A. G. Urban and regional demographic trends in the
developed world. Urban Studies, Vol. 29, No. 3-4, May 1992. 461-82
pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This is the first in a planned series of review essays on urban and regional demographic trends in developed countries. Two recent trends are identified. "One is the acceleration of population ageing, resulting primarily from the decline in fertility rates since the early 1960s. The other relates to changes in the size and composition of households consequent upon lower fertility, rising divorce rates and other sources of household fission. The remainder of the paper investigates the recent literature on the changing urban and regional distribution of population, with particular reference to the latest trends in concentration and deconcentration...."
Correspondence: A. G. Champion, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).
Dowell; Choi, Seong Youn. Growth in overcrowded housing:
a comparison of the states. Applied Demography, Vol. 7, No. 3,
Winter 1992. 1-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The present article reports on a research project that is seeking greater understanding of the prevalence of overcrowding [in the United States] and its causes. First we review the definition of overcrowding and describe differences between renters and owners. Next we document the state-by-state variation in crowding levels among renters. Then we explore some of the factors that may explain this variation."
Correspondence: D. Myers, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Daniel; Thumerelle, Pierre-Jean. The geographical study of
population. [L'etude geographique des populations.] Masson
Geographie, ISBN 2-225-83925-5. 1993. viii, 124 pp. Masson: Paris,
France. In Fre.
This book is an introduction to the study of the geographical or spatial aspects of human populations. Chapters are included on data sources, methods of demographic analysis, spatial distribution, population characteristics, population dynamics, migration, and modeling. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Masson, 120 boulevard Saint-Germain, 75280 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Mohammed. Population density pattern and change in the
city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. GeoJournal, Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug
1992. 375-85 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines and assesses the changes in the population density pattern in the city of Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia where the city has undergone dramatic changes in its physical as well as its social structure. Analysis of data revealed a decline in population density at an exponential rate from the city center with variation between city sectors and zones. The city's rapid horizontal expansion and dispersal of population is the result of factors such as increases in city population and in size and number of single family dwellings, widening of streets, rise in income and residential mobility rates, mass use of automobiles, change in family size, zoning regulations, leapfrogging, and huge governmental city development projects."
Correspondence: M. Al-Gabbani, King Saud University, Department of Geography, POB 2456, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Gershon; Deutsch, Joeseph. Population density gradients
and urbanisation measurement. Urban Studies, Vol. 29, No. 8, Dec
1992. 1,323-28 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The exponential density function has been used widely to describe and compare the patterning of urban population. In this article it is argued that the exponent within the function can be biassed by the misidentification of the CBD [central business district] and of the centroids of census tracts. Using a least-squares method it is shown that such misspecification (of the location of the CBD) leads to an underestimation of the gradient, and shows that the magnitude of the bias is itself related to the extent of the distance error by which the CBD is misidentified."
Correspondence: G. Alperovich, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).
Abhijit. Indian policies on urbanisation and urban
development. Third World Planning Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, May
1992. 193-201 pp. Liverpool, England. In Eng.
"This article begins by examining the rationale of [India's] national urbanisation policy goals, before moving on to analyse some of the specific urban development schemes....This is followed by a discussion of the modifications which need to be made to India's urbanisation goals...." The policy's three main objectives are to achieve "a) rural-urban mix in regional development; b) distribution of urban size-classes; and c) rural-urban distribution of public services."
Correspondence: A. Datta, Indian Institute of Public Administration, Indraprastha Estate, Ring Road East, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).
59:20036 De Bartolo,
Giuseppe. Demographic trends and projections for
Calabria's towns. [Tendenze e prospettive demografiche delle citta
calabre.] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No.
08/91, 1991. 56 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di
Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in
Data for Calabria, Italy, cover the period 1986-2016.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Pierre. China: irresistible urbanization. [Chine:
l'irresistible urbanisation.] Problemes Politiques et Sociaux, Vol.
682, Jun 12, 1992. 61 pp. La Documentation Francaise: Paris, France. In
This publication consists of four articles translated from the original Chinese, together with comments from the compiler, on aspects of urbanization in China. A common theme is the wide extent of the rural exodus in China and the rapid pace of urbanization. Also noted are the inadequacies of the available data and the problems the Chinese authorities are facing in trying to control these trends.
Correspondence: La Documentation Francaise, 22 quai Voltaire, 75007 Paris, France. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Takashi. A new concept of the central point of intra-urban
population distribution. Jimbun-Chiri/Human Geography, Vol. 42,
No. 5, 1990. 1-17 pp. Kyoto, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper presents a new measure of the central point of population using two-dimensional normal distribution theory." The measure, called the singular point of urban population, is illustrated using data for two hypothetical cities and three actual Japanese cities in 1970, 1975, and 1980.
Location: University of Washington, Suzzallo Library, Seattle, WA.
59:20039 Lucas, G.
H. G. Urbanisation of the RSA's population, 1985.
Research Report/Navorsingsverslag, No. 177, ISBN 0-947459-20-0. 1990.
vii, 154 pp. University of South Africa, Bureau of Market Research:
Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
The author examines levels and trends in urbanization in South Africa using 1985 census data. Data are in tabular format by ethnic group, with regional statistics included in an appendix.
Correspondence: University of South Africa, Bureau of Market Research, Box 392, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Goran. Postwar trends in urbanization. Yugoslav
Survey, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1991. 95-112 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Eng.
Trends in urbanization in Yugoslavia are described for the period since World War II using data from official sources. Particular attention is given to differences in urbanization trends among the constituent republics.
Correspondence: G. Milicevic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Faculty of Economics, Studentski trg 1, 11001 Belgrade 6, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
Robert B. Urbanization in the Caribbean and trends of
global convergence-divergence. Geographical Journal, Vol. 159, No.
1, Mar 1993. 1-21 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author first shows that the Caribbean is comparatively highly urbanized, and that this trend toward urbanization occurred mainly since World War II. He maintains that "contemporary Caribbean urbanization can only be understood in terms of the joint processes of global convergence-divergence. Convergence represents the universal adoption of Western norms of consumption, whilst divergence connotes increasingly varied production possibilities between nations owing to the International Division of Labour. However, it is shown that owing to the differential processes of conservation and dissolution of traditional pre-capitalist forms, convergence on Western patterns of consumption impacts upon different social groups within the Caribbean region in a highly unequal manner."
Correspondence: R. B. Potter, University of London, Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, Centre for Developing Areas Research, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
59:20042 Qutub, Syed
A. Rapid population growth and urban problems in
Pakistan. Ambio, Vol. 21, No. 1, Feb 1992. 46-9 pp. Stockholm,
Sweden. In Eng.
The author examines whether interdisciplinary differences of opinion regarding the consequences of population growth and urbanization in developing countries can be resolved by adopting an ecological approach. Data from two national policy studies conducted in Pakistan in the 1980s are used to illustrate.
Correspondence: S. A. Qutub, 41 Bhitai Road, F-7/1, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Richard H. Urban settlement size trends in the former
USSR: 1970-1989. Post-Soviet Geography, Vol. 33, No. 1, Jan 1992.
34-48 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Based upon recently published data, this paper investigates urban settlement size trends in the former USSR and its republics during the intercensal periods of 1970-1979 and 1979-1989. Results indicate that although a trend toward largeness of the Soviet urban hierarchy continues, a slowing in this direction has occurred. Among republics, all had an increasing trend towards largeness on at least one and usually all three summary measures of urban settlement size structure. The RSFSR [Russia] and Armenia especially consistently evidenced a relatively high degree of largeness, while the former Baltic republics generally revealed a relative smallness."
Correspondence: R. H. Rowland, California State University, 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA 92407. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
William J.; O'Cain, Steven M. The role of region and
coastal location in explaining metropolitan population growth
differentials during the 1980s. Review of Regional Studies, Vol.
22, No. 3, Winter 1992. 217-25 pp. Knoxville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"There has recently been some speculation that the physical location of a community on the coast plays an equal or even more important role than does region in terms of the importance of geography upon population growth. This paper explores in empirical fashion the relative importance of coastal siting, as well as location, in the South or West, along with variables measuring economic base and demographic structure in explaining the relative rates of population growth in American metropolitan areas from 1980 to 1990."
Correspondence: W. J. Serow, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).
Ajit. Urbanisation, poverty and employment: the large
metropolis in the third world. Contributions to Political Economy,
Vol. 11, 1992. 15-40 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this paper is to provide an overall review of the chief analytical as well as economic policy issues in relation to Third World cities in the light of the available theoretical and empirical studies on urbanisation, poverty and employment in the developing countries....Part I...provides basic information on urbanisation in the Third World...[and] outlines the nature and extent of urban poverty in these large cities and considers the impact of the world economic crisis on the urban poor. Part II of the paper discusses the most important structural features of urbanisation in relation to economic development....Finally, Part III briefly examines policy issues in relation to urbanisation and poverty in the Third World's large cities."
Correspondence: A. Singh, Cambridge University, Queens' College, Cambridge CB3 9ET, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
David M. The apartheid city and beyond; urbanization and
social change in South Africa. ISBN 0-415-07601-3. LC 91-39303.
1992. xii, 322 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England;
Witwatersrand University Press: Johannesburg, South Africa. In Eng.
"This volume provides a series of original contributions on a variety of topics related to urbanization and social change in South Africa....The content of this book has been chosen to exemplify and illuminate various issues concerning the past, present and future of the South African city....The book is divided into five parts....Part One comprises an historical overview of urbanization in South Africa, and a review of the changing context of urban and regional government. Part Two brings together pieces on various aspects of housing and community, as imposed, struggled over and reconstructed under apartheid. Part Three provides case studies of informal settlement. Part Four looks at the servicing of cities, including the informal economy, travel, tourism and health care. Part Five turns to the post-apartheid city, considering some of its challenges (or problems) and precedents from which the prospect for change might be judged. There is a brief editorial conclusion."
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
Jack; Hicks, Donald A. Rediscovering urban America:
perspectives on the 1980s. Jan 1993. iii,  pp. U.S.
Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy
Development and Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The papers in this volume were originally prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development to serve as the basis for the President's National Urban Policy Report for 1992. The authors were asked to review trends in urban areas during the 1980s. The papers cover a number of the most important aspects of urban areas: population and growth change, employment patterns, housing conditions, and new directions in policy by governments at all levels." Data are from many sources, including the 1990 census. Since the 1992 President's report was never completed, "the present volume has been produced to provide as much information as possible, both to the incoming administration as a basis for the [planned] 1993 report and to the public in general to facilitate understanding and discussion of urban trends during the 1980s as a basis for policy development during the 1990s."
Correspondence: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Richard; White, Rodney; Whitney, Joseph. Sustainable
cities: urbanization and the environment in international
perspective. ISBN 0-8133-8169-X. LC 91-9085. 1992. viii, 365 pp.
Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
These papers were originally presented at a colloquium on Human Settlements and Sustainable Development held in Toronto, Canada, in June 1990. The focus is on the implications of contemporary urbanization for the future of the global environment. "To assess whether cities can be sustainable in environmental terms, the book brings together comprehensive studies of the urban experience in nine major countries and regions: the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia, China and Hong Kong, Africa, and Latin America. The chapters examine the meaning of sustainable development in a specific region, the growth and structure of urban systems, the effects of possible climatic changes on urban areas, the political environment within which cities operate, and the pressures caused by intense urban use of services and natural resources. Chapters conclude with policy proposals for increasing sustainability."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2847. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).
No citations in this issue.