59:10703 Basu, Alaka
M. Culture, the status of women, and demographic
behaviour: illustrated with the case of India. ISBN 0-19-828360-1.
LC 91-36547. 1992. xvii, 265 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In
"The present study is an attempt to identify some of [the] extra-economic influences on demographic behaviour. It begins by recognizing that region or culture is an important correlate of demographic behaviour. Next, it tries to identify the attributes of a region or culture which might be the actual determinant of such behaviour and concludes that, in the Indian case at least, and possibly in several other areas with cultural differences in demographic indicators, the status of women is a prominent determining attribute. The study then tries to make a more general argument in favour of a significant connection between the status of women, as defined in specific ways, and demographic behaviour, as measured by fertility, child mortality, and gender differences in physical welfare. A predominant feature is the attempt to identify the proximate determinants in the observed connections between women's roles and these measures of demographic behaviour."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Sandrine; Chauveau, Thierry; Le Cacheux, Jacques; Loufir,
Rahim. Retirement and demographic trends in France. Part
1: the long term. [Retraites et evolutions demographiques en
France. Premiere partie: le long terme.] Observations et Diagnostics
Economiques, No. 39, Jan 1992. 93-149 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with
sum. in Eng.
The prospects for the French national retirement pension scheme are reviewed in light of current demographic trends. The authors note that the present scheme can only remain viable if the population continues to grow. Since this scenario is unlikely, the various alternatives that would keep the system financially solvent are reviewed. The authors conclude that a postponement of the legal age for retirement is preferable to a reduction in benefits or the development of a pay-as-you-go system.
Correspondence: S. Cazes, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques, 69 Quai d'Orsay, 75007 Paris, France. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.
Bettina. Women's status in the states of the European
Community. [Frauenerwerbsbeteiligung in den Staaten der
Europaischen Gemeinschaft.] In: Acta demographica 1992, edited by
Gunter Buttler, Gerhard Heilig, and Gerhard Schmitt-Rink. 1992. 7-25
pp. Physica-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany. In Ger.
The author compares women's status among the countries of the European Community. Consideration is given to male-female income differentials, 1980-1989; female age distribution by income, 1983 and 1990; and labor force participation.
Correspondence: B. Knauth, European Communities, Eurostat, Batiment Jean Monnet, L-2920 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Pravin; Unni, Jeemol. Self-employed women, population and
human resource development. ISBN 81-85820-00-7. May 1992. xii,
203,  pp. Gujarat Institute of Development Research: Ahmedabad,
India. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a workshop on self-employed women in India, held in Ahmedabad in February 1988. The papers consider such topics as the role of self-employed women in the development process during a time of demographic transition; the provision of family planning, health, social security, and other support services to such women; and the incorporation of population concerns into projects designed to help these women.
Correspondence: Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Near Gota Char Rasta, Gota, Ahmedabad 382 481, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
William A. V.; Morrison, Peter A. Gauging Hispanic voting
strength: paradoxes and pitfalls. Population Research and Policy
Review, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1992. 145-56 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In
"This paper examines technical problems in measuring the concentration of Hispanic voting strength among the eligible voters in an election district. We document and analyze several limitations with existing demographic data in localities where a minority has a distinctive citizenship, ethnic, and age makeup. Our findings show how different measurement techniques may distort or clarify one's view of local Hispanic voting strength." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: W. A. V. Clark, University of California, Department of Geography, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Nicholas; Banister, Judith. Divided Korea: demographic
and socioeconomic issues for reunification. Population and
Development Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, Sep 1992. 505-31, 593-5 pp. New
York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors examine and compare changes in the populations of North and South Korea since the post-World War II partition of the country, using data released in 1989 by the government of North Korea. "Korea's prolonged and involuntary partition poses two basic questions. First, to what extent have the social and economic characteristics of the separated populations diverged during their decades under rival polities? Second, if a collapse of Communist power were suddenly to occur in Korea...what sorts of practical problems would the divergences manifested during the separation pose to the reintegration of the Korean nation?...[The] data permit reconstruction and projection of some basic...social, demographic, and economic trends in North Korea under Communist rule. They also provide a basis for some preliminary comparisons of development in North and South Korea--and a starting point for assessing some of the practical issues that might attend their eventual reunification."
Correspondence: N. Eberstadt, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Istvan. Depopulation of border settlements. [A
hatarmenti telepulesek elneptelenedese.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 70,
No. 12, Dec 1992. 1,005-17 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in
Population trends in those parts of Hungary located along the borders created by the 1920 Treaty of Trianon are discussed. Population size and density changes since 1900 are described, and the influence of political factors is assessed.
Correspondence: I. Hooz, Janus Pannonius University, Rakoczi u. 80, 7622 Pecs, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Niels G. Statistical challenges of AIDS. Australian
Journal of Statistics, Vol. 34, No. 2, Aug 1992. 129-44 pp. Canberra,
Australia. In Eng.
"This paper considers questions concerning the incubation period [of HIV infections], the effects of treatments, prediction of AIDS cases, the choice of surrogate end points for the assessment of treatments and design of strategies for screening blood samples. These issues give rise to a broad range of intriguing problems for statisticians. We describe some of these problems, how they have been tackled so far and what remains to be done. The discussion touches on topical statistical methods such as smoothing, bootstrapping, interval censoring and the ill-posed inverse problem, as well as asking fundamental questions for frequentist statistics." The geographical scope is worldwide, with some data for selected developed countries used to illustrate the models.
Correspondence: N. G. Becker, La Trobe University, Department of Statistics, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
J. Richard. China: long-term issues and options in the
health transition. World Bank Country Study, ISBN 0-8213-2183-8.
LC 92-28568. Oct 1992. xxvii, 133 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In
"This report is about China's health status now and over the next 40 years. It covers a complex set of demographic, epidemiological, behavioral and economic factors which affect the provision of health care as China moves toward the 21st century." The first chapter summarizes current demographic trends and includes a section on mortality.
Correspondence: World Bank Publications, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Gunter; Fickel, Norman. Health: increasing expenditures
for decreasing illness? [Gesundheit: Steigende Ausgaben bei
weniger Kranken?] In: Acta demographica 1992, edited by Gunter Buttler,
Gerhard Heilig, and Gerhard Schmitt-Rink. 1992. 157-76 pp.
Physica-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The authors review the marked increase in health care costs in West Germany since the early 1970s. They conclude that the increase is due neither to poorer health status nor to population dynamics, but rather to a trend toward spending more treating the same illnesses.
Correspondence: G. Buttler, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg, Volkswirtschaftliches Institut, Lehrstuhl Statistik I, Lange Gasse 20, D-8500 Nurenberg 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
James; Remenyi, Maria-Antonia; Morrison, Florence; Bulatao,
Rodolfo. The global epidemiology of the HIV/AIDS pandemic
and its projected demographic impact in Africa. World Health
Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires
Mondiales, Vol. 45, No. 2-3, 1992. 220-7 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In
Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article summarizes the status of the HIV/AIDS pandemic as of the early 1990s; provides estimates and short-term projections of AIDS mortality in a hypothetical country of sub-Saharan Africa; projects the potential demographic impact of AIDS in a hypothetical sub-Saharan country; and describes the major problems associated with modelling the long-term demographic impact of this pandemic. Estimated AIDS cases and deaths up to 1992 were extrapolated from public health surveillance data and through use of the WHO model. Estimates of HIV seroprevalence were based on available HIV serological data."
Correspondence: J. Chin, World Health Organization, Office of Research, Global Programme on AIDS, Surveillance, Forecasting and Impact Assessment Unit, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
59:10714 De Labry,
Lorraine O.; Glynn, Robert J.; Levenson, Michael R.; Hermos, John A.;
LoCastro, Joseph S.; Vokonas, Pantel S. Alcohol
consumption and mortality in an American male population: recovering
the U-shaped curve--findings from the Normative Aging Study.
Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Vol. 53, No. 1, Jan 1992. 25-32 pp.
Piscataway, New Jersey. In Eng.
The hypothesis that moderate alcohol drinking can offer protection against coronary heart disease mortality is examined using data on 1,823 men originally interviewed in 1973 who were followed up over a 12-year period. "Proportional hazards models testing several measures of consumption consistently showed moderate or regular drinkers to have lower risk of death than teetotalers. Regular drinkers had lower overall and CHD mortality than lifetime abstainers....These results lend support to the hypothesis of the beneficial effect of moderate drinking, with respect to mortality."
Correspondence: L. O. De Labry, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Normative Aging Study 151-A, 200 Springs Road, Building 70, Bedford, MA 01730. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.
Gilbert. Informal provision of care for the elderly.
[Informele zorgverlening aan bejaarden.] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 3,
1992. 29-49 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Using data for selected developed countries, "the article deals with various aspects relating to the informal care of elderly chronically sick persons. First the actual role of households and families in assisting elderly family members is sketched. After that, some demographic features of the informal providers of care are commented on....Attention is paid...to the many needs and difficulties experienced by providers of care: combination of professional and family obligations, risk of social isolation, burdening of physical and mental health, additional financial charges, etc."
Correspondence: G. Dooghe, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Ben C. Work, stress, disease, and life expectancy.
Wiley Series on Studies in Occupational Stress, ISBN 0-471-91970-5. LC
91-166. 1991. xi, 255 pp. John Wiley and Sons: New York, New
York/Chichester, England. In Eng.
This study concerns the relationship between occupational stress and both mental and physical health. The author also attempts to show that psychological factors affect the immune system and are implicated in the onset of cancer and coronary heart disease, and thus have an impact on mortality. He explores the extent to which work stress spills over into the home environment and how this can affect the well-being and life expectancy of marital partners. The primary geographical focus is on the United Kingdom.
Correspondence: John Wiley and Sons, Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).
Judith H.; Pope, Clyde R. The quality of social roles as
predictors of morbidity and mortality. Social Science and
Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 3, Feb 1993. 217-25 pp. Tarrytown, New
York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Longitudinal data gathered over a 15-year period since 1970-1971 are used to examine the health effects of a variety of social roles among both men and women. The data are from a large health maintenance organization (HMO) in Oregon. "The findings show that for women, particular qualities of the marital and work roles are predictive of subsequent morbidity and mortality. For married women, equality in decision making and companionship in marriage are protective against death. None of the marriage characteristics are predictive of health outcomes among men. Work support is protective against death, malignancy, and stroke among employed women, and work stress increases the risk of ischemic heart disease among employed men."
Correspondence: J. H. Hibbard, University of Oregon, Department of Planning, Public Policy and Management, 119 Hendricks Hall, Eugene, OR 97403. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
Susan. Life expectancy falling, morbidity rising in former
USSR. Population Today, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1993. 1-2 pp.
Washington, D.C. In Eng.
In this synopsis of a talk given by Murray Feshbach, the author reviews current health trends in the former Soviet Union. The focus is on rising infant mortality rates, deteriorating health conditions, and falling life expectancy, and their possible environmental causes.
Correspondence: S. Kalish, Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
V. HIV infection and AIDS epidemiology including the
situation in India. Population Research Abstract, Vol. 3, No. 1,
Jun 1992. 3-13 pp. Bangalore, India. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of the pathology of HIV infection and AIDS worldwide, with a focus on the disease's prevalence in India. Consideration is given to transmission factors, mortality due to AIDS, and prevention and control measures.
Correspondence: V. Kapali, 36 Aspiran Gardens, Madras 600 010, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Kathryn; Forrest, Jacqueline D. American women's sexual
behavior and exposure to risk of sexually transmitted diseases.
Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1992. 244-54 pp.
New York, New York. In Eng.
"In the first section of this article, we examine the social and demographic correlates of women's reported number of sexual partners--both the lifetime number of partners among all women who have ever had intercourse and the number among sexually active women in a recent period of time....In the second section, we explore the implications that multiple sexual contacts have for exposure to the risk of STDs, treating direct or indirect contact with more than one partner as a factor that increases this risk....In the article's third section, we examine whether women with multiple partners are more likely to use the condom...and, if they are, whether they are more consistent users of the method."
Correspondence: K. Kost, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Jean-Louis; Elmendorf, A. Edward. Combatting AIDS and
other sexually transmitted diseases in Africa: a review of the World
Bank's agenda for action. World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 181,
ISBN 0-8213-2262-1. LC 92-49522. 1992. xiii, 34 pp. World Bank:
Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper reevaluates and updates the 1988 World Bank agenda for action on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Africa. What was seen previously as largely a disease of urban populations is now spreading in rural areas. The paper concludes that African countries can do much to combat AIDS. New efforts need to be made to change behavior among high-risk groups. The treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases merits increasing emphasis. The core financial and planning agencies of African governments need to focus on AIDS and its implications for development."
Correspondence: World Bank, Publications Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Georges. Health problems in adult life and family traumas
during childhood. [Troubles de sante a l'age adulte et difficultes
familiales durant l'enfance.] Population, Vol. 47, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1992.
893-932 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The effect of family trauma experienced during childhood on the development of health problems later in life is examined. The author finds that "such traumas lead to an increase of between 16 and 48 per cent in the average number of reported common illnesses, and to a general feeling of malaise. In the case of 23 of the 28 illnesses listed in the questionnaire, a statistically significant correlation was found between repeated illness and family traumas experienced before the eighteenth birthday. Women seem to be more sensitive to such experiences than men." Data are from a survey of 4,650 French adults.
Correspondence: G. Menahem, Centre de Recherche, d'Etudes et de Documentation en Economie de la Sante, 1 rue Paul Cezanne, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Christopher J. L.; Chen, Lincoln C. Understanding
morbidity change. Population and Development Review, Vol. 18, No.
3, Sep 1992. 481-503, 593, 595 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with
sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The authors develop an approach to morbidity definition and measurement, review specific methods, and present a framework for classifying different types of morbidity indicators. They examine various approaches to the interactions between morbidity and mortality change, illustrating these with selected data from India, the United States, and Ghana."
Correspondence: C. J. L. Murray, Harvard University, School of Public Health, International Health Economics, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
I. O.; Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat. Diffusion and
focus in sexual networking: identifying partners and partners'
partners. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 6, Pt. 1,
Nov-Dec 1992. 343-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article describes the second stage of a research project on sexual networking that aims to further understanding of the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in Ondo State, Nigeria. A sample of 488 males aged 15-50 were interviewed in depth to ascertain (1) the numbers and characteristics of their sexual partners, (2) the numbers and characteristics of the partners of those partners, and (3) the extent to which these relationships were commercial. In addition, a census was taken of all commercial sex establishments in order to estimate the numbers of their clients. The results show that male (and female) sexual networking is extensive, that in most nonmarital relationships men do not have accurate knowledge of their partners' partners, and that detailed questioning provides a reasonably accurate picture of the number of these relationships that are commercial in nature. The situation revealed was one of sexual diffusion rather than one with a strong focus on commercial sex workers, which fits the model of a slowly increasing HIV/AIDS epidemic rather than an explosive one."
Correspondence: I. O. Orubuloye, Ondo State University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Ado-Ekiti, Ondo State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
of Maternal Mortality Network (New York, New York).
Barriers to treatment of obstetric emergencies in rural communities
of west Africa. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 5,
Sep-Oct 1992. 279-91 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article is the result of a collaborative effort among the researchers of the Prevention of Maternal Mortality Network. The network consists of 12 multidisciplinary teams, 11 in West Africa and one based at Columbia University in New York. This article summarizes exploratory research conducted by the African teams using focus-group discussions in rural communities in Nigeria, Ghana, and Sierra Leone. The objective was to identify barriers to the use of health-care facilities when obstetric problems arise. The findings illustrate how sociocultural factors,...physical and social distance between communities and facilities,...[and] health-service factors...pose barriers to prompt treatment." A list of network members and their affiliations is included.
Correspondence: Deborah Maine, Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health, Prevention of Maternal Mortality, 60 Haven Avenue B-3, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
J.-M.; Blanchet, M.; Dowd, J.-E. Health expectancy.
[Esperance de sante.] INSERM Analyses et Prospective, ISBN
2-85598-523-4. 1992. xxiv, 322 pp. Institut National de la Sante et de
la Recherche Medicale [INSERM]: Paris, France. Distributed by Office of
Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway,
London WC2B 6JP, England (English-language version). In Fre.
This work, which is also available in English, is a product of the first meeting of the network on Health Expectancy and Disability Process, held in Quebec, Canada, September 11-12, 1989. The focus of the contributions is on the implications for health of the significant decline in mortality, particularly at older ages, that has occurred in the last 15 years. The primary geographical focus is on developed countries. Topics covered include the types of indicators available and how to calculate them, international comparisons, and the interpretation of time series data, their significance, and how to use such data.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, 101 rue de Tolbiac, 75654 Paris Cedex 13, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Juliette. Child survival in wartime: a case study from
Iraq, 1983-1989. 1992. v, 60 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School
of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics:
Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This report describes how Iraq developed a national program that raised the level of child health while the country was engaged in a major war with Iran. The period covered is from 1983 to 1989. "The Iraqi experience demonstrates how, even in the midst of war, 80 percent of childhood diseases were prevented and/or treated; how two-thirds of childbirths were safely handled at the grassroots level by traditional birth attendants; and how women community health motivators successfully raised mothers' awareness of health problems and mobilized them to change their child health care practices. These successful interventions saved the lives of thousands of young children annually."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Institute for International Programs, 103 East Mount Royal Avenue 2B, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Wai-Yuan; Byers, Robert H. A stochastic model of the HIV
epidemic and the HIV infection distribution in a homosexual
population. Mathematical Biosciences, Vol. 113, No. 1, Jan 1993.
115-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper we develop a stochastic model for the HIV epidemic in a homosexual population and use the model to characterize the HIV infection distribution and seroconversion distribution. Through computer-generated infection distributions and seroconversion distributions, we assess the effects of various risk factors on these distributions. The fitting of some data sets generated by computer suggests that the three-parameter generalized log-logistic distribution should be assumed as the infection distribution for the proposed stochastic model of HIV epidemics."
Correspondence: W.-Y. Tan, Memphis State University, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Memphis, TN 38152. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).
Ulf; Wall, Stig. Secular trends of twinning rate in
Sweden. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 4, Oct 1992.
487-96 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to analyse the secular decline in twinning rates in Sweden in relation to changes of parity and maternal age. The study also assessed regional differences of fecundity and twinning rates in past Swedish populations." The authors find that "the change in parity and maternal age in Sweden accounts for the decline in the twinning rate from the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century. The later decline in twinning rate cannot be explained by changes in maternal age and parity. Fecundity appears to be higher in mothers of twins than in other mothers."
Correspondence: U. Hogberg, Umea University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, S-901 87, Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Wayne J.; Wadhera, Surinder; Nimrod, Carl. Multiple
births: trends and patterns in Canada, 1974-1990. [Naissances
multiples: tendances et comportements au Canada, 1974-1990.] Health
Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 4, No. 3, Dec 1992. 223-50 pp.
Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This paper examines Canadian trends and patterns in multiple births in relation to total confinements, singleton births, maternal age, parity, gestational age and birth weight using vital statistics from 1974 to 1990. Multiple-birth rates in Canada increased from 912.8 to 1,058.9 per 100,000 confinements between 1974 and 1990. The increase is especially noticeable for women over 30....Factors associated with the increase in multiple births may include the use of assisted pregnancy techniques, and the fact that women aged 30 and older, who are at higher risk of a multiple birth, and who postponed their child bearing, have increased their fertility."
Correspondence: W. J. Millar, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).