Volume 59 - Number 2 - Summer 1993

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

59:20682 Simon, Julian L. Population growth is not bad for humanity. National Forum, Vol. 70, Winter 1990. 12-6 pp. Auburn, Alabama. In Eng.
The author summarizes arguments that population growth is not an obstacle to successful socioeconomic development. He contends that there is a body of competent statistical work that concludes that faster population growth is not associated with slower economic growth. He further asserts that natural resource scarcity tends to decrease rather than increase over time and that levels of environmental pollution are declining as population grows.
Correspondence: J. L. Simon, University of Maryland, Department of Business Administration, College Park MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

59:20683 Jacobson, Jodi L. Gender bias: roadblock to sustainable development. Worldwatch Paper, No. 110, ISBN 1-878071-10-6. LC 92-080517. Sep 1992. 60 pp. Worldwatch Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a philosophical overview of global gender bias in development policies and programs and the problems it causes for women in developing countries. The author makes the case that "women perform the lion's share of work in subsistence economies, toiling longer hours and contributing more to family income than their male relatives--but are viewed as 'unproductive' in the eyes of government statisticians, economists, development experts, and even their husbands....Gender bias is...a primary cause of poverty...[and] the single most important cause of rapid population growth....Conventional approaches to development...[ignore] the obstacles faced by women [and] actually formalize and reinforce gender bias...."
Correspondence: Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20684 Kaiwar, Vasant. Property structures, demography and the crisis of the agrarian economy of colonial Bombay Presidency. Journal of Peasant Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jan 1992. 255-300 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Reasons for the relative failure of agricultural development in India during the colonial period are analyzed, and the effects of the scarcity of capital, the absence of suitable technology, and the growth of the population are assessed. "The article explores the manner in which peasant possession of land and other means of subsistence limited productive utilisation of capital and technology, triggered a certain demographic regime and, in turn, disrupted further developmental possibilities." The geographical focus is on the area coinciding with the modern states of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
Correspondence: V. Kaiwar, State University of New York, Department of History, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:20685 Rogers, Tom. Two dimensions of a national crisis: population growth and refugees in Pakistan. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 26, No. 4, Oct 1992. 735-61 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Recent demographic trends in Pakistan are analyzed and the country's position in the demographic transition is assessed. The author notes that a rapid decline in mortality has been achieved while fertility levels remain high, causing rapid population growth. He also observes that such growth far exceeds the rate of socioeconomic development and describes the problems resulting from the presence of some 4 million refugees from neighboring Afghanistan.
Correspondence: T. Rogers, Academy for Educational Development, Washington, D.C. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20686 Song, Ruilai. China's coastal population and economic development: summary of the symposium. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1992. 197-202 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is an outline of the main topics discussed at a conference held in 1990 in Dalian, China, on China's coastal population and economic development. Among the issues covered are fertility rates and economic development, migration, urbanization, and environmental effects, including pollution.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20687 Sussangkarn, Chalongphob; Behrman, Jere R.; Chalamwong, Yongyuth; Phananiramai, Mathana; Pattamakitsakul, Prapon. Population and economic development in Thailand: some critical household behavioral relations. Thailand Development Research Institute Research Monograph, No. 7, ISBN 974-88700-7-3. 1991. xiv, 49 pp. Thailand Development Research Institute, Human Resources and Social Development Program: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"This study attempts to contribute to the empirical foundations for the analysis of population-development interactions in Thailand....[It] explores some critical household behavioral relations pertaining to the number of surviving children, post-compulsory schooling demand, household savings, and hours worked by women, based on the 1981 Thai Socioeconomic Survey (SES)."
Correspondence: Thailand Development Research Institute, Human Resources and Social Development Program, Rajapark Building, 163 Asoke, Sukhumvit Road, Bangkok 10110, Thailand. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

59:20688 Universidad del Pacifico. Centro de Investigacion (Lima, Peru). Population: the present and future of Peru. [Poblacion: presente y futuro del Peru.] Serie Intercampus, No. 29, 1991. 279 pp. Universidad del Pacifico, Centro de Investigacion: Lima, Peru. In Spa.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Lima, Peru, in July 1990 on the present and future of Peru's population. The volume is divided into four sections: women, society, and crisis in Peru; the situation of Peruvian youth and the challenges it faces; the crisis in development; and the politics of social and population development. Also included are the discussions and commentaries following each presentation.
Correspondence: Universidad del Pacifico, Centro de Investigacion, Avenida Salaverry, 2020 Lima 11, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

59:20689 Asian Population and Development Association (Tokyo, Japan). Regional development and population in Japan: trends and prospects in the 1990s. Population and Development Series, No. 15, Mar 1992. 123 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The relationship between regional development and population dynamics in Japan is examined in this report. Chapter one looks at regional aspects of the demographic transition and industrial change. The next three chapters analyze labor supply and demand, family characteristics, and health and life styles, with particular emphasis on regional differences. A chapter on regional differences in population characteristics comes next. A final chapter investigates the status of women in Japan.
Correspondence: Asian Population and Development Association, Nagatacho TBR Building, Room 710, 10-2 Nagatacho 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

59:20690 Bosnjovic, Ilijas. The demographic black hole: a new trap for industrial societies. [Demografska crna jama: nova zamka industrijskog drustva.] ISBN 86-21-00754-1. LC 91-104278. 1990. 170 pp. Veselin Maslesa: Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. In Scr.
The author examines current demographic trends in developed countries and the economic problems associated with such trends. The main focus is on Yugoslavia, where the author suggests that the population has completed the demographic transition even though the level of economic development remains significantly below that of most other developed countries. Consideration is given to the detrimental effect of economic development on the country's environment.
Correspondence: Veselin Maslesa, Obla Vojvode Stepe 4, P.F. 237, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia-Hercegovina. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:20691 Cutler, David M.; Poterba, James M.; Sheiner, Louise M.; Summers, Lawrence H. An aging society: opportunity or challenge? Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, No. 1, 1990. 1-73 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper steps back from the current political debate [in the United States] over the social security trust fund and examines the more general question of how serious a macroeconomic problem aging is and how policy should respond to it. We focus primarily on issues relating to saving and capital accumulation. We do not consider the broader question of whether the current U.S. national saving rate is too high or too low, but focus on the effect of demographic changes on the optimal level of national saving. In addition, we consider the effects of demographic change on productivity growth and the optimal timing of tax collections. Our general conclusion is that demographic changes will improve American standards of living in the near future, but lower them slightly over the very long term. Other things being equal, the optimal policy response to recent and anticipated demographic changes is almost certainly a reduction rather than an increase in the national saving rate."
Correspondence: D. M. Cutler, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C.

59:20692 Ehrenhalt, Samuel M. Economic and demographic change: the case of New York City. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 116, No. 2, Feb 1993. 40-50 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This "analysis of industrial and demographic dynamics of New York City at once mirrors and anticipates events in other parts of the Nation; key are the sharp loss of manufacturing jobs, the rise in knowledge-based jobs, and the increased role of women and minorities in the labor force." Data are from a variety of official sources, which are listed in an appendix.
Correspondence: S. M. Ehrenhalt, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Middle Atlantic Region, Washington, D.C. 20212. Location: Princeton University Library (Docs).

59:20693 Golini, Antonio; Castaldi, Pasqualino. Demographic change and economic markets. Strategies of 41 Italian companies. [Mutamenti demografici e mercato. Alcune strategie aziendali ed i resultati di una indagine.] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 04/92, 1992. 72 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This study examines the impact of the large-scale demographic changes in trends and structure of Italian population on the demand and supply for goods and services and gives some examples for the business world....The study is...based on a survey of 41 companies...conducted between September 1990 and January 1991."
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20694 Perkins, John. Immigration and scale economies: a macro analysis. National Economic Review, No. 19, Apr 1992. 28-48 pp. Clifton Hill, Australia. In Eng.
The author attempts to quantify economies of scale associated with productivity and the extent to which immigration has contributed to the achievement of these economies over time in Australia. "With the net impact of immigration over five years shown to be a fall in unemployment it is evident that a reduction in immigrants in response to Australia's current economic situation may be a short sighted policy. Not least, the immigration program is demonstrated to have been responsible for achieving economies of scale in many industries, forcing the conclusion that to a significant degree the benefits of these economies have been forfeited to the deficiencies of economic management."
Correspondence: J. Perkins, National Institute of Economic and Industry Research, 416 Queens Parade, Clifton Hill, Victoria 3068, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20695 Petersen, Jorn H. The impact of demographic change on the burden of old-age pensions. [Forsorgerbyrde og befolkningsudvikling.] Nationalokonomisk Tidsskrift, Vol. 130, No. 4, 1992. 619-29 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
"The impact on the cost of the provision for the dependent generations caused by the expected demographic development is discussed from three points of view: a mechanical forecast (1988-2030) of the share of GDP at factor costs allocated to provide for the young and the old generation; a forecast of the change of the pressure of taxation caused by changing expenditures on old-age pensions; and a discussion of the internal rate of return of the implicit social contract compared to the real rate of interest. The paper presents the most important changes of the pension arrangements in the United States, the United Kingdom and the Federal Republic of Germany as an introduction to a discussion of possible policy responses."
Correspondence: J. H. Petersen, Odense Universitet, Center for Helsetjenesteforskning og Socialpolitik, Compusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:20696 United States. Congress. Joint Economic Committee. Subcommittee on Technology and National Security (Washington, D.C.); United States. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service (Washington, D.C.). Demographic change and the economy of the nineties. ISBN 0-16-036980-0. LC 92-169097. Dec 1991. xii, 167 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The study comprises a series of essays examining the consequences of demographic change [in the United States] on the labor force, manufacturing, housing, transportation, and other sectors of the economy. A major conclusion of the study is that there will be slow growth of the gross national product in the 1990s unless the expected slowdown in the growth of the labor force is fully offset by faster growth of productivity, and that this will require greater investment in productivity-enhancing equipment and technologies."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

59:20697 Barrons, Keith C. A catastrophe in the making: with letters to the Pope. ISBN 0-931541-21-2. LC 92-15285. 1991. xi, 290 pp. Mancorp Publishing: Tampa, Florida. In Eng.
The author "presents an analysis of continuing rapid population growth in Third World nations and the threat it presents to both environmental integrity and the adequacy of food for the future. Also treated is the adverse impact of rapid population increase within a country on its economic progress, on the state of the human health and on the adequacy and safety of water supplies. Factors that are restraining reduction in family size are discussed and actions recommended that would speed up the lowering of birth rates....Included in the book are copies of five letters the author wrote to Pope John Paul II, respectfully explaining the inevitability of increased poverty, hunger and environmental degradation if current birth rates continue."
Correspondence: Mancorp Publishing, P.O. Box 21492, Tampa, FL 33622. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20698 Bilsborrow, Richard E.; Okoth-Ogendo, H. W. O. Population-driven changes in land use in developing countries. Ambio, Vol. 21, No. 1, Feb 1992. 37-45 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper shows that demographic processes influence land degradation through the intervening variables of land use. A proper understanding of the effects of population growth and redistribution on deforestation, soil erosion, etc., requires examining changes in land-use patterns over time. A conceptual framework is proposed, wherein these changes are seen to be manifest in various forms, depending on natural resources and institutional factors, including changes in land-tenure arrangements, land intensification, and land extensification. Cross-country data on demographic trends, changes in land use and environmental degradation are presented, to provide an overview for Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. Specific linkages are examined and case studies for Guatemala and Kenya are presented."
Correspondence: R. E. Bilsborrow, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20699 Chobanov, Dobri. Land and people. [Zemya i khora.] Naselenie, No. 6, 1992. 15-22 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author assesses the feasibility of land reform in Bulgaria. Consideration is given by county to rural population growth, the distribution of economically active persons, and the amount of arable land per working person.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20700 Dasgupta, Partha. Population, resources, and poverty. Ambio, Vol. 21, No. 1, Feb 1992. 95-101 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This article applies the theory of resource allocation to rural households in poor countries to see what one may mean by a population problem. It is argued by an appeal to evidence that there is a serious population problem..., and that it is related synergistically to poverty, and possibly also to an erosion of the local environmental resource base."
Correspondence: P. Dasgupta, Cambridge University, Faculty of Economics and Politics, Austin Robinson Building, Sidgwick Avenue, Cambridge CB3 9DD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20701 Duncan, Richard C. The life-expectancy of industrial civilization: the decline to global equilibrium. Population and Environment, Vol. 14, No. 4, Mar 1993. 325-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The goal of this essay was to develop a new paradigm for industrial civilization. Four theories were proposed which, taken together, constitute such a paradigm. The theories were developed by dividing the long sweep of human history from 3 million BC to the end of the third millennium into three phases: (1) pre-industrial, (2) industrial, and (3) de-industrial....Each phase was described in terms of energy-use per person per year. The focus was on the second, or industrial, phase....Controllability of the world system was studied at the individual, local, national and global levels, in terms of a four-sector feedback model of the human life-support system....This model was analyzed in terms of ten fundamental requirements for system control. Based on this analysis, the size, or complexity, of human society was expressed in terms of average energy-use per person in that society."
Correspondence: R. C. Duncan, Institute on Energy and Man, P.O. Box 391543, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20702 Falkenmark, Malin; Suprapto, Riga A. Population-landscape interactions in development: a water perspective to environmental sustainability. Ambio, Vol. 21, No. 1, Feb 1992. 31-6 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper is an interdisciplinary attempt to address the relation between the population with its social interactions, and the resource base of the surrounding landscape. It tries to merge a sociological and anthropological approach in explaining population and demographic conditions with an ecohydrological approach in explaining fundamental environmental functions and phenomena in the landscape. It draws attention to the fact that Third World development often has to take place under genuine water scarcity." The need to secure environmental sustainability is stressed.
Correspondence: M. Falkenmark, Natural Science Research Council, Box 6711, S-113 85 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20703 Fan, Zhijie; Cote, R. P. Population, development and marine pollution in China. Marine Policy, Vol. 15, May 1991. 210-9 pp. Jordan Hill, England. In Eng.
"Population increases and poor economic growth are underlying factors leading to the deterioration of the marine environment in many developing countries. In this article, the relationship between marine pollution and growth in [mainland] China is analysed as a case study."
Correspondence: Z. Fan, State Oceanic Administration, Institute of Marine Environmental Protection, P.O. Box 303, Dalian, China. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

59:20704 Fox, Robert W.; Mehlman, Ira H. Crowding out the future: world population growth, U.S. immigration, and pressures on natural resources. ISBN 0-935776-12-5. 1992. 64 pp. Federation for American Immigration Reform [FAIR]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This publication seeks to illustrate through text, graphics, satellite imagery and data three main points. 1) Rapid world population growth is placing untenable immigration pressures on the United States. 2) Immigration and U.S. population growth patterns generally are regionally-concentrated, especially in coastal counties. This coastal county growth has far-reaching consequences that affect other parts of the nation and even the rest of the world. 3) Given population and natural resource/environmental pressures, there are now profound and urgent reasons to address immigration within a broader national population policy framework. Left unchecked, immigration will soon be America's most important population issue."
Correspondence: Federation for American Immigration Reform, 1666 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Brown University, Demography Library, Providence, RI.

59:20705 Kim, Ock-Kyung; van den Oever, Pietronella. Demographic transition and patterns of natural-resources use in the Republic of Korea. Ambio, Vol. 21, No. 1, Feb 1992. 56-62 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this paper we consider the demographic and economic transitions that have transformed the Korean society from predominantly agricultural in the 1950s to [a] modern industrial nation....We examine the evolution of these social, economic, and demographic changes and their impact on resource consumption and natural environments in Korea. More specifically, the demographic transition in the sphere of the family is considered together with the interrelationship between population growth and the use of natural resources in the context of the Korean society."
Correspondence: O.-K. Kim, IUCN The World Conservation Union, Avenue du Mont-Blanc, CH-1169 Gland, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20706 Mahtab, Fasih u.; Karim, Zahurul. Population and agricultural land use: towards a sustainable food production system in Bangladesh. Ambio, Vol. 21, No. 1, Feb 1992. 50-5 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The authors analyze the effect of population growth on the sustainability of agricultural development in Bangladesh. They predict that at current growth rates, the country will be unable to feed itself by the year 2010. "In view of this critical situation, some measures have been recommended to control population to regenerate agricultural resources, and future areas of research thrust."
Correspondence: F. u. Mahtab, Planning and Development Services, 31 Bejoynagar, North South Road, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20707 Myers, Norman. Population/environment linkages: discontinuities ahead. Ambio, Vol. 21, No. 1, Feb 1992. 116-8 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between population growth and environmental pollution in developing countries. He concludes that "in a number of cases, we can soon expect to encounter a phenomenon of environmental discontinuities. That is to say, we shall find that environmental degradation and natural-resource depletion will suddenly and sharply worsen as a result of the demands of growing numbers of people, coupled with the cumulative burden of past over-exploitation."
Correspondence: N. Myers, Upper Meadow, Old Road, Headington, Oxford 0X3 8SZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20708 Rasmuson, Marianne; Zetterstrom, Rolf. World population, environment and energy demands. Ambio, Vol. 21, No. 1, Feb 1992. 70-4 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The authors review worldwide population growth trends since prehistoric times, then assess the impact of a continuance of the modern population explosion on the environment and energy supplies.
Correspondence: M. Rasmuson, Umea University, Department of Genetics, S-901 87 Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20709 Sambrook, Richard A. Population pressure, deforestation, land degradation and population redistribution in the Plan Sierra region of the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic. Pub. Order No. DA9303047. 1992. 243 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Michigan State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(9).

59:20710 Stolnitz, George J. Population and environment: patterns, problems, some pathways to solutions. PIRT Working Paper, No. 92-8, Mar 1991. 19 pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
This paper documents international dimensions of the main demographic threats to the environment and how they can be mitigated.
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20711 Tabutin, Dominique; Thiltges, Evelyne. The relationship between population growth and the environment: from theory to practice. [Relations entre croissance demographique et environnement: du doctrinal a l'empirique.] Revue Tiers Monde, Vol. 33, No. 130, Apr-Jun 1992. 273-94 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The relationships between population growth and environmental degradation in developing countries are explored. The authors support the view that questions of the environment should be examined in the context of the global economy and suggest that environmental degradation could best be reduced by promoting economic equality between rich and poor countries.
Correspondence: D. Tabutin, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 place Montesquieu, BP 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:20712 Wolanski, N. Human ecology and problems of demography. Collegium Antropologicum, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jun 1991. 27-43 pp. Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In Eng. with sum. in Scr.
The author argues the case that "biodemography and population genetics are areas closely related to problems of adaptation of man to the environment on a population level. Several studies are discussed based on research [on Poland] by the Department of Human Ecology of the Polish Academy of Sciences." Consideration is given to the demographic impact of environmental change, the biological effects of demographic processes, and demographic and biological indexes as measures of social tension and cultural values.
Correspondence: N. Wolanski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Human Ecology, Nowy Swiat 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland. Location: University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill, NC.

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

59:20713 Costa, Maria J. J. Demography and the labor force in Amazonia. [Demografia e mao-de-obra na Amazonia.] Colecao Igarape, ISBN 85-247-0050-5. LC 90-743787. 1990. 260 pp. Universidade Federal do Para, Centro de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas: Belem, Brazil. In Por.
The author examines the demographic makeup of the population of Brazilian Amazonia, with a focus on the labor force. She considers the influence of social, political, economic, and ideological factors, with an emphasis on unemployment and underemployment. Data generally cover the period 1960-1980.
Correspondence: Universidade Federal do Para, Centro de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas, Setor de Editoracao, Campus Universitario--Guama, CEP 66 059, Belem, Para, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20714 Effendiev, M. K. Migration and employment problems in the Far East of the Soviet Union. [Migratsiya i problemy trudovykh resursov dal'nego Vostoka.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 5, 1992. 80-7 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The author summarizes the discussions that took place at a round table held in Vladivostok, Russia, in 1991. The focus was on the region's labor shortages, which were due to a decline in natural increase and in migration, both internal and international.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20715 Gendell, Murray; Siegel, Jacob S. Retirement quandary: more retirees at younger ages, living longer. Population Today, Vol. 21, No. 3, Mar 1993. 6-7, 9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine trends in age at retirement and life expectancy in the United States. "We used labor-force data from the Current Population Survey...to calculate the percentage change in labor-force participation rates for five-year birth cohorts over a series of five-year intervals....Using these percentage changes, corrected for mortality during each five-year interval, we calculated the average age at retirement (median age) from the early 1950s to the late 1990s."
Correspondence: M. Gendell, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20716 Hoem, Britta. The way to the gender-segregated Swedish labour market. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 68, ISBN 91-7820-054-7. Sep 1992. 25 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The impact of gender on occupational choice and on educational and socioeconomic status among labor force participants is examined using official data from 1991 and census data from 1985.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20717 Leinbach, Thomas R.; Watkins, John F.; Bowen, John; Ali, M. Bakir; Fachurrozie, S. A. Off-farm employment in Indonesian transmigration: case studies from south Sumatra. Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Jun 1992. 71-107 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
The authors assess the impact of off-farm employment in the context of Indonesia's transmigration program. "The central objective...is to explore and generalize transmigrant households' employment behavior with respect to off-farm activities....The specific intent...is to focus upon the individuals participating in off-farm employment: the conditions which lead to the development of their employment behavior as well as the nature of the employment itself."
Correspondence: T. R. Leinbach, University of Kentucky, Department of Geography, Lexington, KY 40506. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20718 Maksakova, L. P. Demographic problems of employment in the Uzbek SSR. [Demograficheskie problemy zanyatosti v Uzbekskoi SSR.] ISBN 5-640-00128-3. LC 89-121290. 1989. 173, [3] pp. Uzbekistan: Tashkent, USSR. In Rus.
The impact of current demographic trends on the characteristics and efficient utilization of the labor force in Uzbekistan is examined. The focus is on employment status by age, sex, and occupation.
Correspondence: Uzbekistan, ul. Navoi 30, 700129 Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:20719 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Population and employment. [Population et emploi.] Etudes Demographiques, 1992. 291 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This study is concerned with economic activity, employment, and unemployment in Morocco and the demographic factors affecting them. Trends in employment and unemployment over the period 1960-1990 are first reviewed. The impact of migration on employment is then examined in both urban and rural areas. The next chapter looks at the social and demographic characteristics of the young population and the level of demand for employment by the young. Professional training and higher education are then analyzed with respect to the entry of those qualified into the labor force. A final chapter looks at the characteristics of civil servants in Morocco.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20720 Munoz-Perez, Francisco; Tribalat, Michele. Career perspectives and trends in the magistracy, 1990-2030. [Perspectives de carriere et evolution du corps des magistrats, 1990-2030.] Population, Vol. 48, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1993. 27-62 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this article two simulation models are presented to show trends in the career prospects of the judiciary over the next 40 years [in France]. In the first model, recruitment and promotion only occur when there are vacancies, which implies a constant number of judges during this period, as well as a constant distribution by rank in the judicial hierarchy. The judiciary would become very much older....In the second model, it is assumed that there would be regular recruitment to new posts, and a satisfactory career structure....After a gradual increase in the number of judges (amounting to 50 per cent over 20 years), the structure by grade would become stable, in accordance with the assumptions that the model is based on. Ageing would only be moderate...."
Correspondence: F. Munoz-Perez, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20721 Runge, Jerzy. Population and employment dynamics in Poland in the period 1975-1985. [Dynamika ludnosci i zatrudnienia w Polsce w latach 1975-1985.] Czasopismo Geograficzne/Geographical Journal, Vol. 61, No. 1-2, 1990. 21-30 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper analyses the interdependence between population dynamics and employment in Poland against the background of changes in the structure of employment as well as the total population growth in 1975-1985. Use was made of the ORLINE taxonomic method, J. W. Webb's structural diagram and the method of standardized residuals from linear regression." The results show considerable differences among regions, although, as a general rule, natural increase rather than migration was the most significant demographic factor.
Correspondence: J. Runge, Wydzial Nauk o Ziemi US, ul. Mielczarskiego, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland. Location: U.S. Geological Survey Library, Reston, VA.

59:20722 Schasse, Ulrich. Duration of employment and mobility: an empirical study on the stability of employment behavior. [Betriebszugehorigkeitsdauer und Mobilitat: eine empirische Untersuchung zur Stabilitat von Beschaftigungsverhaltnissen.] Sozialwissenschaftliche Arbeitsmarktforschung, Vol. 21, ISBN 3-593-34446-7. LC 92-142564. 1991. 246 pp. Campus Verlag: New York, New York/Frankfurt, Germany. In Ger.
A study of employment duration and labor market mobility in West Germany is presented. Factors determining employment stability are first examined, and theoretical approaches are reviewed. Methods for the empirical analysis of labor market mobility using individual data are then outlined, and the results are analyzed.
Correspondence: Campus Verlag, GmbH., U. Edition Qumran, Heerstr 149, W-6000 Frankfurt 90, Germany. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

59:20723 Stier, Haya; Tienda, Marta. Family, work and women: the labor supply of Hispanic immigrant wives. International Migration Review, Vol. 26, No. 4, Winter 1992. 1,291-313 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The article focuses on the economic circumstances and the family arrangements that govern the labor supply of Hispanic immigrant wives in the United States. We use a two-stage estimation procedure and a specification that models individual and familial factors that influence the labor supply of all women and those unique to immigrants. The analysis, based on a sample of Hispanic immigrant wives obtained from the 1980 U.S. Census, examines immigrant wives of Mexican, Puerto Rican and Other Hispanic origin and compares their labor supply with that of their native-born counterparts and U.S.-born white wives. Results indicate that the labor force behavior of Hispanic immigrant wives is highly responsive to their earning potential and, unlike that of U.S.-born white wives, is less constrained by their familial role as mothers."
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: H. Stier, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, 31 905, Haifa, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:20724 Sundstrom, Marianne. The growth in full-time work among Swedish women in the 1980s. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 67, ISBN 91-7820-052-0. Sep 1992. 22 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"In the 1980s full-time work increased while part-time work declined among Swedish women. This paper uses panel data from the Swedish Labor Force Surveys to explore the sources of this change...."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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