Volume 59 - Number 1 - Spring 1993

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

59:10652 van Dalen, Hendrik P. Economic policy in a demographically divided world. Population Economics, ISBN 3-540-54727-4. 1992. xiv, 355 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The author develops a model of the world economy that incorporates the two different demographic regimes that exist in the developed and developing worlds, including changes in population and economic development, debt, migration, public finance, and taxation. Also considered in the analysis are the levels of population growth, technological advancement, and resource endowments. The implications for economic policy development are discussed.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:10653 Vogel, Friedrich. Underdevelopment--development: report on a study of classification of the countries of the world according to their stage of development. In: Acta demographica 1992, edited by Gunter Buttler, Gerhard Heilig, and Gerhard Schmitt-Rink. 1992. 237-52 pp. Physica-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"This paper reports on a study in which the countries of the world are classified according to their stage of development. The study demonstrates that a multivariate (empirical) description of the stage of development of countries allows the use of more recent methods of cluster-analysis (for mixed data) to classify countries with regard to their position in the process of development. It attempts to identify and to explain quantitatively and multivariately the characteristics (variables) of least and less developed, of developing and developed countries." The results, which group countries into five developmental levels, are included.
Correspondence: F. Vogel, Otto-Friedrich-Universitat Bamberg, Lehrstuhl fur Statistik, Feldkirchenstrasse 21, D-8600 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

59:10654 Ananta, Aris; Pungut, Udi H. Population change and economic development in Indonesia. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jul 1992. 55-65 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"Based on the empirical analysis of an Indonesian case study, this article poses a challenge to Oshima's generalizations concerning the pattern of demographic and economic transition. In addition, it demonstrates that Indonesia has been able to attain a stage of demographic transition with only a lower level of economic development than that experienced by present-day developed countries during their transition to low fertility and mortality regimes. Hence, this faster demographic transition can be fruitfully exploited to stimulate even more rapid economic progress in Indonesia. The likely impact of demographic changes on the future of the Indonesian economy is also examined."
For the article by Harry T. Oshima, published in 1983, see 50:10673.
Correspondence: A. Ananta, University of Indonesia, Demographic Institute, Faculty of Economics, Salemba Rya 4, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10655 Attia, Yahya D. Sudan in the light of its national censuses, with special reference to the 1983 census. Environmental Education and Information, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1991. 151-74 pp. Salford, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to examine Sudan's development conditions, using its national censuses as indicators of the status of the country, with special reference to the 1983 census, the last census in Sudan." The importance of taking migration into account when examining the prospects for development is stressed. The author also describes available demographic data sources for the Sudan, including the censuses of 1955-1956 and 1973. Sections are included on population size and growth, sex and age distribution, spatial distribution, population density, mortality, migration, illiteracy, and the labor force.
Correspondence: Y. D. Attia, Omdurman Islamic University, Department of Geography, P.O.B. 382, Omdurman, Sudan. Location: Pennsylvania State University Libraries, University Park, PA.

59:10656 Gunasekaran, S.; Tan, Joseph L. H. Population dynamics and economic transition: Asia-Pacific towards the year 2000. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jul 1992. 132 pp. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies [ISEAS]: Singapore. In Eng.
This special issue contains five articles by authors from various disciplines on the relationship between population dynamics and economic development in Asia and the Pacific. Topics covered include population aging into the twenty-first century, the emergence in Southeast Asia of extended metropolitan areas, technology and industrialization, population dynamics and economic development in Indonesia, and labor migration.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Heng Mui Keng Terrace, Pasir Panjang, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10657 Hakkert, Ralph. The demographic consequences of austerity in Latin America: methodological aspects. [Las consecuencias demograficas de la austeridad en America Latina: aspectos metodologicos.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 6, No. 2, May-Aug 1991. 391-422, 479-80 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The demographic impact of the economic crisis of the 1980s in the Third World is analyzed, with a focus on Latin America. The paper emphasizes the methodological problems involved in measuring such impacts...[and] the conceptual difficulties inherent in establishing the relationships are discussed....The differences between the cross-sectional analyses common in the current demographic literature and the longitudinal view needed in studies of this kind [are] discussed."
Correspondence: R. Hakkert, Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais, Centro de Planeacion Regional y Urbanizacion, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10658 Hari, M. Modernisation, status of women and fertility. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 37, No. 2, Jun 1991. 62-7 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The present study makes an attempt to examine the impact of modernization on the status of women and fertility behaviour using two indices--one for modernisation and another for women's status. The study was conducted in Nellore town in Andhra Pradesh [India]."
Correspondence: M. Hari, Sri Venkateswara University, Department of Population Studies, Tirupati 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

59:10659 Jones, Gavin W. Population and human resources development. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jun 1992. 23-48 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The author proposes that "the key factor in the development process is the central role of human beings. This article elaborates on that role and its relationship to rapid economic growth and the implications of demographic change in the region for human resources development. It discusses various aspects related to education as well as the various synergies involved in human resources development." The geographical focus is on Asia and the Pacific.
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Demography Department, GPO 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10660 Krishnan, T. N. Population, poverty and employment in India. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 27, No. 46, Nov 14, 1992. 2,479-97 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper represents a preliminary attempt to examine the successes and failures of the Indian economy in integrating population issues with development planning and what were, or would be, the consequences of rapid population growth for the alleviation of poverty in the country. The first section of the paper discusses the momentum of population growth since independence and examines the prospects of reducing its growth rate in future. This section analyses the crucial role of social and human development in influencing fertility rates and shows how little emphasis was placed on promoting these objectives in Indian planning. The second section is devoted to a detailed examination of the relationship between foodgrains production and population growth....The third and final section presents a broad analysis of a few important questions relating to labour market adjustments in response to population growth."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:10661 Kulkarni, Sumati; Kumar, B. Santosh. Socioeconomic development and population growth of various states in India: the experience of two decades. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 37, No. 3, Sep 1991. 44-51 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The relationship between the level of socio-economic development at the beginning of the decade and the population growth experienced during the two decades 1971-81 and 1981-91 are discussed for the fourteen major states of India. The values of indicators like per capita state domestic product, percentage of population below the poverty line, and the female literacy rate at the beginning of each decade as related to the population growth rates in the following decade were examined for this purpose."
Correspondence: S. Kulkarni, International Institute for Population Sciences, Department of Development Studies, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

59:10662 Mahadevan, K.; Tuan, C. H.; Nair, V. B. K.; Sumangala, M. The differential development and dilemma in population growth: perspectives from India. Demography India, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1991. 15-28 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors first assess the utility of current development models in evaluating the relationship between population growth and economic development in India. Then, "overall development indicators (ODI) are taken as antecedent variables and the annual growth of population [is] considered as the consequent variable resulting from the impact of development. Using this method the present paper will discuss the problem at the national and regional levels in India."
Correspondence: K. Mahadevan, Sri Venketeswara University, Population Studies Centre, Tirupati, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10663 Maitra, Priyatosh. The demographic effects of technological change: a case study of small island economies of the South Pacific. Economics Discussion Paper, No. 9221, Sep 1992. 18, [4] pp. University of Otago, Commerce Division, Department of Economics: Dunedin, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper will deal with the demographic effects of introduced technological change in Small Island economies....We will examine the Demographic Transition Theory using South Pacific Island economies as case studies. That two phases of technological change--extensive and intensive--with their varying demand for 'quantity' labour first followed by 'quality' labour have profound effects on the demographic transition and capitalist transformation of an economy will be discussed using the experience of developed capitalist economies. The study [will discuss] the problems of the smallness of these economies in terms of population size and a lack of sufficient labour resources including human capital to accommodate economically the injection of sophisticated capital and investment from overseas. This study will also investigate the demographic and development effects of emigration, remittances and foreign aid to these economies."
Correspondence: University of Otago, Commerce Division, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10664 Schmid, Josef. Population in the development process of Latin America: population sociology introduction and demographic texts of Latin American researchers. [Bevolkerung im Entwicklungsprozess Lateinamerikas: bevolkerungssoziologische Einfuhrung und demographische Texte lateinamerikanischer Forscher.] ISBN 3-593-34415-7. 1991. 276 pp. Campus Verlag: New York, New York/Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In Eng; Ger; Spa.
This publication contains papers presented at a series of conferences organized by the Goethe Institut and held in various Latin American countries during 1987-1988. The papers, which are in German, Spanish, or English, deal with the effect of rapid population growth on economic development. The first group focuses on the relevance of German population sociology to the demographic development of Latin America. Case studies are then included on changes in age structure in Chile, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay; demographic transition in Colombia; women's status and fertility decline in Colombia; population and family planning programs in Peru; migration and rural development in Peru; and the demographic transition in Argentina.
Correspondence: Campus Verlag, Heerstrasse 149, 6000 Frankfurt am Main 90, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10665 Sekiguchi, Sueo. Foreign investment in Asia in the 1990s: trends, problems and implications for manpower movements. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 1, No. 3-4, 1992. 529-42 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The diversity and rapidity of change in direct foreign investment (DFI) [is] described for flows among North America, Western Europe, Japan, ASEAN, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, Korea and Russia. The U.S. share of DFI in Pacific Rim countries has declined, while that of Japan and Western Europe has increased....International capital flows can serve as a substitute for international labor flows;...DFI can also give rise to bidirectional flows of manpower ranging from unskilled to professional levels....This essay will discuss the trends in foreign investment, especially DFI, in East Asia. As major investing countries exist outside the region, investment is classified into two categories: inter-regional and intra-regional. The implications for manpower of migration in the region will also be presented."
Correspondence: S. Sekiguchi, Seikei University, 3-3-1 Kichijoji-Kitamachi, Musashino City, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10666 Taylor, Alan M. External dependence, demographic burdens, and Argentine economic decline after the Belle Epoque. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 4, Dec 1992. 907-36 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author examines reasons why Argentina has declined from being one of the richest countries in the world at the beginning of the twentieth century to its current status of relative underdevelopment. "The quantitative records of income growth and accumulation date the onset of the retardation to around the time of the Great War, and patterns of aggregate saving and foreign borrowing show that scarcity of investable resources significantly frustrated interwar development. A demographic model of national saving demonstrates that the burdens of rapid population growth and substantial immigration depressed Argentine saving, contributing significantly to the demise of the Belle Epoque following the wartime collapse of international financial markets."
Correspondence: A. M. Taylor, Harvard University, Department of Economics, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:10667 Tian, Xueyuan. Develop the economy, initiate changes and promote the benign cycle of population and economic development: implications of the development of population and economy in the coastal areas of China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1992. 15-26 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The impact of economic development on population growth in 12 coastal regions of China is assessed. The author finds that it is necessary to "develop [the] economy and elevate the level of science and technology to bring about the transition from the quantitative cost of having more children to the qualitative cost of raising children."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10668 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Population growth and poverty alleviation: a survey of issues in an Asian and Pacific perspective. Population Research Leads, No. 40, 1992. 14 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This note describes the effects of high population growth rates and high dependency ratios resulting from a high proportion of the very young (a consequence of high fertility rates) and the very old (a consequence of improvements in mortality rates and life expectancy) on the total population [in Asia and the Pacific]. High dependency rates place enormous pressure on the provision of food, health care, education and other social services. This has greatly aggravated poverty in the region despite the region's considerable advances in the field of economic growth."
Correspondence: U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Population Division, Population Information Section, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10669 van Marrewijk, Charles. Endogenous population growth and the economy. Institute of Economic Research Memorandum, No. 363, Mar 1990. 18 pp. University of Groningen, Faculty of Economics, Institute of Economic Research: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author presents a model that illustrates the relationship between population growth and economic prosperity in developing countries. He begins by analyzing "a general economic growth model with endogenous population growth. The effect of endogenization on the steady state and local stability will [then] be investigated. We conclude with an example; the linear endogenous population growth case."
Correspondence: University of Groningen, Faculty of Economics, Institute of Economic Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

59:10670 Circurel, Michel. The stainless generation. [La generation inoxydable.] Generations, ISBN 2-246-41701-5. LC 91-100063. 1989. 259 pp. Bernard Grasset: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author analyzes some psychosocial consequences of demographic aging in developed countries. He suggests that cohorts that are in their forties today will enjoy greater physical and mental activity as they age, and contrasts this with the aging of previous generations. Some scenarios for the future of this cohort are also described.
Correspondence: Bernard Grasset, 61 rue des Saints-Peres, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10671 Easterlin, Richard A. The economic impact of prospective population changes in advanced industrial countries: an historical perspective. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 46, No. 6, Nov 1991. S299-309 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Demographic projections to the year 2050 for advanced industrial nations, implying low or negative population growth and a sharp rise in old age dependency, have created concerns about the long-term economic outlook in these countries. An analysis of these projections in the light of the demographic and economic experience of the past century raises doubt about these concerns. There is little empirical evidence that declining population growth has slowed the rate of economic growth. Although the burden of aged dependents will reach a new high, the projected total dependency rate is not out of line with prior experience. Thus, the ability of the working population to shoulder the burden of higher taxes to support programs for older dependents will be greater because of reduced needs to support younger dependents. This conclusion holds for a number of variant projections, the only clear exception being one that implies a mortality revolution at older ages."
Correspondence: R. A. Easterlin, University of Southern California, Department of Economics, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0035. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

59:10672 Jackson, William A. Population ageing and intergenerational conflict: a post-Keynesian view. Journal of Economic Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1992. 26-37 pp. Bradford, England. In Eng.
The author reexamines the relationships among demographic aging, the dependency burden, and intergenerational conflict from a post-Keynesian perspective, in which unemployment and excess capacity are normal to the functioning of capitalist economies, and resources are not generally fully utilized. He "argues that the Keynesian process of national income determination precludes any immediate relationship between population ageing and the 'burden' imposed on income recipients. Below full employment, a rising dependency ratio is not guaranteed to reduce the expenditure share of income recipients or raise their tax rates. An exclusive emphasis on intergenerational conflict can give a misleading impression of the consequences of population ageing." The focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: W. A. Jackson, University of York, Heslington, York YO1 5DD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:10673 Kotowska, Irena E. Demographic determinants of labour market in Poland in 1990-2000. Polish Population Review, No. 2, 1992. 79-105 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
The author examines factors affecting Poland's transition to a market economy, including changes in the age, sex, and spatial distribution of the labor force. Educational status is also considered. The analysis concerns the period 1975-2000, with emphasis on the years from 1988 to 1990.
Correspondence: I. E. Kotowska, Warsaw School of Economics, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10674 Marsden, Lucy. Demographic change and the depression of the 1930s in New Zealand. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1992. 1-33 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
The effect of the global economic depression of the 1930s on demographic processes in New Zealand is explored. The author concludes that "changes in demographic patterns were essentially slight and of short duration....Moreover, comparison with both earlier and later demographic fluctuations, and with the experience of other countries, does not reveal any consistent relationship between economic and demographic change. Citing demographic change as evidence of economic shock in New Zealand in the 1930s does not seem to be justified."
Correspondence: L. Marsden, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10675 Palii, T. M.; Starostenko, A. G. Demographic processes in local settlement systems (an example of the Vinnitsa oblast). [Demograficheskie protsessy v lokal'nykh sistemakh rasseleniya (na primere Vinnitskoi oblasti).] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 15, 1991. 126-34 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze regional development patterns, with a focus on the "interaction between [living] conditions and main demographic rates....It is demonstrated that industrial development is accompanied by improvement of [living] conditions (the average wage, job security etc.) and demographic rates (natural [increase], migration, health [status])." Data are for 1987 for Vinnitsa oblast, Ukraine.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

59:10676 Bilsborrow, Richard E. Population, development, and deforestation: some recent evidence. Carolina Population Center Paper, No. 92-04, Jul 1992. 24 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to bring up to date the debate regarding the causes of deforestation in developing countries and the extent to which demographic processes may be involved....We must first consider, what are the factors responsible for deforestation more generally (section II)?...In section III, I present and briefly discuss data on deforestation at the country level, but the bulk of this paper is concerned with what different levels of analysis can tell us (section IV) and have told us so far (section V). The focus is on the extent to which demographic factors contribute to deforestation or not....The paper concludes with some suggestions for research and policy implications, focussing on population variables."
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, 143 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10677 Bilsborrow, Richard E. Rural poverty, migration and the environment in developing countries: three case studies. Policy Research Working Paper: World Development Report, No. WPS 1017, Nov 1992. iii, 75 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Three case studies designed to illustrate the links among poverty, internal migration, and environmental change in rural areas of developing countries are presented. The examples selected concern migration between highland and lowland areas in Latin America, transmigration in Indonesia, and desertification in the Sudan. The author concludes that there are strong connections between environmental degradation and the migration of poor people, with regard to both the causes and consequences of their movement.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10678 Bongaarts, John. Population growth and global warming. Population and Development Review, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jun 1992. 299-319, 393, 395 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This study presents calculations that quantify the effects of population growth and other determinants of future emission rates of carbon dioxide....An examination of the relative contributions of emissions from different world regions indicates that the developed countries have been the primary source of carbon dioxide in the past, but rapid population and economic growth in the developing world is expected to raise its emission rate above that of the industrialized countries during most of the twenty-first century. Stabilization of emissions from the developed world alone will therefore result in only a modest decline in the projected temperature rise over the next century; efforts to curb greenhouse gas production in the developing countries will also be necessary to limit global warming."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, Reasearch Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10679 Cruz, Maria C.; Meyer, Carrie A.; Repetto, Robert; Woodward, Richard. Population growth, poverty, and environmental stress: frontier migration in the Philippines and Costa Rica. ISBN 0-915825-86-4. LC 92-62447. Oct 1992. viii, 92 pp. World Resources Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report...[analyzes] the underlying mechanisms that have led to resource degradation in two developing countries. Using the experiences of the Philippines and Costa Rica as case studies, the authors demonstrate how land-tenure policies, burgeoning populations, and the narrowly conceived macroeconomic policies adopted in response to the debt crisis have worked together to intensify human misery and environmental stress."
Correspondence: World Resources Institute, 1709 New York Avenue NW, Washington Washintgon, D.C. 20006. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10680 Falkenmark, Malin; Widstrand, Carl. Population and water resources: a delicate balance. Population Bulletin, Vol. 47, No. 3, Nov 1992. 36 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study "explains how environmental preconditions, like climate and geography, limit human access to water; and how human activities affect the global water systems. With a harsh hydroclimate and growing population pressure, arid and semi-arid regions of Africa are already living on the hydrological margin. By 2025, over 1 billion people worldwide will be living in areas subject to extreme water scarcity. Slower population growth, conservation, appropriate agricultural policies, and increased storage facilities are among the many ways water-scarce areas can maintain the balance between population and water resources."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10681 Fincher, Ruth. Immigration, urban infrastructure and the environment. Pub. Order No. 91 0834 2. ISBN 0-644-14361-4. 1991. xiv, 57 pp. Bureau of Immigration Research: South Carlton, Australia. Distributed by International Specialized Book Services, 5602 N.E. Hassalo Street, Portland, OR 97213. In Eng.
The author examines the links between increased population growth and environmental conditions in both urban and rural areas in Australia using data from published sources. She concludes "that there is a range of reasons for our environmental and infrastructural problems and that immigration may not be singled out as the sole cause. It follows that a reduction in the immigration intake cannot wholly remedy our present and potential environmental difficulties."
Correspondence: Bureau of Immigration Research, P.O. Box 659, South Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10682 Garland, H. K. Population, resources and degradation. ISBN 0-9593041-4-2. 1991. vi, 72 pp. Palms Press: Dora Creek, Australia. In Eng.
"This is a book that is aimed at informing the reader on the important issues of population and its effect on Planet Earth....[It] is a history of Homo sapiens' relationship with the earth, the atmosphere and the water, all of which contribute to our food supply, and how each has affected the other; how our numbers have degraded the environment on which all forms of live depend....[It also confronts] the emotional issues which surround population control."
Correspondence: Palms Press, 87 Newport Road, Dora Creek, NSW 2264, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10683 Homer-Dixon, Thomas F.; Boutwell, Jeffrey H.; Rathjens, George W. Environmental change and violent conflict. Scientific American, Vol. 268, No. 2, Feb 1993. 38-45 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a report by a team of researchers who examined the evidence for the prediction that the collision between a growing world population and increasing environmental degradation will lead to civil and international strife. The authors conclude that "scarcities of renewable resources are already contributing to violent conflicts in many parts of the developing world. These conflicts may foreshadow a surge of similar violence in coming decades, particularly in poor countries where shortages of water, forests and, especially, fertile land, coupled with rapidly expanding populations, already cause great hardship."
Correspondence: T. F. Homer-Dixon, University of Toronto, Peace and Conflict Studies Program, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

59:10684 Jaeger, William K. The causes of Africa's food crisis. World Development, Vol. 20, No. 11, Nov 1992. 1,631-45 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to better understand the causes of sub-Saharan Africa's food crisis....A model is developed...to establish the relative importance of factors affecting supply and demand of domestic and imported food. A set of alternative hypotheses which may explain rising food imports are developed, including the influence of government policies, income, fluctuations in international food prices, and...urban migration....This is followed...by the development and estimation of a model of Africa's food imports. Given the results of the model, further examination of the relationship between policy and rural-urban migration is [attempted using the example of Ghana]."
Correspondence: W. K. Jaeger, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:10685 Meadows, Donella H.; Meadows, Dennis L.; Randers, Jorgen. Beyond the limits: confronting global collapse, envisioning a sustainable future. ISBN 0-930031-55-5. LC 91-46920. 1992. xix, 300 pp. Chelsea Green: Post Mills, Vermont. In Eng.
This study is an update on a project examining relationships among population growth, natural resources, and the environment that resulted in the 1971 publication "The limits to growth". Using the computer model World3, the authors apply more recent data to analyze the long-term implications of current trends. They conclude that "human use of many essential resources and generation of many kinds of pollutants have already surpassed rates that are physically sustainable. Without significant reductions in material and energy flows, there will be in the coming decades an uncontrolled decline in per capita food output, energy use, and industrial production. This decline is not inevitable. To avoid it two changes are necessary. The first is a comprehensive revision of policies and practices that perpetuate growth in material consumption and in population. The second is a rapid, drastic increase in the efficiency with which materials and energy are used."
For the original study by Meadows et al., see 38:2007.
Correspondence: Chelsea Green Publishing Company, P.O. Box 130, Post Mills, VT 05058. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10686 Reboratti, Carlos. Population and environment in Latin America. [Poblacion y ambiente en America Latina.] Coleccion Estudios Politicos y Sociales, ISBN 950-694-071-1. 1989. 180, [6] pp. Grupo Editor Latinoamericano: Buenos Aires, Argentina; Programa Latinoamericano de Actividades en Poblacion [PROLAP]: Buenos Aires, Argentina. Distributed by Emece Editores, Alsina 2062, Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
This is a collection of papers that were presented at a seminar on population, the environment, and natural resources in Latin America, held in Quito, Ecuador, in June 1987. Topics covered include the productive use of natural resources, politics and the environment, the ecological costs of development, agricultural production, and the urban environment.
Correspondence: Grupo Editor Latinoamericano SRL, Laprida 1183, 1er Piso, 1425 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

59:10687 Barth, Michael C.; McNaught, William. The impact of future demographic shifts on the employment of older workers. Human Resource Management, Vol. 30, No. 1, Spring 1991. 31-44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article argues that future demographic shifts will alter the supply of older workers and the demand for their services. Research conducted by the authors, shows that a significant percentage of older workers not currently working would like to work and that older workers can be as cost effective and capable as younger workers. Recommendations for facilitating the greater employment of older workers conclude the article." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

59:10688 Bonifazi, Corrado; Gesano, Giuseppe. Recent Italian research on population and the labor force. [Ricerche italiane recenti in tema di "popolazione e mercato del lavoro"] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 05/91, [1992]. 110 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This is a review of current research in Italy on population and the labor force. It is based on a 1990 survey and concerns research carried out or completed since January 1, 1987. Sections are included on the labor force, social mobility, migration, general demography, demographic aging, and other research topics.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10689 Bonifazi, Corrado. The population of working age in Italy from 1952 to 2000. Problems of definition, and analysis of the total and of changes. [La popolazione in eta lavorativa in Italia dal 1952 al 2000. Problemi di definizione, analisi degli stock e dei flussi.] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 1/91, Jan 1991. 46 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Changes in the labor force in Italy from 1952 to 2000 are analyzed. Problems in defining the population of working age are considered. The topic is discussed for Italy as a whole and for its two major regions, the Center-North and the South.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10690 Chakalov, Boris. Unemployment: old and new dimensions. [Bezrabotitsata--stari i novi izmereniya.] Naselenie, No. 5, 1992. 20-6 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Unemployment trends in Bulgaria in 1991 are analyzed. A rapid increase in unemployment is noted, and the resulting socioeconomic effects are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10691 Dale, Angela; Joshi, Heather. The economic and social status of British women. In: Acta demographica 1992, edited by Gunter Buttler, Gerhard Heilig, and Gerhard Schmitt-Rink. 1992. 27-46 pp. Physica-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany. In Eng.
The authors examine female labor force participation in Britain dating from the Industrial Revolution. They compare women's paid work to men's, examine women's role in the economy, and describe the impacts on family earnings, fertility, and motherhood. They conclude that "the diverse ways in which women combine their paid and unpaid duties create ceilings on the advance of their economic independence, and therefore also limit the extent to which the female labour market can be held responsible for changes in the family....As secondary earners of their families in the secondary sector of the labour market, most women's economic status remains determined by their domestic duties, and reflects a double role. Unless the terms upon which the two activities can be combined improve, advances of female social status or independence will remain limited."
Correspondence: A. Dale, City University, Social Statistics Research Unit, London, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10692 Gesano, Giuseppe. Ten years of change in the Italian labor force: 1978-1987. An analysis by generation in the Center-North and the South. [Dieci anni di evoluzione nel mercato del lavoro italiano: 1978-87. Un'analisi per generazioni nel Nord-Centro e nel Mezzogiorno.] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 01/90, [1990]. 107 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Changes in the Italian labor force over the period 1978-1987 are analyzed. The most significant change involved an increase in the size of the work force, particularly in the south, and an increase in the proportion of women in the labor supply. However, the increase in employment opportunities has not kept pace with the increase in the number of people seeking work, resulting in high levels of unemployment, particularly among the young and those over 50.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10693 Liu, Xiaocong. A comparative study on women's employment in Beijing, Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1992. 85-93 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author compares women's employment levels and trends in the Chinese municipalities of Beijing and Guangzhou, and in Hong Kong. The aim is to "compare the female population in different social systems and at different levels of economic development in terms of conditions, opportunities, aspirations and sexual equality concerning employment...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10694 Loveman, Gary W.; Gabarro, John J. The managerial implications of changing work force demographics: a scoping study. Human Resource Management, Vol. 30, No. 1, Spring 1991. 7-29 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The demographic changes currently underway in the United States have been widely anticipated and discussed by scholars and practitioners, but little is known about what impacts, if any, have already been experienced by employers. This article reports on a field study that asked managers in large U.S. corporations to describe how and to what extent demographic changes have affected their businesses. Changing work force demographics were interpreted by managers as having two distinct components: a reduction in the growth rate and quality of potential employees, and increased gender, ethnic, and age diversity."
Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

59:10695 Mertens, Noortje H. M.; van der Meer, Peter H.; Schippers, Joop J.; Siegers, Jacques J. Married women's labor force participation during different family life cycle stages in the Netherlands and Belgium. [De arbeidsparticipatie van de gehuwde vrouw en de gezinsopbouw: gedragen Nederlandse vrouwen zich anders dan Vlaamse vrouwen?] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 3, 1992. 105-29 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Data for the Netherlands and for the Flemish region of Belgium are analyzed and compared. The authors assess "the relation between women's labour market participation and the birth of first and consecutive children....It is concluded that a large majority of women participates in the labour market before the birth of their first child. After the birth of this first child a vast majority of female workers drops out of the labour market....Compared with Flemish women the participation rate of Dutch women is higher before the birth of a first child, but lower during every next stage of the family formation process. This leads to the conclusion that the birth of a (first) child has substantially more serious consequences for women in the Netherlands than for women in Flanders."
Correspondence: N. H. M. Mertens, Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, Economisch Instituut/Centrum voor Interdisciplinair Onderzoek van Arbeidsmarkt- en Verdelingsvraagstukken, Kromme Nieuwe Gracht 22, 3512 HH Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10696 Montagne-Villette, Solange. Illegal migration and labor force participation in the European Community. [Mobilite et clandestinite dans l'espace communautaire.] Annales de Geographie, Vol. 101, No. 564, Mar-Apr 1992. 174-87 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The effect of the formation of the European Community (EC) on illegal migration and labor force participation is examined. "The free movement of people and goods in the [EC] facilitates new types of illicit work, increasing...the already large economic disparities in some areas." The author concludes that the relative wealth of the EC attracts labor migrants whose need to work exacerbates the problem.
Correspondence: S. Montagne-Villette, Universite de Poitiers, 15 rue de Blossac, 86034 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

59:10697 Nakamura, Alice; Nakamura, Masao. The econometrics of female labor supply and children. Econometric Reviews, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1992. 1-96 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This is a survey of applied econometric research on the effects of children on female labor supply. Reasons for interest in the topic, and a basic model and terminology, are reviewed. Concerns are raised about the possible endogeneity of child status variables, and about the instrumental variables approach for dealing with this problem. Alternative ways of conceptualizing and estimating child status effects are considered, together with selected empirical evidence. Relevant developments from the household demand literature are summarized. Basic issues of model choice are also discussed." Comments are included by Richard Blundell (pp. 73-7), Martin Browning and Martin Dooley (pp. 79-83), N. Soren Blomquist (pp. 85-7), and Francois Laisney (pp. 89-91), as well as a reply from the authors (pp. 93-6).
Correspondence: A. Nakamura, University of Alberta, Faculty of Business, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

59:10698 Plantenga, Janneke. Women and work in the Netherlands: some notes about female labour force participation and the nature of the welfare state. In: Acta demographica 1992, edited by Gunter Buttler, Gerhard Heilig, and Gerhard Schmitt-Rink. 1992. 47-56 pp. Physica-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper, I will give a short overview of the situation of working women in the Netherlands. My presentation falls into three parts. The first part is empirical...[and] will compare the rate and the structure of female labour force participation in the Netherlands with the rate and the structure of female labour force participation in West Germany, thereby using a somewhat historical perspective. The second part of my presentation is more theoretical....I will try to find out if there is anything in the nature of the Dutch or German welfare state which can explain the marked differences in female employment between these two countries. The third part will deal with policy matters. I will give a short overview of the current Dutch debate with regard to female employment and I will give some general information about Dutch government policy in this respect."
Correspondence: J. Plantenga, Institute of Economics/CIAV, Demplein 24, NL-3512 JE Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10699 Siegers, Jacques J.; Tazelaar, Frits. The Dutch labour market in 2000: demographic changes and policy implications. ISBN 90-01-79799-7. LC 92-168068. 1991. xi, 178 pp. Wolters-Noordhoff: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
This collection of papers by various authors was presented at a conference on the labor market in the Netherlands, held in Utrecht, Netherlands, March 19, 1991. "Their contributions comprised background information on demographic- and labour market developments in the Netherlands as well as more in-depth analyses on specific topics, including labour market policies." A list of authors and their affiliations is included.
Correspondence: Wolters-Noordhoff, Postbus 58, 9700 MB Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10700 Voyadzis, Claudine F. The impact of migration on the labor market in Abidjan. Pub. Order No. DA9222779. 1991. 178 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study concerns the Ivory Coast and was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Maryland at College Park.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Location: Princeton University Library (DR). Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 53(4).

59:10701 Xie, Yu; Akin, Kimberlee. Sex-typing of occupational choice: a test of role model theory. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 92-243, Jul 1992. 26, [10] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research examines the future occupational plans of young women as compared to those of young men within the framework of a redefinition of role model theory. We explore the influence of the societal make up of an occupation on youth's desires to train for and enter that occupation through three hypothesized channels....The hypotheses are tested against data from a nationally representative survey of high school seniors in 1972 and from the 1970 U.S. Census."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

59:10702 Zinchenko, L. D. On the growing importance of the demographic characteristics of the employed population. [O vozrastayushchei roli ucheta demograficheskikh kharakteristik zanyatogo naseleniya.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 15, 1991. 65-74 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"Demographic and socio-professional characteristics of some age and sex groups of [the] employed population of the Ukraine are considered. A conclusion is made that it is necessary to take into account labour activity...as a main productive force...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1993-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.