Volume 59 - Number 1 - Spring 1993

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

59:10731 Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA] (Seoul, Korea, Republic of). Impact of fertility decline on population policies and programme strategies. 1992. v, 279 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a seminar held in Seoul, Republic of Korea, in 1991 to discuss population policy issues in the low-fertility countries of Asia. "The volume starts with a chapter that presents an overview of fertility trends and prospects in South-East and East Asia. The consequences of fertility decline are then discussed within specific national or regional contexts for...selected countries: Korea, China, Japan, Taiwan and Europe....Four chapters follow on the family unit. One of these gives a cross-cultural overview, while the other provides a more detailed analysis of family formation change in the Republic of Korea. This is followed by two which are concerned with the Korean family....The next three chapters consider the future of population programmes....In the final chapter, an attempt is made to bring together the diverse strands of the previous chapters and to form a synthesis."
Correspondence: Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10732 Sharma, B. B. L.; Talwar, P. P. Health for all and population stabilization in India. Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 10, No. 6, Nov 1991. 779-93 pp. Hyderabad, India. In Eng.
The objectives of India's 1983 health policy are outlined, with a focus on its goal of achieving better public health and a lower net reproduction rate. Special consideration is given to programs that promote family planning and maternal and infant health care.
Correspondence: B. B. L. Sharma, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Planning and Evaluation, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: University of Rochester Library, Rochester, NY.

59:10733 Teitelbaum, Michael S. The population threat. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 71, No. 5, Winter 1992-1993. 63-78 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews changes in U.S. policy on international population trends since the 1960s and makes the case for renewed U.S. involvement. He notes that "when the global rate of population growth accelerated and reached an all-time high in the 1960s, the United States established foreign population assistance. In the 1980s, as ideological forces came into play, Washington reversed its position and forfeited its commanding role. The United States needs now to recapture its leadership role on population issues; a 'continuation of this self-inflicted blindness to demographic insights is increasingly dangerous for U.S. foreign policy.'"
Correspondence: M. S. Teitelbaum, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 630 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10111. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10734 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Angola. Programme Review and Strategy Development Report, ISBN 0-89714-159-8. [1992?]. vii, 48 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series of reports prepared by the UNFPA in collaboration with the governments concerned, "with the aim of developing a coherent and comprehensive framework for a national population programme. [This report, which concerns Angola,] analyses the current status and needs, assesses achievements of past population activities and recommends future action in terms of an overall national population strategy." Previously published reports are available for Bangladesh, Bolivia, Botswana, Ecuador, India, Nepal, Nigeria, Peru, the South Pacific, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, Tunisia, and Viet Nam.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: UNFPA Library, New York, NY.

59:10735 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Romania. UNFPA Report, ISBN 0-89714-146-6. [1992?]. v, 36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series of publications that examines issues and developments in the population sector. This is a report from a UNFPA delegation that visited Romania in 1991 in order to identify areas in which assistance in population matters might be needed. "The Mission attempted to identify the country's priority population issues and objectives, the best strategies to achieve these objectives, the priority requirements to carry out these strategies and the new programmes or modifications of existing projects that will be needed to meet priority requirements." Issues addressed include population policy, population in development planning, data collection and analysis, training, maternal and child health, family planning, IEC, women in development, and external assistance.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: UNFPA Library, New York, NY.

59:10736 Vaillancourt, Denise; Nassim, Janet; Brown, Stacye. Population, health, and nutrition: fiscal 1991 sector review. Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition, No. 890, Apr 1992. v, 65 pp. World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report looks at World Bank lending for population, health, and nutrition projects. "To strengthen efforts to alleviate poverty and to develop management and institutional capacity, the Bank should improve the skills mix of its population, health, and nutrition staff, provide better standards and guidelines for analyzing and addressing institutional and management issues, and ensure that enough time is spent on institutional and management issues."
Correspondence: World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

59:10737 Demeny, Paul. Policies seeking a reduction of high fertility: a case for the demand side. Population and Development Review, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jun 1992. 321-32, 394-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Of the two approaches to fertility policy in high fertility countries--one concerned with extending the supply of the means of fertility control available to interested individuals and the other with increasing the demand for those means--the latter continues to receive little attention. This note argues that such indifference is anomalous and discusses three reasons that explain the anomaly. Demand-oriented fertility policies that call for a constitutional-structural approach in shaping development do not naturally mesh with the sectorally formulated programs favored by contemporary development policy. Periodic assessments of the effects of sectoral programs on demographically relevant incentives should suggest remedies for the resulting present neglect of the demand side in seeking lower fertility."
Correspondence: P. Demeny, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10738 Govindasamy, Pavalavalli; DaVanzo, Julie. Ethnicity and fertility differentials in Peninsular Malaysia: do policies matter? Population and Development Review, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jun 1992. 243-67, 393, 395 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the impact of government policies on ethnic differences in fertility in Peninsular Malaysia, using data from the First (1976) and Second (1988) Malaysian Family Life Surveys. The benefits accruing to the politically dominant Malays from the New Economic Policy, implemented in 1971, encouraged them to raise their desired fertility in response to the government's New Population Policy, introduced in 1982. The effects of the combination of these two policies provide an explanation for the diverging Malay--non-Malay fertility trends."
Correspondence: P. Govindasamy, Macro International Inc., Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10739 Hantrais, Linda. The possible impact of family policy on fertility in France and the United Kingdom. [La fecondite en France et au Royaume-Uni: les effets possibles de la politique familiale.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 987-1,015 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Differences between family policies in France and the United Kingdom are examined, with a focus on their impact on family formation strategies. "Whereas French governments have for a long time pursued a highly visible and active family policy, successive governments in the United Kingdom have tended to leave individual couples and employers to take the initiative, except for those who are unable to meet their own needs. In European terms, the fertility rate in France appears to have been maintained at a fairly high level due, in part, to measures introduced by the government to compensate for the cost of raising a family and to help couples combine family life with employment. In the United Kingdom, on the other hand, couples have achieved a comparable family size, by resorting to individual strategies, often at the expense of continuous and stable working patterns for women."
Correspondence: L. Hantrais, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicester LE11 3TU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10740 Khasiani, Shanyisa A. The nature and impact of population policy in Kenya. African Journal of Sociology, Vol. 3, No. 2, Nov 1989. 44-60 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This paper examined the existence and impact of population policy in Kenya. The findings show that Kenya has adopted an antinatalist population policy which also aims at promoting balanced population distribution. This policy is, however, not well designed and integrated. The demographic targets are often not specified or vague; the programme measures are limited; and the policy does not encompass most geographical areas and subpopulation in terms of needs and resource endowments."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10741 Kuumba, Monica. Examining population control in Africa. TransAfrica Forum, Vol. 9, No. 1, Spring 1992. 69-77 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author challenges Western motives and arguments for promoting population control measures as part of development assistance efforts in Africa. "This essay argues that this approach is flawed and that population control measures are, in fact, an attempt to maintain political and economic control of Africa and its abundant resources. The essay asserts that high population growth rates are merely symptoms, and not causes, of the fundamental economic and social problems afflicting Africa."
Correspondence: M. Kuumba, National Urban League, Research Department, 1111 14th Street NW, Washington, D.C. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:10742 Levy, Michel L. Concerning population policy. [De la politique de population.] Population et Societes, No. 274, Dec 1992. 1-3 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author assesses the need for a population policy in France and considers which appropriate government body should have responsibility for implementing such a policy. Comparisons are made with Sweden and the United Kingdom with regard to the impact of such policies on fertility since World War II.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10743 Li, Jiali. Son preference, population policy, and government control: how do they affect women's fertility related behavior in China, 1979-1988? Pub. Order No. DA9223821. 1992. 352 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Fordham University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Location: Princeton University Library (DR). Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(4).

59:10744 Pampel, Fred C.; Adams, Paul. The effects of demographic change and political structure on family allowance expenditures. Social Service Review, Vol. 66, No. 4, Dec 1992. 524-46 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The impact of demographic aging on the welfare of children is examined through an analysis of the effect of demographic and political variables on family allowances. "The analysis shows that demographic factors, perhaps unexpectedly in the form of an old age structure rather than low fertility rates, and political factors in the form of corporatist, class-based interest groups and leftist party rule both influence family allowance spending. The findings suggest that under certain institutional and political conditions, governments respond to an aging population with increased, rather than decreased, transfers to the young." The geographical focus is on 18 developed countries, and the period covered is from 1959-1986.
Correspondence: F. C. Pampel, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10745 Pauti, Anne. Family policy in Sweden. [La politique familiale en Suede.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992. 961-85 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author reviews the development of family policy in Sweden from the mid-1930s to the present. "With the adoption of universal family allowances in 1948, family policy was used in an attempt to equalize disparities in families' living standards caused by differences in family size. The final phase of the policy...goes back to the 1960s and was implemented in response to a most significant social change: women's work (which is strongly encouraged), and changes which occurred within the family." The country's arrival at and maintenance of replacement-level fertility is noted.
Correspondence: A. Pauti, Institute National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10746 Speigner, Wulfram. Population trends and fertility policy in the past two decades in the German Democratic Republic. [Bevolkerungsentwicklung und Geburtenpolitik in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten der DDR.] Wirtschaftswissenschaft, Vol. 38, No. 12, Dec 1990. 1,601-19 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger.
Trends in fertility policy, fertility, and population growth in East Germany are examined for the period 1970-1989. The failure of pronatalist policies is noted, and the accuracy of the available data is assessed. Some comparisons with West Germany are also included.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

59:10747 Wei, Jinsheng. On the operating mechanism of population control. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1992. 55-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author describes population control measures in China and their effectiveness and makes recommendations to further slow the growth rate.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

59:10748 Donato, Katharine M.; Durand, Jorge; Massey, Douglas S. Changing conditions in the U.S. labor market: effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1992. 93-115 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper, we assess the extent to which the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 affected U.S. labor market conditions facing Mexican migrant workers. Using data gathered from migrants in ten Mexican communities, as well as out-migrants from those communities located in the U.S.A., we examined whether and how IRCA affected U.S. wages, hours worked, and the terms of employment. Estimated period effects did not indicate a clear break in most of these variables following IRCA's passage in 1986, except for hours worked and monthly income. Our analyses did reveal a fairly consistent pattern of deterioration in the labor market conditions facing undocumented migrants, however...."
Correspondence: K. M. Donato, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, 126 Shubbs Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10749 Golini, Antonio. A policy for foreign immigration in Italy. [Una politica per l'immigrazione straniera in Italia.] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 03/89, [1989]. 12 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
The demographic factors that will lead inevitably to increasing pressures to migrate from developing to developed countries are reviewed, focusing on the implications for Italy. The author examines that country's migration policy options.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10750 Perotti, Antonio. Toward an immigration policy. [Pour une politique d'immigration.] Etudes, Vol. 377, No. 3, Sep 1992. 191-202 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in immigration and in migration policy in France since restrictive laws were adopted in 1974 are examined. The author notes that the measures did not end immigration, which continued in response to French economic needs in such areas as agriculture, but instead led to a growth in ways to circumvent the measures, including real or bogus family reunification, requests for political asylum, and illegal migration. The author makes the case for the development of new laws in the European context that take into account socioeconomic realities.
Correspondence: A. Perotti, Centre d'Information et d'Etudes sur les Migrations Internationales, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10751 Scholz, Ulrich. Transmigration--a disaster? Problems and prospects of the Indonesian resettlement program. [Transmigrasi--ein Desaster? Probleme und Chancen des indonesischen Umsiedlungsprogramms.] Geographische Rundschau, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jan 1992. 33-9 pp. Brunswick, Germany. In Ger.
This article focuses on the Indonesian transmigration program, which has resettled about 900,000 families from the overpopulated islands of Java, Madura, and Bali to the less heavily populated outer islands. The goals and implementation of the program are reviewed, and the extensive criticisms that have been leveled against it are assessed.
Correspondence: U. Scholz, Universitat Giessen, Geographisches Institut, Senckenbergstrasse 1, W-6300 Giessen, Germany. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

59:10752 Sciortino, Giuseppe. Immigration into Europe and public policy: do stops really work? New Community, Vol. 18, No. 1, Oct 1991. 89-99 pp. Coventry, England. In Eng.
"Using Italy as a case study, this article explores whether attempts to stop immigration can ever be effective. What it shows is that, contrary to public opinion, strict controls are not necessarily effective. Moreover, there is no evidence that the position of existing migrants improves when controls are increased. On the contrary, strict controls are associated with undermining the position of existing minorities. Such policies are particularly likely to generate the assumption that citizenship rights can only be available on ascriptive criteria."
Correspondence: G. Sciortino, University of Bologna, Department of Sociology, Via Zamboni 33, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

59:10753 Simmons, Alan B.; Keohane, Kieran. Canadian immigration policy: state strategies and the quest for legitimacy. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie, Vol. 29, No. 4, Nov 1992. 421-52 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Current trends in Canadian immigration policy are reviewed, based primarily on interviews with policymakers and others who have contributed to policy development. "This paper discussed how the state attempts to orchestrate the play of power among various actors representing interest groups in communications leading to the formulation of recent immigration and refugee policies. It also concerns the contingent political forces in Canadian society which shape the options open to the state in its efforts to lead policy in this area. Specifically, we examine two cases of policy formulation, one concerning legislation designed to control refugee inflows, and the other concerning the recent targets for immigrants and refugees."
Correspondence: A. B. Simmons, York University, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

59:10754 Sullivan, Gerard; Gunasekaran, S.; Siengthai, Sununta. Labour migration and policy formation in a newly industrialized country: a case study of illegal Thai workers in Singapore. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jul 1992. 66-84 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"Towards the end of 1988, the Singapore Government began to express concern about over-reliance of the economy on foreign workers and later about the presence of large numbers of illegal workers. This article examines the policies and legislation introduced to change these situations, and examines in detail the repatriation of 10,000 unauthorized Thai immigrants. In addition to economic policy and practice, the social and political aspects of migration and labour utilization are considered, as are the implications for international relations."
Correspondence: G. Sullivan, University of Sydney, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10755 Thumerelle, J. International migration and geopolitical change in Europe. [Migrations internationales et changement geopolitique en Europe.] Annales de Geographie, Vol. 101, No. 565, May-Jun 1992. 289-318 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent changes in immigration policies in Europe are reviewed. The author notes that these policies have a common theme of making immigration from outside the European Community (EC) more difficult, while at the same time facilitating it within the community. The non-EC foreign population has remained relatively stable in size, with two-thirds of its migrants being of Mediterranean and Muslim origin. As of 1992, the size of the Eastern European immigrant population (excluding those of German origin) remains nominal.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

Copyright © 1993-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.