decrease of mortality since the 1980's seems to reduce inequalities, but contrasts remain among age mortality patterns."
Correspondence: J. Duchene, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 Place Montesquieu, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

59:30130 Bahamas. Department of Statistics (Nassau, Bahamas). The Commonwealth of the Bahamas. Life table report, 1989-1991. Jun 1993. ii, 18 pp. Nassau, Bahamas. In Eng.
Abridged life tables for the Bahamas are presented for the period 1989-1991 by sex.
Correspondence: Department of Statistics, Clarence A. Bain Building, Thompson Boulevard, P.O. Box N-3904, Nassau, Bahamas. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30131 Honkanen, Ossi. Life tables, 1986-90. [Kuolleisuus- ja eloonjaamis-tauluja, 1986-90/Dodlighets- och livslangdstabeller, 1986-90.] Vaesto/Befolkning/Population 1993, No. 5, 1993. 32 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng; Swe.
Life tables for Finland for the period 1986-1990 are presented and briefly discussed. Among the findings, it is noted that "life expectancy at birth in Finland during the 1986-1990 period was 70.7 years for males and 78.8 years for females....The mortality of young and middle-aged people rose from the previous five-year period....Excluding the oldest five-year age group, mortality was lower among married people than among people in the other marital status groups."
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, PL 504, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30132 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The 45th abridged life tables (April 1, 1991-March 31, 1992). Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 276, Feb 15, 1993. 27 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Life tables for Japan are presented by sex for the period 1991-1992 by five-year age groups and by single years of age. Trends in life expectancy at birth are summarized.
For a previous report in this series, see 57:20160.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30133 Malaker, C. R.; Roy, S. Guha. Reconstruction of Indian life tables for 1901-1981 and projections for 1981-2001. Sankhya: Indian Journal of Statistics, Series B, Vol. 52, No. 3, Dec 1990. 271-86 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
"An attempt has been made to reconstruct life tables for India from 1901-11 to 1971-81 and to project for the decades 1981-91 and 1991-2001 by adopting a Brass relational model. The earlier actuarial life tables seem to have been based on a British model of sex differentials in mortality leading to higher life expectancies for females--not in tune with Indian experience. Consistency has been attained in this study by taking recourse to mortality patterns obtained from the Sample Registration System."
Correspondence: C. R. Malaker, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30134 Mesle, France; Vallin, Jacques. Reconstitution of annual life tables for nineteenth-century France. Population. English Selection, Vol. 3, 1991. 33-63 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"The nineteenth century was not one of runaway health progress, but it marked a deep transformation of mortality conditions [in France]. The reconstitution of mortality tables by single years of age and calendar years makes it possible to study this transformation in detail, and to distinguish between period fluctuations and structural changes. In the present article, we have given preference to graphic representation, and purposely limited the statistics....We have also given preference to the period approach." Consideration is given to annual mortality trends, life expectancy, age-specific probability of dying, the war-related crisis years of 1813, 1871, and 1915, and differentials in mortality by sex. Data generally concern the period 1806-1898.
This is a translation of the article published in 1989 in French and cited in 56:30151.
Correspondence: F. Mesle, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30135 New Zealand. Department of Statistics (Wellington, New Zealand). New Zealand life tables, 1985-1987. Pub. Order No. 03.301.0087. 1991. 41 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This report presents complete Life Tables for the New Zealand Maori, non-Maori and total populations [by sex] for the period 1985-87."
Correspondence: Department of Statistics, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

59:30136 Aggleton, John P.; Kentridge, Robert W.; Neave, Nicholas J. Evidence for longevity differences between left handed and right handed men: an archival study of cricketers. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 47, No. 3, Jun 1993. 206-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim [of this study] was to examine the relationship between handedness and longevity. This was an archival (retrospective) survey of a cohort of adult men who had played 'first-class cricket' [in] the United Kingdom....Using the bowling hand as an indicator of handedness it was possible to compare the lifespans of 2,580 right handed men and 585 left handed men. The average life spans of the two groups differed by 25 months....The study found clear evidence that left handedness was associated with a decrease in longevity among a cohort of adult, athletic men. A major factor responsible for this result seemed to be a differential likelihood of accidental death or death during warfare."
Correspondence: J. P. Aggleton, University of Durham, Department of Psychology, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30137 Anson, Jon. Regional mortality differences in Britain, 1931-87: a two dimensional analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jul 1993. 383-95 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In a recent analysis, Illsley, Le Grand & Mullings argued that, over the years 1931-87, regional inequalities in mortality in Britain effectively disappeared for most groups. The present study reanalyses their data, breaking regional life tables down into their two major components, the level of survivorship, and the shape of the mortality curve. It is shown that whereas there has been a consistent decline in regional inequalities in the level of mortality, there has not been a comparable convergence in the shape of the mortality curves. These shape differences, implying premature adult mortality, are now the major source of variation among the regions."
The article by R. Illsley et al. was published as International Centre for Economics and Related Disciplines Discussion Paper, No. WSP/57, London, England, London School of Economics, 1991.
Correspondence: J. Anson, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Social Work, Beersheba, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30138 Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Smith, George D.; Shipley, Martin; Marmot, M. G. Magnitude and causes of mortality differences between married and unmarried men. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 47, No. 3, Jun 1993. 200-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors study a cohort of 18,403 British men aged 40-64 who were examined as part of the Whitehall study between 1967 and 1969, then followed up for 18 years. The objective is "to determine the effect of marital status on mortality for men. In particular, to examine whether subgroups of unmarried men (widowed, single, and divorced/separated men) have a similar mortality to married men. [They find that] overall mortality was greater for all groups of unmarried men."
Correspondence: Y. Ben-Shlomo, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 66-72 Gower Street, London WC1E 6EA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30139 Chiassino, Giuseppe; Sacco, Pietro. Regional differences in mortality in Italy. [Differenze regionali di mortalita in Italia.] Rassegna Economica, Vol. 56, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1992. 785-96 pp. Naples, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"Following the recent publication of 1990 mortality tables for the Italian regions by the 'Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione', the authors have surveyed the 1990 mortality differences by regions in Italy as well as the regional changes...in mortality levels from 1970-72...to 1990. In particular, the authors focused on the levels of life expectancy at birth in the Italian regions as well as on their trend over the 20 year period; male [excess] mortality; the regional differences in the probability of death for specific age groups and their trends over the period under study; [and] the mortality risk in the different regions."
Correspondence: G. Chiassino, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Palazzo Ateneo, 70121 Bari, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:30140 Coate, Douglas. Moderate drinking and coronary heart disease mortality: evidence from NHANES I and the NHANES I Follow-up. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 83, No. 6, Jun 1993. 888-90 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Data from the [U.S.] National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1971 through 1974, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Follow-up, conducted from 1982 through 1984, were used to test for a beneficial effect of moderate alcohol consumption on coronary heart disease mortality among White men and women. Evidence of such an effect was found for White men; accelerated time-to-failure models showed 3% to 4% longer life spans for moderate drinkers than for nondrinkers or light drinkers."
Correspondence: D. Coate, Rutgers University, Department of Economics, Hill Hall, Room 803, 360 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd., Newark, NJ 07102. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:30141 Dahl, Espen. High mortality in lower salaried Norwegian men: the healthy worker effect. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 47, No. 3, Jun 1993. 192-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study aimed to examine whether the high mortality in lower salaried men in Norway was related to an inflow into this group of unskilled workers with high mortality....The study population included Norwegian men aged 20-64 years in 1980....Mortality was measured by standardised mortality ratios (SMR). The findings suggest that a fairly large number of unskilled workers with high mortality move into the lower salaried employee group."
Correspondence: E. Dahl, Norwegian Trade Union Center for Social Science and Research, Fossveien 19, 0551 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30142 Ginsberg, Gary M. Standardized mortality ratios for Israel, 1983-86. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 12, Dec 1992. 868-77 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
"This article presents regional SMRs [standardized mortality ratios] for the Israeli population (both Jews and non-Jews) for the years 1983-86. These rates were standardized not only for age and sex but also by continent of birth and religion in an attempt to take into account any ethnic component that could be the cause of regional differences. The research also investigates whether or not there have been changes in regional SMRs over the past decade."
Correspondence: G. M. Ginsberg, 25/2 Reuven Street, Baka, 93510 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30143 Guralnik, Jack M.; Land, Kenneth C.; Blazer, Dan; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Branch, Laurence G. Educational status and active life expectancy among older blacks and whites. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 329, No. 2, Jul 8, 1993. 110-6 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors use "data from a community-based population 65 years of age and older in north central North Carolina to examine life expectancy and active life expectancy among blacks and whites of both sexes with lower and higher levels of education." Data are from the Piedmont Health Survey of the Elderly and concern 2,219 blacks and 1,838 whites 65 years of age or older. The results indicate that "among older blacks and whites, the level of education, a measure of socioeconomic status, has a greater effect than race on total life expectancy and active life expectancy."
Correspondence: J. M. Guralnik, U.S. National Institute on Aging, 7201 Wisconsin Avenue, Room 3C-309, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:30144 Pappas, Gregory; Queen, Susan; Hadden, Wilbur; Fisher, Gail. The increasing disparity in mortality between socioeconomic groups in the United States, 1960 and 1986. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 329, No. 2, Jul 8, 1993. 103-9 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Using records from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey (n = 13,491) and the 1986 National Health Interview Survey (n = 30,725), we replicated the analysis by Kitagawa and Hauser of differential mortality [in the United States] in 1960. We calculated direct standardized mortality rates and indirect standardized mortality ratios for persons 25 to 64 years of age according to race, sex, income, and family status. [The results indicate that]...despite an overall decline in death rates in the United States since 1960, poor and poorly educated people still die at higher rates than those with higher incomes or better educations, and this disparity increased between 1960 and 1986."
For the study by Evelyn M. Kitagawa and Philip M. Hauser, published in 1973, see 39:3009.
Correspondence: G. Pappas, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Office of Planning and Extramural Programs, Room 1100, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:30145 Rahman, Omar. Excess mortality for the unmarried in rural Bangladesh. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 22, No. 3, Jun 1993. 445-56 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Prospective data from the Matlab surveillance area in rural Bangladesh, 1974-1982, were used in this study to show that divorced and never-married adults (aged 15-44 years) had significantly higher mortality than their currently married peers with differences in disability status accounting for some of this excess risk. Widowed individuals on the other hand had no excess mortality relative to the currently married....[The] findings provide support for the hypothesis that a certain proportion of mortality differentials by marital status in this population can be attributed to selection into marriage and remarriage on the basis of underlying disability status. The evidence for the protective effect of increased economic status associated with the currently married state is less convincing."
Correspondence: O. Rahman, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30146 Ram, Bali. Sex differences in mortality as a social indicator. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 29, No. 1, May 1993. 83-108 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using a macro-sociological model, this paper argues that the status of women is an important determinant of sex mortality differences. This is done first by examining data from India which is known to have an excessively high level of female mortality. The examination is further extended by a pooled cross-section and time series analysis of the excess of female life expectancy over male life expectancy for 83 countries."
Correspondence: B. Ram, Statistics Canada, Demography Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30147 Reijo, Marie. Disability and mortality among middle-aged males in counties of Finland in 1975-1988. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-92-37, May 1992. vii, 31 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This study compares trends and differentials in disability retirement among counties of Finland using mortality as an approximation of morbidity."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30148 Rogot, Eugene; Sorlie, Paul D.; Johnson, Norman J.; Schmitt, Catherine. A mortality study of 1.3 million persons by demographic, social, and economic factors: 1979-1985 follow-up. U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Pub. Order No. NIH 92-3297. Jul 1992. iv, 481 pp. U.S. National Institutes of Health [NIH], National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
"The U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS) is a long-term prospective study of mortality in the United States....The basic objective of the study is to investigate socioeconomic, demographic and occupational differentials in mortality within the United States. This is the second in a series of data books from the NLMS. In this report, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) are presented for selected characteristics [such as age, sex, and race for the leading causes of death] based on matching individual records from Census Bureau samples for 1,281,475 persons to the National Death Index (NDI) for years 1979-1985."
Correspondence: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30149 Trovato, Frank. Nativity and mortality in Canada, 1985-1987. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 101, Jun 1993. 29, [10] pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
This is an analysis of mortality differentials between immigrants and those born in Canada, with emphasis on reasons for lower levels of mortality recorded for immigrants.
Correspondence: University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, 1-62 HM Tory, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

59:30150 Bennett, Stan; Stevenson, Chris; Melville, Gavin; de Looper, Michael; Wright, Peter. Mortality surveillance, Australia, 1979-1990. Mortality Surveillance Series, No. 1, ISBN 0-644-25838-1. 1992. 315 pp. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This report presents detailed data on mortality by cause in Australia from 1979 to 1990 separately by sex and age group. Statistics include number of deaths by year, age group, and sex; age-specific death rates; crude and age-standardized death rates; and annual rates of change.
Correspondence: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, GPO Box 570, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30151 Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Levi, Fabio; Lucchini, Franca. Mortality patterns and trends for lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers in the Americas, 1955-1989. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 22, No. 3, Jun 1993. 377-84 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Mortality from cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, larynx and lung between 1955 and 1989 has been analysed for U.S.A., Canada and 14 countries in Latin America [to estimate the importance of tobacco-related cancers in developed as well as developing American countries]. Among males, Uruguay, Cuba, Argentina and Puerto Rico have the highest rates for all sites, and Peru, Ecuador, Dominican Republic, Mexico and Colombia have the lowest rates. Among females, Cuba, Colombia and Puerto Rico rank high of all sites, and Mexico, Paraguay, Ecuador and Peru rank low. For both sexes, lung cancer mortality rates from the U.S. and Canada are high, whereas rates from other sites are intermediate. An increasing trend in lung cancer mortality over time is shown in all countries except Cuba (no changes), Argentina, Paraguay and Peru (decreasing trend). In Latin America, the tobacco-related lung cancer epidemic is in its early phase among males, and very early phase among females."
Correspondence: P. Boffetta, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30152 Brunborg, Helge. Demographic consequences of AIDS, with special reference to Zambia. Working Papers from Department for Statistics on Individuals and Households: Population and Living Conditions, Vol. 4, 1992. 37-55 pp. Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Eng.
"This paper will look at some of the demographic consequences of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a special emphasis on Zambia. Considerable attention is given to data problems....The most dramatic demographic effects are the increase in the number of deaths and the crude death rate, and the dissolution of families. AIDS reduces population growth but not by as much as often believed. The age structure is hardly affected at all. The main reason for the lack of strong demographic effects on the growth rate and the age structure is the high fertility level....Another reason for some of the surprisingly weak demographic effects is the long incubation period of the infection, which smooths out most of the impact on the age structure."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30153 Dennis, Barbara H.; Zhukovsky, Georgii S.; Shestov, Dmitri B.; Davis, C. E.; Deev, Alexander D.; Kim, Haesook; Tyroler, H. A. The association of education with coronary heart disease mortality in the USSR Lipid Research Clinics Study. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 22, No. 3, Jun 1993. 420-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors surveyed 1,925 middle-aged men who are part of the USSR Lipid Research Clinics (LRC) Study to determine the impact of educational attainment on the risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). "It is clear from the results reported here that the men in this study with [less than high school] education were at greater risk for CHD and about a twofold excess risk persisted after adjustment for the major risk factors."
Correspondence: B. H. Dennis, University of North Carolina, Departments of Nutrition, Biostatistics, and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, NCNB Plaza, Suite 203, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30154 Emery, George. Age-parity and marital status compositional influences on the maternal mortality rate in Canada, 1930-1969: a regional comparison. Histoire Sociale/Social History, Vol. 25, No. 50, Nov 1992. 229-56 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Trends in and determinants of maternal mortality in Canada from 1930 to 1969 are analyzed. "Canadian regional maternal mortality rates were persistently high until 1939, then showed a declining trend. Advances in obstetrics contributed to the declining trend, but compositional influences also were important....Favourable change in mothers' age-parity distributions contributed up to 24 percent of the drop in regional rates between 1939 and 1965-1969. Similarly, differences in age-parity distributions explained up to 22 percent of regional differences in the maternal mortality rate. By contrast, change in mothers' marital status distributions had slight influence on regional trends and differences in the rate."
Correspondence: G. Emery, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30155 Ginsberg, Gary M.; Tulchinsky, Theodore H. Regional differences in cancer incidence and mortality in Israel: possible leads to occupational causes. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 8-9, Aug-Sep 1992. 534-43 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
"This study provides a regional analysis of cancer incidence and mortality as a method of identifying localizing factors in cancer that can be followed by more specific epidemiologic investigation. In this study we analyze the regional standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for site-specific cancers, by age, sex and continent of birth for the years 1983-86, for the Jewish population of Israel." The possible impact of occupational, environmental, topographical, and health service factors is considered.
Correspondence: G. M. Ginsberg, Ministry of Health, Department of Statistics, 2 Shalom Yehudah Street, Talpiot, Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30156 Jougla, E.; Hatton, F.; Le Toullec, A.; Michel, E. AIDS mortality variation characteristics in France, 1983-1990. [Caracteristiques de l'evolution de la mortalite par SIDA en France de 1983 a 1990.] Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique/Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 40, No. 3, 1992. 164-74 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends and characteristics of the increase in mortality from AIDS in France are analyzed. The authors conclude that "from 1983 to 1990, the number of AIDS deaths in France (8,119 deaths overall), increased substantially but the annual rate of progression has fallen since 1987....In 1990, AIDS represents for the 25-34 years old group, 12 deaths out of 100 for males and 7 deaths out of 100 for females and for the 25-44 years old group, 15 deaths out of 100 for nonmarried males and 4 deaths out of 10 for males working in an information or artistic profession. Furthermore, it accounts, in 1989, for the [one] third of the deaths of males between 25 and 44 years living in Paris."
Correspondence: E. Jougla, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, SC8, 44 Chemin de Ronde, BP 34, 78110 Le Vesinet, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30157 Keil, Julian E.; Sutherland, Susan E.; Knapp, Rebecca G.; Lackland, Daniel T.; Gazes, Peter C.; Tyroler, Herman A. Mortality rates and risk factors for coronary disease in black as compared with white men and women. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 329, No. 2, Jul 8, 1993. 73-8 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Data collected over a 30-year period in the Charleston Heart Study were used to estimate mortality rates and quantify associations with risk factors assessed at the base-line examination in 1960 and 1961 of 653 white men, 333 black men, 741 white women, and 454 black women [in the United States]. There were no significant racial differences in the rate ratios for death from coronary disease; however, women had significantly lower death rates than men."
Correspondence: J. E. Keil, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston Heart Study, Room 908 Harborview Office Towers, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425-2239. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:30158 Klatsky, Arthur L.; Armstrong, Mary A.; Friedman, Gary D. Alcohol and mortality. Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 117, No. 8, Oct 15, 1992. 646-54 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The authors "study the relation between alcohol intake and mortality in a large ambulatory [U.S.] population with attention to causes of death and differences related to age, sex, race, and baseline risk....[They find that] women and younger persons appear more susceptible to the increased mortality risk of heavy drinking. The reduced cardiovascular risk of lighter drinkers is more pronounced in older persons. Lower coronary disease prevalence may reduce the noncardiovascular mortality risk of lighter drinkers." Data are from 128,934 adults who received health evaluations in California between 1978 and 1985.
Correspondence: A. L. Klatsky, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Department of Medicine, 280 West MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, CA 94611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30159 Krull, Catherine; Trovato, Frank. The quiet revolution and the sex differential in Quebec's suicide rates: 1931-1986. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 98, Jun 1993. 29 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
The effects on suicide of changes in domestic and religious collective life and the rise in individualism in Canada are analyzed, with attention given to how these factors affect the sexes differently.
Correspondence: University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, 1-62 HM Tory, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30160 Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W. N.; Mackenbach, J. P. Determinants of regional differences in lung cancer mortality in the Netherlands. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 5, Sep 1993. 623-31 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The analysis reported here aims at finding clues to the explanation of regional differences in lung cancer mortality in the Netherlands in 1980-1984. Regional mortality differences will be related to available data on past smoking and two possible risk factors for lung cancer: outdoor air contamination and occupational exposure." The results indicate that "regional differences in lung cancer among old men were strongly associated with smoking in 1930, i.e. half a century before. Changes in the regional pattern of tobacco consumption between 1930 and 1970 explain why smoking in 1970 is not associated with mortality differences in the 1980s. This shows that the explanation of regional lung cancer death rates sometimes has to go far back in time."
Correspondence: A. E. Kunst, Erasmus University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30161 Mackenbach, J. P.; Looman, C. W. N.; Kunst, A. E. Air pollution, lagged effects of temperature, and mortality: the Netherlands 1979-87. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 47, No. 2, Apr 1993. 121-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "explore whether the apparent low threshold for the mortality effects of air pollution could be the result of confounding....The number of deaths listed by the day on which the death occurred and by the cause of death were obtained from the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics. Mortality from all causes and mortality from four large groups of causes (neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and external causes) were related to the daily levels of [sulphur dioxide] air pollution and potential confounders (available from various sources) using log-linear regression analysis....Results were similar for separate causes of death. While univariate associations suggest an effect of air pollution on mortality in all four cause of death groups, multivariate analyses show these effects, including that on mortality from respiratory diseases, are a result of confounding."
Correspondence: J. P. Mackenbach, Erasmus University Medical School, Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30162 Olsen, Ole. Impact of social network on cardiovascular mortality in middle aged Danish men. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 47, No. 3, Jun 1993. 176-80 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author reviews "published cohort studies on the relationship between social network and mortality in white, middle aged men....[He finds that] social network was an important, independent, risk factor for cardiovascular disease in white, middle aged men. It had a strong impact on mortality, comparable to that of traditional risk factors." The reviewed literature concerned the United States and Northern Europe, and empirical evidence from it was applied to a Danish cohort.
Correspondence: O. Olsen, University of Copenhagen, Institute of Social Medicine, Blegdamsvej 3, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30163 Paul, Bimal K. Maternal mortality in Africa: 1980-87. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 6, Sep 1993. 745-52 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using published data, this paper examines the level and correlates of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Africa. The data indicates that MMR greatly differs among the countries of Africa. High MMR is found in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa, while countries of Northern Africa are characterized by relatively low maternal death. Reasons for high MMR in sub-Saharan Africa are explored in detail. Analysis using multiple regression suggests that the MMR in Africa is strongly influenced by population size, crude birth rate (CBR), crude death rate (CDR), calorie supply as a percentage of requirements, access to safe water, and percentage of urban population. Some cultural and behavioral factors, such as female circumcision and infibulation, are also associated with a high MMR."
Correspondence: B. K. Paul, Kansas State University, Department of Geography, Manhattan, KS 66506. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:30164 Romelsjo, Anders; Karlsson, Gunilla; Henningsohn, Lars; Jakobsson, Sten W. The prevalence of alcohol-related mortality in both sexes: variation between indicators, Stockholm, 1987. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 83, No. 6, Jun 1993. 838-44 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Alcohol-related mortality is analyzed by sex using data on 668 persons aged 15-54 who died in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1987. The data are from a variety of sources, including death certificates, autopsy reports, and police records. The results suggest "the serious underdiagnosis of alcohol involvement in death certificates and the misclassification of important causes of death (i.e., liver cirrhosis and cardiac disease)...."
Correspondence: A. Romelsjo, Karolinska Institute, Department of Social Medicine, Kronan Health Centre, S-172 83 Sundbyberg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:30165 Schuit, Albertine J.; Van Dijk, Carolina E. M. J.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Schouten, Evert G.; Kok, Frans J. Inverse association between serum total cholesterol and cancer mortality in Dutch civil servants. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 137, No. 9, May 1, 1993. 966-76 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The association between serum total cholesterol and cancer mortality was investigated in a 28-year follow-up study of 3,091 Dutch civil servants aged 40-65 years and their spouses. After adjustment for age, body mass index, and smoking, an inverse association between serum total cholesterol and all-cancer mortality was observed in men during the first 15 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2 years....In women, no consistent association between serum total cholesterol and cancer was observed. After the first 5 years of follow-up were excluded, the significant inverse association in men still persisted. These results suggest that in this study population, low serum cholesterol seems not to be attributable to undetected cancer, but might be a risk factor for cancer mortality in men."
Correspondence: A. J. Schuit, Agricultural University, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, P.O. Box 238, 6700 AE Wageningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:30166 Siegel, Paul Z.; Deeb, Larry C.; Wolfe, Loretta E.; Wilcox, Dwain; Marks, James S. Stroke mortality and its socioeconomic, racial, and behavioral correlates in Florida. Public Health Reports, Vol. 108, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1993. 454-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The investigators performed an ecologic analysis to estimate the contributions of behavioral risks, socioeconomic status, and black race to regional variations in stroke mortality rates among persons 55-84 years of age in Florida. They used data from the 1980 census and from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 1986 through 1988. Weighted multiple linear regression models indicated that regions in Florida with high stroke mortality rates were characterized by high prevalences of poverty, obesity, and hypertension. Although limited by its ecologic design, this study suggests that socioeconomic status and prevalence of behavioral risks contribute independently to interregional disparities in stroke mortality rates in Florida."
Correspondence: P. Z. Siegel, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, OSA, MS K30, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30167 Sotelo Figueiredo, Juan M. The risk factor approach and maternal mortality: a Latin American perspective. [El enfoque de riesgo y la mortalidad materna: una perspectiva latinoamericana.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 114, No. 4, Apr 1993. 289-301 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author uses a risk factor approach to examine levels and trends in maternal mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean. Consideration is given to reproductive health services and alternative contraceptive strategies, including voluntary sterilization. A review of currently available methods and their prevalence in the region is included.
Correspondence: J. M. Sotelo Figueiredo, Paseo de las Palmas 530, Lomas de Chapultepec, C.P. 11000, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30168 Strnad, Ladislav; Skalska, Hana. Epidemiologic aspects of neoplasms and prognosis of their incidence in the Czech Republic. [Epidemiologicke aspekty zhoubnych novotvaru a jejich incidence v Ceske Republice.] Demografie, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1993. 29-40 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"In this article development of the incidence [of] and mortality [from] neoplasms in the Czech Republic during [the] forty year period (1951-1989) has been analyzed." The authors assess the influence of cigarette smoking, high alcohol consumption, and poor nutrition. Projections for the years 1995 and 2000 are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30169 Sutocky, James W.; Shultz, James M.; Kizer, Kenneth W. Alcohol-related mortality in California, 1980 to 1989. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 83, No. 6, Jun 1993. 817-23 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The impact of alcohol drinking on mortality in California over the course of the 1980s is analyzed using state vital statistics data. "An estimated 6.2% of all deaths for California residents during 1989 were related to alcohol, making it one of the top 10 leading causes of death. Injury diagnoses were major contributors to the total estimated number of alcohol-related deaths and years of potential life lost before age 65. Alcohol-related mortality rates were significantly higher for men and for Blacks. However, age-adjusted death rates for alcohol-defined diagnoses declined significantly from 1980 to 1989."
Correspondence: J. W. Sutocky, California Department of Health Services, 714 P Street, Room 1494, P.O. Box 942732, Sacramento, CA 94232-7320. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:30170 Tinker, Anne; Koblinsky, Marjorie A. Making motherhood safe. World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 202, ISBN 0-8213-2468-3. LC 93-19573. May 1993. xv, 143 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This paper, which is primarily intended for use by World Bank staff, is designed to assist policymakers and program managers in developing programs to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries. The authors discuss "the lessons for reducing maternal mortality derived from experience and research in both developing and industrial countries. That evidence shows that community-based approaches such as family planning and training and the deployment of midwives have helped reduce maternal deaths in high-mortality settings." The paper is based on information from workshops and conferences, interviews with World Bank staff, research and program evaluations, commissioned papers, and WHO technical documents. It "also recommends priorities and program strategies for making family planning services and maternal health care more effective by improving quality, increasing access, and educating the public about the importance of such services."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30171 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Update: mortality attributable to HIV infection/AIDS among persons aged 25-44 years--United States, 1990 and 1991. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 42, No. 25, Jul 2, 1993. 481-6 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Data are presented on mortality due to AIDS and HIV infections among persons aged 25-44 years in the United States during 1990 and 1991. "In 1991, 29,850 U.S. residents died from HIV infection; of these...74% [were aged] 25-44 years....HIV infection was the ninth leading cause of death overall...and the third leading cause of death among persons aged 25-44 years, accounting for 15% of deaths in this age group....In 1990, HIV infection was the second leading cause of death among men aged 25-44 years and the sixth leading cause of death among women in this age group....In 1991, the proportion of deaths caused by HIV infection in these two groups increased to 19% and 6%, respectively....HIV death rates varied substantially by race/ethnicity...."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Avenue, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:30172 Yunes, Joao. Mortality from violent causes in the Americas. [Mortalidad por causas violentas en la region de las Americas.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 114, No. 4, Apr 1993. 302-16 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
This is "a study of mortality from violent causes and its trends in the countries of the Americas....[It] focused on persons under 24 years of age and utilized information from 1980 and 1986 taken from the data base of the Pan American Health Organization....Comparative analysis of deaths from violent causes and from infectious diseases in the population aged 0-24 years showed that the former increase whereas the latter decrease as age increases."
Correspondence: J. Yunes, Pan American Health Organization, Program for Maternal and Infant Health and Population, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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