Volume 58 - Number 4 - Winter 1992

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

58:40659 Brander, James A.; Dowrick, Steve. The role of fertility and population in economic growth: new results from aggregate cross-national data. Centre for Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper, No. 230, ISBN 0-7315-0216-7. Apr 1990. i, 43 pp. Australian National University, Centre for Economic Policy Research: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The authors use newly available cross-national data sets on economic growth and on population and fertility to reexamine the relationship between high rates of population growth and economic growth and prosperity. The data concern 71 market-economy countries, ranging from the poorest developing countries to advanced industrialized ones, and concern the period 1960-1985. "We find significant evidence to support a modified version of the neo-Malthusian hypothesis. The classic Malthusian hypothesis is that population growth dilutes the ratio of land and other fixed resources to labour; we find little evidence of this resource dilution effect. Fertility levels do, however, appear to affect the rate of growth of per capita GDP through investment: high fertility reduces household resources available for saving and investment. Perhaps our most important finding is that there is an additional medium term benefit to be gained from reductions in fertility: the immediate decline in relative numbers of children raises the proportion of the population who are of working-age and therefore raises GDP per head of population for a given level of labour productivity."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Centre for Economic Policy Research, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:40660 Ruttan, V. W.; Hayami, Y. Rapid population growth and technical and institutional change. In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. 1991. 127-57 pp. Taylor and Francis: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we draw on our own and related work...to examine the relationship between rapid population growth and technical and institutional change." The authors use the induced innovation theory to "advance our understanding of technical and institutional change in both industrial and pre-industrial societies." The geographical scope is worldwide, with a focus on developing countries.
Correspondence: V. W. Ruttan, University of Minnesota, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40661 Weir, D. R. A historical perspective on the economic consequences of rapid population growth. In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. 1991. 41-66 pp. Taylor and Francis: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author challenges the hypothesis that the Industrial Revolution was the watershed that changed the relationship between population growth and economic development from a Malthusian one to one where population growth became neutral, or even beneficial, to economic growth. It is suggested that the structural break in the economic consequences of rapid population growth occurred earlier than is commonly believed. Cross-sectional and time series data for six of the largest European economies for the period 1500-1800 are used to test these hypotheses.
Correspondence: D. R. Weir, Yale University, Department of Economics, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

58:40662 Blanchet, D. Estimating the relationship between population growth and aggregate economic growth in developing countries: methodological problems. In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. 1991. 67-97 pp. Taylor and Francis: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"A well-known result concerning the relationship between population growth and economic growth in developing countries is the apparent lack of any negative impact of the former on the latter when tested through simple correlation analysis....The aim of this paper will therefore be to review the relevance of these correlation results from a more analytical perspective. We will do so in three steps, corresponding to the three sources of regression bias as they can be listed in any negative impact of the former on the latter when tested through simple manual of elementary econometrics." The three sources are measurement errors, specification bias, and simultaneous equation bias. The author concludes that the evidence that population growth was positively associated with economic growth up to the early 1970s is valid if the sources of bias are not convincing, but that over the most recent 15-year period a negative relationship could be emerging.
Correspondence: D. Blanchet, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40663 Coussy, J. International economic relations and rapid demographic growth in dependent countries. In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. 1991. 101-25 pp. Taylor and Francis: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Efforts to model the relationship between economic development and population growth in developing countries are reviewed. Four hypotheses that are used in such models are identified and discussed. They are "hypotheses on the effects of external economic and financial relations; hypotheses on the form of production functions; hypotheses on capital formation; [and] hypotheses on the incompressibility of needs." The risks involved in applying a universal solution and the importance of differences among countries are stressed.
Correspondence: J. Coussy, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 44 rue de la Tour, 75116 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40664 Horlacher, D. E.; Heligman, L. Recent findings on the consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. 1991. 345-77 pp. Taylor and Francis: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a review of the recent literature on the relationship between population growth and economic development in developing countries. "The first [section] discusses prospects for continued population growth and its implication for age structures. The second section deals with inter-country relations between population and economic growth rates from a historical perspective and on the basis of current data....The third section is devoted to such sectoral concerns as employment, savings rates, income distribution, and investment. The fourth section examines the impact of population growth on resources and the environment. The fifth and sixth sections consider possible benefits of population growth through economies of scale and hastening technical and institutional change. The seventh section deals with the impact of population growth on kinship structures; the eighth discusses a methodology for quantifying the externalities resulting from population growth; and the final section presents...conclusions...."
Correspondence: D. E. Horlacher, U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40665 Logan, Bernard I. Overpopulation and poverty in Africa: rethinking the traditional relationship. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 82, No. 1, 1991. 40-57 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author explores the relationship between population growth and poverty in Africa. "This article argues that the population pressures that have manifested themselves recently in Africa represent symptoms rather than causes of poverty. It argues further that demographic parameters are unlikely to provide a useful framework for understanding the region's poverty dilemma. The concepts of national as opposed to available resources are introduced in an attempt to shed some light on the relationships between poverty and accessibility to critical resources."
Correspondence: B. I. Logan, University of Georgia, Department of Geography, Athens, GA 30602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40666 Loriaux, Michel. The fear of numbers or the challenge of population growth? [La peur du nombre ou les defis de la croissance demographique?] Politique Africaine, No. 44, Dec 1991. 15-36 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author reviews demographic trends in Africa. The focus is on the debate about whether Africa is underpopulated or whether population growth rates already exceed the continent's carrying capacity. The author also examines the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development in Africa. He concludes that the effective development of human resources is the key to solving Africa's population problems.
Correspondence: M. Loriaux, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 place Montesquieu, BP 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:40667 Sojo, Ana. Regional factors and decentralization in planning equitable changes in productivity. [El territorio y la descentralizacion en la agenda de la transformacion productiva con equidad.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 19, No. 53, Aug 1991. 79-115 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper examines the regional perspective...[of decentralization] in light of the technological changes and the transformations of the productive structure required to increase productivity in Latin America and the Caribbean....This article links the productive transformation, regional development and decentralization...[to analyze] the retention, attraction and expulsion of population in different economic spaces. The analysis is made around three main points: the sources of competitiveness and productive efficiency, the relationship between the territory and the source of productivity and competitiveness, and their implications for regional policies and decentralization."
Correspondence: A. Sojo, U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40668 Srivastava, Alka. Family planning in India (an economic assessment). ISBN 81-7054-114-X. LC 90-906424. 1990. xiv, 198 pp. Classical Publishing: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a study of the problems India faces in achieving economic development while undergoing rapid population growth. Efforts that have been made through the national family planning program to slow the rate of population growth are described. The author concludes that the program, although it has never achieved its own targets, has had some success. The study concludes with a list of recommendations to improve the program's effectiveness.
Correspondence: Classical Publishing, 28 Shopping Centre, Karampura, New Delhi 110 015, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40669 United Nations. Secretariat (New York, New York). Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. ISBN 0-8448-1566-7. LC 90-43692. 1991. viii, 380 pp. Taylor and Francis: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This volume contains the proceedings of the U.N./INED Expert Group Meeting on the consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries, held on August 23-26, 1988, in New York. The 12 papers are by various authors and concern global trends in population and economic growth, adaptation to rapid population growth, and specific aspects of that growth. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
For the French version of this publication, published in 1991, see 57:30647.
Correspondence: Taylor and Francis, 79 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016-7892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40670 University of Ghana. Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS] (Legon, Ghana). Population dynamics and change in Africa: selected essays. RIPS Monograph Series, No. 3, LC 91-101903. [1989]. ii, 295 pp. Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
This is a collection of research seminar papers prepared by 10 M.A. students of the Regional Institute for Population Studies in Legon, Ghana. Topics covered include "population distribution in Ghana; a comparative analysis of national fertility of three sub-Saharan African countries using the World Fertility Survey Data for Kenya, Nigeria and Ethiopia; gauging the demographic impact of family planning programmes on fertility in Mauritius; and food supply and population growth in Nigeria: a demographic perspective. The volume on the whole highlights the implications of the ever-increasing population growth for rapid and sustained socio-economic development in Africa and makes pertinent suggestions on how some of the continent's population problems may be solved."
Correspondence: University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies, P.O. Box 96, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40671 University of Malawi. Chancellor College. Demographic Unit (Zomba, Malawi). National Seminar on Population and Development in Malawi, 5-9th June, 1989, Chancellor College, Zomba: report. 1989. ix, 223 pp. Zomba, Malawi. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a meeting held in Zomba, Malawi, on June 5-9, 1989, on the role of population in socioeconomic development planning in Malawi. The 29 papers are divided under the topics of the present demographic situation in Malawi, spatial distribution and development, macroeconomic and microeconomic aspects of population and development, refugees, health and development, environmental aspects, and manpower needs.
Correspondence: University of Malawi, Chancellor College, Demographic Unit, Zomba, Malawi. Location: New York Public Library.

58:40672 Zhu, Guohong. Modernization and the quality of the Chinese population. Population Research, Vol. 8, No. 1, Mar 1991. 36-42 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"In this article, the author discusses the relationship between modernization and the quality of population. The current status of population quality in China will be analyzed and...the role of population quality in the process of modernization in the country will be [studied]." Population quality is defined as including health, infant mortality, and educational status.
Correspondence: G. Zhu, Fudan University, Institute of Population Research, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

58:40673 Alperovich, Gershon. Economic development and population concentration. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 41, No. 1, Oct 1992. 63-74 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The relationship between economic development and population concentration is examined using time series data for Israel for the period 1922-1983. The results confirm the hypothesis of a U-shaped relationship in which economic development initially leads to population concentration in a few core sites, then over time, economic growth eventually leads to population dispersal.
Correspondence: G. Alperovich, Bar-Ilan University, 52 100 Ramat-Gan, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

58:40674 Auerbach, Alan J.; Kotlikoff, Laurence J. The impact of the demographic transition on capital formation. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. 94, No. 2, 1992. 281-95 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The population of the United States is aging. We review a variety of the implications this has for U.S. national saving rates, and discuss the policy issues that they raise. After reviewing what different models would predict for household saving over the next several decades, we consider how the demographic transition may also affect national saving through changes in government behavior. Ways in which the composition of household saving might change as individuals age are also analyzed along with the implications of changes in government fiscal policy for asset composition."
Correspondence: A. J. Auerbach, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:40675 Terleckyj, Nestor E. Getting to 2020: the coming demographic changes and the U.S. economic uncertainties. In: American Statistical Association, 1989 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1989]. 64-9 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This paper is intended to offer some assessments of the prospects for the U.S. economic growth during the coming period of demographic transition to an older population structure. It also identifies the key trends which would help monitor the outlook for the U.S. economic growth on an ongoing basis in the course of time." The author concludes that economic growth over the next 30 years will depend largely on growth in productivity.
Correspondence: N. E. Terleckyj, National Planning Association, 1616 P Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

58:40676 Borisov, V. A. Bearing many children, morality, and ecology. Problems of Economic Transition, Vol. 35, No. 6, Oct 1992. 81-91 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The relationship between high fertility and population growth on the one hand, and environmental quality on the other, is explored. The author suggests that efforts to decrease the size of the global population will cause more problems than they solve. In contrast, he states that a global population of about 10 to 12 billion by the year 2050 is probably inevitable. Population should level off at that number and be capable of sustaining itself on this planet, providing the political problems the world faces can be resolved by then.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:40677 Cohen, Joel E. How many people can earth hold? Discover, Vol. 13, No. 11, Nov 1992. 114-9 pp. Burbank, California. In Eng.
The author explores possible consequences of world population growth, with a focus on the carrying capacity of the earth if present fertility rates continue. Various studies estimating the maximum size of supportable populations in the future are discussed, and factors that must be taken into account when making such estimates are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:40678 Commoner, B. Rapid population growth and environmental stress. In: Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. 1991. 161-90 pp. Taylor and Francis: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between population growth and environmental stress around the world is explored. The author concludes that environmental quality is not governed primarily by the rate of population growth but by the nature of the technologies of production. It follows, therefore, that "the resolution of the major problems confronted by developing countries--economic development, stabilization of population growth, and environmental quality--all hinge on the proper choice of production technologies, which can improve both economic development and environmental quality. Since such choices will enhance the demographic transition by stimulating economic development, they will also contribute to the stabilization of the population. This choice is, therefore, a supreme requirement of national policy."
Correspondence: B. Commoner, City University of New York, Queens College, Center for the Biology of Natural Systems, Flushing, NY 11367. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40679 Giampietro, Mario; Bukkens, Sandra G. F.; Pimentel, David. Limits to population size: three scenarios of energy interaction between human society and ecosystem. Population and Environment, Vol. 14, No. 2, Nov 1992. 109-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A simple theoretical model describing the interaction between humans and their environment in terms of energy flows is proposed to check the compatibility between the density of energy throughput in human society and the density of energy throughput in the ecosystem. This model is then applied to analyze three different scenarios of energy interaction between human society and the ecosystem....For each scenario limits to human development are discussed, and estimates of a sustainable population size provided on the basis of compatibility between energy throughput in society and the environment."
Correspondence: M. Giampietro, Cornell University, Department of Entomology, Comstock Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-0999. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40680 Goodland, Robert; Daly, Herman E.; El Serafy, Salah. Population, technology, and lifestyle: the transition to sustainability. ISBN 1-55963-199-6. LC 92-14403. 1992. xvi, 154 pp. Island Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This work, consisting of 10 studies by various authors, is an attempt to build on the 1987 Brundtland report, which detailed the urgent need for achieving sustainable global development. "Three of the factors that most directly affect the potential for sustainability--population, technology, and lifestyle--are discussed and analyzed in-depth. In addition, the authors examine global patterns of income distribution and the pressing need for greater equality between the northern and southern hemispheres. The authors...argue that traditional means of economic growth which rely on an ever-increasing use of energy and natural materials cannot be sustained. They advocate an imaginative pursuit of economic ends that are less resource intensive and allow for increases in quality of life without corresponding decreases in environmental quality."
Correspondence: Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40681 Heilig, Gerhard K. The greenhouse gas methane: sources and sinks, the impact of population growth, possible interventions. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-92-42, Jun 1992. vii, 27 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"The paper first reviews the evidence for an increase in atmospheric methane concentration....Then major sources and sinks of present-day methane emission and their relative contribution to the global methane balance are discussed....[The author estimates] the contribution of population growth to future methane emission."
This paper was originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40682 Hu, Angang; Wang, Yi. The future conflict between population and grain output in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1990. 201-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Projected problems that could arise from inadequate grain outputs in China are discussed. The need for policies that control population growth and improve agricultural utility is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40683 Shrivastava, Aseem. Overpopulation: the great red herring? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 27, No. 38, Sep 19, 1992. 2,032-8 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author examines the hypothesis of Paul Ehrlich and others that "population growth is the prime mover of the environmental crisis and that population control should therefore be the mainstay of policies to avoid or alleviate ecological problems." The author concludes that "the environmental crisis we face today is a complex consequence of forces connected with technology, the economic system and demography that were released in the wake of the industrial revolution. While population growth might have exacerbated the crisis it is certainly not the source of it. If the neo-Malthusian prescriptions currently being offered are followed, not only will human rights in the third world stand compromised, but the real reasons for the environmental disorder will remain unaddressed."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

58:40684 Eapen, Mridul. Fertility and female labour force participation in Kerala. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 27, No. 40, Oct 3, 1992. 2,179-88 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This study attempts to understand change and response in the female labour market in Kerala [India], emphasising primarily the demographic aspects. The focus is on the pattern of fertility decline which could partly explain the observed decline in work participation rates of married women. More importantly, it is hypothesised that the functioning of the female labour market may have induced a certain response affecting fertility behaviour. On the expectation that the difficulties in securing work for the woman are temporary, couples would be encouraged to bring forward the period of child-bearing and complete family size within a shorter span of time to enable participation later."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:40685 Ekamper, Peter. Replacement demand in the Dutch labor market. [De vervangingsvraag op de Nederlandse arbeidsmarkt.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1992. 29-47 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The aim of this article is to gain insight into the scope and structure of replacement demand per occupational group in the Dutch labour force. In this respect, replacement demand is defined as the demand which arises from the exit of workers from the working population, plus the demand which is caused by job mobility. The population of working age is distinguished according to sex, age, status in the labour force (employed, unemployed, and other), and occupational group....A projection of the population of working age is carried out for the years 1990-1995. In this way, insight is gained into the flows within the labour force (labour force mobility), and into the scope of the intake and exit per occupational group."
Correspondence: P. Ekamper, Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40686 Heer, D. M.; Agadjanian, V.; Hammad, F.; Qiu, Y.; Ramasundaram, S. A comparative analysis of the position of undocumented Mexicans in the Los Angeles County work force in 1980. International Migration, Vol. 30, No. 2, Jun 1992. 101-26 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The socioeconomic position of illegal Mexican immigrants in the labor force in Los Angeles County, California, is analyzed and compared with those of other ethnic groups in the United States. Consideration is given to "(1) human capital characteristics of males and females and (2) the representation of males and females, in particular occupational, industrial and class of worker categories." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: D. M. Heer, University of Southern California, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40687 Korean Statistical Association (Seoul, Korea, Republic of). Annual report on the Economically Active Population Survey. Apr 1992. [xiii], 258 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng; Kor.
This is the thirtieth annual report providing results from the Economically Active Population Survey. It provides data on the labor force in South Korea for the period 1986-1991.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40688 Kravdal, Oystein. Forgone labor participation and earning due to childbearing among Norwegian women. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 4, Nov 1992. 545-63 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Individual-level retrospective data from the Family and Occupation Survey of 1988 are used to assess the time diverted from gainful employment because of the presence of children in two Norwegian birth cohorts. We find that a two-child mother born in 1950, whose births occurred in her early twenties, lost 6.6 woman-years up to age 37, compared to a childless woman. By matching information on registered income with the survey data, we estimate that her lost income amounts to $151,000 at 1990 prices. After taxation the loss is $98,000. Women with fewer than 12 years of schooling seem to forgo more labor market activity by reason of childbearing than do their better-educated counterparts. The pattern is less clear with respect to the loss of income."
Correspondence: O. Kravdal, Central Bureau of Statistics, Section for Demography and Analysis of Living Conditions, P.O. Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40689 Li, Huijin; Wu, Minyi; Zhu, Jialiang; Wu, Guolan. A research on the moderate transference of China's agricultural labor. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1990. 295-306 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Rural economic reforms begun in China in 1979 and their demographic impact are reviewed. The focus is on the transfer of surplus agricultural labor to other sectors.
Correspondence: H. Li, State Planning Commission, Institute of Planned Economy, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40690 Looney, R. E. Manpower options in a small labour-importing state: the influence of ethnic composition on Kuwait's development. International Migration, Vol. 30, No. 2, Jun 1992. 175-200 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Trends in the ethnic composition of the Kuwaiti labor force during recent years are discussed, and the effects on the country's development are assessed. The focus is on the likely shift since the Gulf War toward importing cheaper Asian labor. "The purpose of this paper is to assess whether this is a realistic alternative towards reducing the overall cost of the expatriate labour force. Which areas of the economy would be most promising in this regard? What are the economic costs? The implicit assumption throughout the analysis...is that the country will quickly restore its economy to the structure existing at the time of the invasion."
Correspondence: R. E. Looney, Naval Postgraduate School, National Security Affairs, Monterey, CA 93943-5100. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40691 Makki, Mohammad S. Occupational mobility of heads of households migrating to Medina. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 34, Jun 1989. 63-93 pp. Amman, Jordan. In Eng.
"The aim of this study is to determine the effect of internal and external migration on the occupational mobility of the heads of households migrating to Medina [Saudi Arabia]....[It] is based on a survey of families in Medina which was conducted by the author in 1986/1987." The results show that "the majority of the migrants were able to achieve positive vocational mobility as a result of their migration. However, there are some distinctions in the extent of this positiveness between Saudi Arabian and non-Saudi Arabian migrants, as well as between urban and rural migrants....The main factors affecting migration to Medina are difference in income, as well as in the educational level at origin and at destination."
Correspondence: M. S. Makki, King Saud University, College of Arts, Department of Geography, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40692 Penev, Goran. The interrelation between fertility and labor supply. [Meduzavisnost fertiliteta i ponude radne snage.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 28-29, No. 3-4/1-2, Jul-Dec/Jan-Jun 1990-1991. 147-58 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper examines [the] interdependence of fertility and the supply of labour force by first pointing to the impact of the former on the latter. It analyzes the lagged...versus the immediate impact of fertility...on the supply of labour force. The author points to the manifold impact (both direct and indirect) of economic activity on fertility. In addition, he evaluates the impact of different forms of activity (employment and unemployment) on the fertility level as well as the ensuing differences between the low and high fertility regions." The geographical focus is on Yugoslavia.
Correspondence: G. Penev, Univerziteta u Beogradu, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Instituta Drustvanih Nauka, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40693 Pepermans, G. Retirement decisions in a discrete choice model and implications for the government budget: the case of Belgium. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 3, Aug 1992. 229-43 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper was to analyse the determinants of the retirement decision of the elderly in Belgium, and, by making some simulations, to find out what would be the financial implications for the government budget of changes in the social security system....The largest effect on labor supply is caused by changes in pensionable age. Giving a lump-sum pension to part-time workers seems an interesting policy to withdraw individuals from the labor market at a relatively low cost. Introducing flexible retirement also is beneficial for the government budget and has, especially for women, a relatively large positive effect on labor supply."
Correspondence: G. Pepermans, Catholic University of Leuven, Center for Economic Studies, E. van Evenstraat 2B, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40694 Pirozhkov, S. I. Labor potential in demographic changes. [Trudovoi potentsial v demograficheskom izmerenii.] ISBN 5-12-003035-1. 1992. 174 pp. Akademiya Nauk Ukrainy, Institut Ekonomiki: Kiev, Ukraine; Naukova Dumka: Kiev, Ukraine. In Rus.
"The paper is concerned with demographic aspects of the economically active population and labour force formation [in the Ukraine]. The major aspects of manpower resources and labour force formation, as well as the problems of their assessment are considered from the methodological standpoint. The focus is on the potential development of labour force." The author looks at probable trends in the available labor force up to the year 2049.
Correspondence: Naukova Dumka, Ul. Repina 3, 252601 Kiev 4, Ukraine. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40695 United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Latin America: economically active population. The period 1970-2000. [America Latina: poblacion economicamente activa. Periodo 1970-2000.] Boletin Demografico/Demographic Bulletin, Vol. 25, No. 49, Jan 1992. 188 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
Estimates and projections of the labor force are presented by sex for Latin America and its 20 constituent countries for the period 1970-2000. The estimates are given separately for the total, urban, and rural economically active population; total, urban, and rural activity rates; and selected demographic indicators for the economically active population.
Correspondence: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:40696 Wong, Rebeca; Levine, Ruth E. The effect of household structure on women's economic activity and fertility: evidence from recent mothers in urban Mexico. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 41, No. 1, Oct 1992. 89-102 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to isolate empirically the effect of a specific characteristic of household structure, the presence of a 'mother substitute,' as a determinant of participation in economic activity, and family-formation behaviors. We study these effects among mothers of preschool-age children in urban areas of Mexico, using data from the 1982 Mexican National Demographic Survey. The empirical analysis is based on the estimation of reduced forms for current female labor force participation and recent fertility."
Correspondence: R. Wong, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

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