Volume 59 - Number 2 - Summer 1993

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

59:20767 Chandrasekaran, C. International transmission of population policy experience in south Asia. Population Research Abstract, Vol. 3, No. 2, Dec 1992. 3-15 pp. Bangalore, India. In Eng.
The author reviews population policies in southern and Southeast Asia, with a focus on policies affecting fertility, mortality, and migration. Consideration is given to international cooperation in disseminating information of relevance to policymakers, particularly by the United Nations and nongovernmental agencies.
Correspondence: C. Chandrasekaran, Applied Population Research Trust, 79/3 Benson Road, Bangalore 560 046, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20768 Chimere-Dan, Orieji. Population policy in South Africa. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1993. 31-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report describes the problems that the complex racial, political, and demographic situation in South Africa has raised for population policy over the past three decades. Perceptions of the population factor in the apartheid era and background to the current national policy on population are briefly examined. An account of the Population Development Program (PDP) is provided with specific reference to family planning activities. Finally, possible future directions and some issues for population policy in a post-apartheid South Africa are considered."
Correspondence: O. Chimere-Dan, University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Sociology, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20769 Kurbatov, Vladimir P. Population policy and employment in the People's Republic of China. [Politika narodonaseleniya i zanyatosti v KNR.] Ekonomicheskie Nauki, No. 11, 1991. 20-6 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Current demographic trends in China are examined in the context of policy steps that are being taken in an attempt to guide such trends. Attention is given to problems of unemployment and to the one-child policy. Data are from the 1990 census and other official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20770 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Population strategies and policies from 1960 to 2000 in Morocco. [Strategies et politiques de population de 1960 a l'an 2000 au Maroc.] Dec 1992. 61 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This report describes the evolution of population policy in Morocco since 1960. Current and probable future population trends in the country are first summarized. The relevant policies are then outlined as they affect family planning, population education, the integration of women in development, and young people and children. The report also describes sources of demographic data, development policies, and measures to protect the environment. Chapters are also included in which these policies are evaluated and future policy changes are discussed.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20771 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Albania. UNFPA Report, ISBN 0-89714-136-9. [1991]. ix, 33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series of publications examining population issues and developments in developing countries. "The aim is to help countries achieve self-reliance in formulating and carrying out population policies and programmes." This is the report from the UNFPA delegation that visited Albania in December 1989. They "reviewed the population and development situation, national population programmes and trends in technical co-operation to arrive at [their] conclusions and recommendations." Consideration is given to data collection and analysis, maternal and child health, family planning, information, education and communication, and women and youth.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

59:20772 Camp, Sharon L. Population: the critical decade. Foreign Policy, No. 90, Spring 1993. 126-44 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Recent trends in U.S. support for international population assistance are described. The author suggests that the 1990s will be a critical decade, representing the last chance to stabilize human population at a level of around 10 billion, a number that might be compatible with existing global resources. However, achievement of this goal will require strong political leadership on the part of the United States, a change from the last 12 years, in which U.S. policy has been controlled by the anti-abortion lobby. This has caused support for worldwide family planning efforts to decline.
Correspondence: S. L. Camp, Population Action International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

59:20773 de Vos, M. A theoretical perspective on population policy in South Africa. Development Southern Africa, Vol. 9, No. 3, Aug 1992. 347-63 pp. Halfway House, South Africa. In Eng.
The author describes the goals of South Africa's Population Development Programme, which works to enact the government's population policy. The primary objective is to achieve a balance between population size and natural and socioeconomic resources in the country. "The Population Development Programme promotes specific fertility-inhibiting programmes, projects and actions in the socio-economic fields of education, manpower training, health, the economy and housing. Population information, education and communication programmes are also directed at people with high fertility to facilitate the change of fertility perceptions in favour of a small family norm."
Correspondence: M. de Vos, Department of National Health and Population Development, Johannesburg, South Africa. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20774 Freedman, Lynn P.; Isaacs, Stephen L. Human rights and reproductive choice. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1993. 18-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article places the right of reproductive choice in legal and historical contexts, highlights salient issues that arise in trying to formulate international standards for its enforcement, and examines two particularly thorny issues: the tension between demographic priorities and reproductive choice and the tension between international standards and local custom/religion. The article calls on health professionals to participate actively in the elaboration of reproductive rights, both through their immediate work in the health-care field and through involvement in the international policymaking process that will take place in three upcoming international conferences."
Correspondence: L. P. Freedman, Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health, Development Law and Policy Program, Reproductive Rights Project, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20775 Hoem, Jan M. Public policy as the fuel of fertility: effects of a policy reform on the pace of childbearing in Sweden in the 1980s. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 69, ISBN 91-7820-056-3. Sep 1992. 16 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The focus of this study is on the effect of an increase in family allowances for a second birth if it occurs within 30 months of the first.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20776 International Social Security Association (Geneva, Switzerland). Evolution of family policy in the light of demographic development. Social Security Documentation European Series, No. 16, ISBN 92-843-1033-4. 1990. 185 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Prague, Czechoslovakia, June 28-30, 1989, on family policy in Europe in light of recent demographic developments. "The delegates...agreed that it was difficult to assess the impact of family policy on fertility rates, but...the symbolic value of family policy was important since it gave recognition to the child, its role and the family." Separate consideration is given to policies concerning family allowances and sickness and maternity schemes.
Correspondence: International Social Security Association, Case Postale 1, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20777 Lloyd, Cynthia B. Family and gender issues for population policy. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 48, 1993. 41 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews a series of assumptions concerning the family and the role of women on which most policies designed to reduce fertility in developing countries are based. She proposes a broader framework--which involves greater contributions from men--within which to develop future policies and programs.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20778 Mattern, Michael G. German abortion law: the unwanted child of reunification. Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Journal, Vol. 13, Feb 1991. 643-94 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
This article "will first describe the history and present state of East and West German abortion law. It will then discuss the compromise, which allows both laws to coexist through 1995, and the political maneuverings and negotiations which led to it. Finally, [it] will discuss abortion law proposals for a reunified Germany. These proposals attempt to reconcile the fetus' right to life with the woman's freedom of choice by using positive measures rather than criminal sanctions."
Location: Columbia University, Law Library, New York, NY.

59:20779 Michev, Nikolai. Contemporary aspects of demographic policy in Bulgaria. [Savremenni aspekti na demografskata politika v Balgariya.] Naselenie, No. 6, 1992. 7-14 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Bulgaria's pronatalist population policies are reviewed in light of the country's transition to a market economy. The author outlines policy changes that will make optimal use of human and natural resources while controlling migration and encouraging population growth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20780 Nair, Sumati. Population policies and the ideology of population control in India. Issues in Reproductive and Genetic Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1992. 237-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This article traces the history of the population control program in India and the ideologies that have guided it. The author maintains that what was initially a family planning program when it was created in 1952 changed during the food crisis in the 1960s because Western assistance was made conditional upon a more target-oriented population control approach. The focus has since been on woman-centered methods, but the level of women's and children's health remains low. The author states that the Indian government continues to pursue the same program strategy, supported by such bodies as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, despite the program's lack of success and the continued opposition of women's groups.
Correspondence: S. Nair, Nias straat 14, 1905 VA Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

59:20781 Schwarz, Karl. Demographic effects of family policy measures. [Bevolkerungspolitische Wirkungen familienpolitischer Massnahmen.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1992. 197-208 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author describes the enactment of family allowance and parental leave measures in 1986 in the former West Germany and assesses the effect of this legislation on fertility rates, which have risen since that time. He finds that "the increase in births...must be explained almost completely by causes related to population structure and by the fact that due to the legislation on the granting of such measures [many] more children of foreigners living in West Germany are not born in the foreigners' home country but rather in Germany."
Correspondence: K. Schwarz, Klopstockstrasse 14, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20782 White, Tyrene. The population factor: China's family planning policy in the 1990s. In: China Briefing, 1991, edited by William A. Joseph. ISBN 0-8133-1363-5. 1992. 97-117 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The evolution of China's family planning policy is first outlined. The author then describes the implementation of the one-child policy, resistance to the policy that developed in rural areas, and the responses of policymakers to that opposition. She also describes how results of the 1990 census and recent surveys might affect future population policy developments.
Correspondence: T. White, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20783 Ze, Hong; Ebanks, G. Edward. Economic reform and population control in rural mainland China in the 1980s. Issues and Studies, Vol. 28, No. 9, Sep 1992. 22-46 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
"This article examines the difficult task faced by mainland China's leadership in implementing population control through household size restrictions in rural areas." The authors examine rural economic reforms and the population policy measures that were adopted in the 1970s, including those concerned with minimum age at marriage, number of children allowed per couple and the one-child policy. Concerns about the effectiveness of the national program to control population growth are also discussed, including "the agricultural responsibility system into which the population policy is integrated, the modification and relaxation of the population control policy and program, the decentralization of policy and programs, policy implementation, and the hurdles of traditional rural attitudes and values that need to be overcome....Strategies for future population control programs in rural mainland China are suggested."
Correspondence: H. Ze, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

59:20784 Briggs, Vernon M. Mass immigration and the national interest. Labor and Human Resources Series, ISBN 1-56324-170-6. LC 92-16927. 1992. ix, 275 pp. M. E. Sharpe: Armonk, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes trends in mass immigration to the United States and the changes in migration policy that have affected those trends. He considers migration policy as a determinant of economic phenomena and notes that the original purpose for encouraging large-scale immigration was to create a nonagricultural labor force. However, policy changes since the 1960s have reflected political rather than social goals, and the resulting revival of mass immigration has had significant economic consequences that policymakers have failed to take into account. The author concludes that the United States needs to adopt an immigration policy that is consistent with its rapidly changing labor market, and that such a policy can help achieve both economic efficiency and social equity.
Correspondence: M. E. Sharpe, 80 Business Park Drive, Armonk, NY 10504. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:20785 Freeman, Gary P. Migration policy and politics in the receiving states. International Migration Review, Vol. 26, No. 4, Winter 1992. 1,144-67 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article explores the politics of migration policies in the receiving states." The author finds that "a survey of the politics of immigration in the major receiving states shows a strong pattern of restrictionism in the face of unprecedented pressures for entry, but also amnesties, exceptions on humanitarian grounds, and hesitation to enforce the law. As individual states founder, multilateral strategies abound, but with scant success....Ironically, the failure of states to deal with the crisis may reinforce national prerogatives and capacities with respect to immigration and strengthen rather than erode the distinction between economic migrants and refugees."
Correspondence: G. P. Freeman, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20786 Fuchs, Lawrence H. Migration research and immigration policy. International Migration Review, Vol. 26, No. 4, Winter 1992. 1,069-76 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The author briefly reviews the impact of migration research on U.S. immigration policy over the period 1964-1992. Consideration is given to legal and illegal migrants and refugees.
Correspondence: L. H. Fuchs, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02254-9110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20787 Zapatero, Jose A. "The golden gate": migration to the United States. ["La puerta dorada": la inmigracion en Estados Unidos.] Revista de Economia y Sociologia del Trabajo, No. 11, Mar 1991. 162-88 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews changes in U.S. policy on international migration since 1964. He describes changes in the quota and contingency systems, the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act, sanctions against illegal labor migration, and 1990 reforms that revised family reunification criteria.
Correspondence: J. A. Zapatero, Spanish Embassy, Washington, D.C. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

Copyright © 1993-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.