Volume 58 - Number 3 - Fall 1992

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

58:30615 Gaburro, Giuseppe; Poston, Dudley L. Population growth and economic development. In: Essays on population economics in memory of Alfred Sauvy, edited by Giuseppe Gaburro and Dudley L. Poston. 1991. 11-32 pp. Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani [CEDAM]: Padua, Italy. In Eng.
The authors review the literature and historical demographic trends and critically analyze theories concerning the relationship between population increase and economic development. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: G. Gaburro, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Faculty of Economics, Via dell'Artigliere 8, 37129 Verona, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30616 Muhsam, Helmut V. Birth, death, and national income. In: Essays on population economics in memory of Alfred Sauvy, edited by Giuseppe Gaburro and Dudley L. Poston. 1991. 101-9 pp. Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani [CEDAM]: Padua, Italy. In Eng.
The author assesses the implications of including women's reproductive activities as part of national accounts. It is concluded that "accounting for pregnancy and child birth as well as for deaths, on the one hand, and establishing a human resources account, in parallel to the fixed assets accounts on the other, establishes the equilibrium between human and physical capital to production."
Correspondence: H. V. Muhsam, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

58:30617 Gaiha, Raghav; Spinedi, Marco. Agricultural wages, population, and technology in Asian countries. Asian Survey, Vol. 32, No. 5, May 1992. 461-70 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
The effects of population growth and technology on agricultural wage determination in selected Asian countries are examined. "The article is organized into four sections preceded by a brief description of the data: (1) an analysis of changes in wage rates followed by an examination of divergence between changes in wage rates and agricultural employment; (2) a discussion of the determinants of agricultural wages, concentrating on population pressures, infrastructure, and technology; (3) a summary of results of our econometric analysis, together with other pieces of (largely) econometric evidence culled from recent Indian studies; and (4) some concluding observations."
Correspondence: R. Gaiha, University of Delhi, Faculty of Management Studies, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

58:30618 Jia, Zhongke. Socioeconomic development, family planning, and fertility in Taiwan. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1991. 107-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using data on socioeconomic development, family planning, and fertility in Taiwan, this paper examined the interrelationships between socioeconomic development and birth control on one hand, and fertility on the other, in various counties and cities in Taiwan. Results demonstrate that in Taiwan...socioeconomic development and birth control have a significant impact on fertility."
Correspondence: Z. Jia, Lanzhou University, Population Research Institute, 78 Tianshui Road, 730000 Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30619 Keyfitz, Nathan. Seven ways of causing the less developed countries' population problem to disappear--in theory. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1992. 149-67 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author critically analyzes seven theoretical approaches under which current literature concerning population growth in developing countries is often categorized.
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30620 Kumar, Bal. Population and development in Nepal. Jan 1992. 237 pp. Tribhuvan University, Central Department of Population Studies [CDPS]: Katmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
This is a collection of 15 papers by various authors that were presented in 1990 and 1991 at two seminars on population and development issues in Nepal. Topics covered include fertility determinants, morbidity, mortality, population and the environment, population policies, the status of women and children, child morbidity and mortality, and population censuses and projections. The papers utilize census and survey data for Nepal.
Correspondence: Tribhuvan University, Central Department of Population Studies, Kirtipur, Katmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30621 Malgavkar, P. D. Compulsions of population scenarios 2001. ISBN 81-7024-388-2. LC 91-902557. 1991. xvi, 168 pp. Ashish Publishing House: New Delhi, India; Centre for Policy Research: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study assesses the implications of population growth for the Indian economy up to the year 2001. Four population scenarios are developed under three alternative assumptions concerning growth of the gross domestic product. The study concludes that there is a strong possibility that population will grow to 1,011 millon by the year 2001, and that this rate of growth will have a serious and negative effect on prospects for economic and social development. It concludes that faster economic growth is the only way to reduce poverty, and that this growth is only possible if effective control of population growth can be achieved.
Correspondence: Ashish Publishing House, 8/81 Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi 110 026, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30622 Simon, Julian L. Population and development in poor countries: selected essays. ISBN 0-691-04256-X. LC 91-6920. 1992. xx, 463 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This book studies the effects of population increase on various aspects of economic development in less-developed economies. It pulls together a set of articles--theoretical and empirical studies, and policy assessments--written between about 1973 and 1990, with prefaces to help bring out their meanings. The central issue addressed in this book...is the effects of the number of people upon the standard of living, with special attention to raw materials such as food and metals. The most important effects are those that occur in the intermediate and long run, rather than in the very short run before there is an opportunity for society to adjust to the additional people."
Correspondence: Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

58:30623 Blum, Ulrich; Schmid, Josef. Demographic processes, occupation and technological change: symposium held at the University of Bamberg from 17th to 18th November 1989. ISBN 3-7908-0528-9. 1991. xii, 123 pp. Physica-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany. In Eng.
This is a collection of seven papers presented by various authors at a symposium entitled Demographic Processes, Occupation and Technological Change, held at the University of Bamberg, Germany, November 17-18, 1989. The papers concern demographic trends, employment, labor migration, and technological change in the countries of the European Community. A list of participants is included.
Correspondence: Physica-Verlag GmbH, Tiergartenstrasse 17, D-6900 Heidelberg 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30624 Bressan, Franco. Critical observations on the functionality of certain regional inequality indicators relating to economic and demographic variables: analysis by simulation. In: Essays on population economics in memory of Alfred Sauvy, edited by Giuseppe Gaburro and Dudley L. Poston. 1991. 313-32 pp. Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani [CEDAM]: Padua, Italy. In Eng.
The author discusses the use of various indexes to describe regional economic, demographic, and social inequalities using data for Italy for the year 1981-1982. Consideration is given to income and consumption, population density, illiteracy, the birth rate, and aging.
Correspondence: F. Bressan, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Via dell'Artigliere 8, 37129 Verona, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30625 Easterlin, Richard A. The economic impact of prospective population changes in advanced industrial countries: an historical perspective. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Vol. 46, No. 6, Nov 1991. S299-S309 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Demographic projections to the year 2050 for advanced industrial nations, implying low or negative population growth and a sharp rise in old age dependency, have created concerns about the long-term economic outlook in these countries. An analysis of these projections in the light of the demographic and economic experience of the past century raises doubt about these concerns. There is little empirical evidence that declining population growth has slowed the rate of economic growth. Although the burden of aged dependents will reach a new high, the projected total dependency rate is not out of line with prior experience. Thus, the ability of the working population to shoulder the burden of higher taxes to support programs for older dependents will be greater because of reduced needs to support younger dependents. This conclusion holds for a number of variant projections, the only clear exception being one that implies a mortality revolution at older ages."
Correspondence: R. A. Easterlin, University of Southern California, Department of Economics, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0253. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

58:30626 Hadzivukovic, Stevan. Demographic implications of economic and agricultural development in Yugoslavia. In: Essays on population economics in memory of Alfred Sauvy, edited by Giuseppe Gaburro and Dudley L. Poston. 1991. 295-311 pp. Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani [CEDAM]: Padua, Italy. In Eng.
"This paper deals with the evolution of economic and demographic development in Yugoslavia after World War II and their interdependence." Consideration is given to regional demographic transitions and economic development, and to the impact of industrialization on agriculture.
Correspondence: S. Hadzivukovic, University of Novi Sad, Veljka Vlahovica 3, Post. fah 7, 21000 Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

58:30627 Bilsborrow, Richard E. Population growth, internal migration, and environmental degradation in rural areas of developing countries. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1992. 125-48 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines possible relationships between demographic processes and the environment in rural areas in developing countries. Evidence is reviewed on increasing degradation in the forms of deforestation...soil erosion and soil desiccation....The focus here is on economic changes in the form of land extensification--often involving internal migration--and land intensification. Despite data problems, the expected relationships are observed: countries with higher rural population growth tend to have larger increases in the arable land area and associated deforestation, but the intensification effects appear stronger."
Correspondence: R. E. Bilsborrow, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30628 Bongaarts, John. Population growth and global warming. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 37, 1992. 32 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper addresses two issues that have received only limited attention in the rapidly expanding literature on the potential for global warming and related policy options. The first concerns the role of population growth as one of several factors determining the rise in greenhouse gas emissions and the expected increase in global temperature. Application of a decomposition procedure indicates that population growth accounts for about one-third of the global increase in carbon dioxide emission projected to occur by the end of the next century....The second issue relates to the potential contributions of the developed and developing countries in climate control strategies."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30629 Caldwell, John C.; Reddy, P. H.; Caldwell, Pat; Gajanayake, Indra; Gaminiratne, W. K.; Pieris, Indrani; Caldwell, Bruce. A note on "conscious planning" Health Transition Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, Apr 1992. 105-6 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The authors discuss Dyson's work concerning the possibility that conscious planning may have contributed to fertility declines during famines in South Asia. In the present note, they suggest the importance of also taking into consideration decreases in the marriage rate and in the incidence of sexual relations during those periods.
For the work by T. Dyson, published in 1991, see 57:20657 and 30667.
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30630 Dyson, Tim. Famine reactions. Health Transition Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, Apr 1992. 107-13 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author comments on papers by Menken and Campbell; Greenough; and Caldwell, Reddy, Caldwell et al. concerning his recent work on the demography of South Asian famines. "I will mainly address points of disagreement, some of which may have arisen because of a failure on my part to make myself sufficiently clear....I will [discuss] first, conceptions, second, mortality, and third, the long-term effects of famine."
For the articles by Menken and Campbell, Greenough, and Caldwell et al., see elsewhere in this issue. For the work by Dyson, published in 1991, see 57:20657 and 30667.
Correspondence: T. Dyson, London School of Economics, Department of Population Studies, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30631 Green, Cynthia P. The environment and population growth: decade for action. Population Reports, Series M: Special Topics, No. 10, May 1992. 31 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The effects of population growth on the environment, especially in developing countries, are assessed. Consideration is given to sustainable development and carrying capacity, environmental pollution, global warming, consumption, solid waste management, and food, land, and water supply problems. The need for population control is emphasized. A wall chart and a poster are included.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, 527 St. Paul Place, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30632 Hauser, Jurg A. Population and environmental problems of the third world. Volume 2. [Bevolkerungs- und Umweltprobleme der Dritten Welt. Band 2.] UTB fur Wissenschaft: Uni-Taschenbucher, No. 1569, ISBN 3-258-04172-5. 1991. 676 pp. Paul Haupt: Bern, Switzerland. In Ger.
This is the second of two volumes dealing with the interrelationships among population, resources, the environment, and development in third-world countries. The present volume focuses on the demography of the third world and major population problems. Chapters are included on measuring population trends, mortality, fertility, migration, population dynamics, population and the economy, food supply, employment problems, urbanization, energy problems, population and conflict, and population policy.
For Volume 1, published in 1990, see 58:20635.
Correspondence: Buchhandlung, Verlag Paul Haupt, Falkenplatz 14, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30633 Havanon, Napaporn. Rice, labor, and children: a study of peasants' livelihood strategies in northeast Thailand. In: Fertility transitions, family structure, and population policy, edited by Calvin Goldscheider. 1992. 209-29 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter focuses on how rural households [in northeast Thailand] respond to resource constraints worsened by rapid population growth....The study examines two major aspects of peasants' responses--production and fertility. The former includes all kinds of strategies that peasant households employ for gaining livelihood. The latter includes only one aspect of fertility, namely, the demand for children....The sample for the present study consists of 476 farm households in 20 villages of the Nang Rong district."
Correspondence: N. Havanon, Srinakharinwirot University, Prasarn Mitr Road, Sukhumwit 23, Bangkok 10110, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30634 Hogan, Daniel J. The impact of population growth on the physical environment. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1992. 109-23 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper recognizes how little demography has advanced beyond Malthusian arithmetic, when the relationship between population growth and the physical environment are considered. Attention must be directed to localized empirical studies and must include all the processes by which populations grow. Another challenge still to be faced by demographers and other social scientists is how to reconcile ecosystem boundaries with the standard units of analysis in these disciplines. This paper outlines these problems and suggests that a prime candidate for the attention of population specialists is migration and settlement patterns and their relationships to the physical environment."
Correspondence: D. J. Hogan, State University of Campinas, Department of Social Sciences and Population Studies Center, 13081 Campinas, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30635 House, William J.; Zimalirana, George. Rapid population growth and poverty generation in Malawi. Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 30, No. 1, Mar 1992. 141-61 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Recent population trends in Malawi are reviewed. The authors attempt to determine "whether or not technological responses will be sufficient to keep pace with or exceed the growth of the population....Given Malawi's lack of resources and present stage of development, it is fairly safe to conclude that the rapid growth of population is exerting extreme pressures on land, employment, education, and health, and hence on the nation's ability to satisfy the most basic of human needs."
Correspondence: W. J. House, Office of the President and Cabinet, Population and Human Resources Development Unit, Lilongwe, Malawi. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30636 Lutz, Wolfgang; Holm, Einar; Wils, Anne B.; Prinz, Christopher; Toth, Ferenc; Gyarfas, Frantisek. Population-development-environment interactions: a case study on Mauritius. Popnet, No. 21, Spring 1992. 12 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The authors describe a project to "produce a model describing the dynamics of population-development-environment interactions...which can be used by Mauritian authorities and scientists to consider and evaluate alternative paths of development....The model is set up to run scenarios from 1990 to 2050 in five-year intervals." The basic structure of the model includes population, economy, land-use, water, and policy modules. Scenario-setting features include rapid development, crisis, and self-sufficiency scenarios. The authors conclude that "preliminary application of the model demonstrates that it is possible to achieve environmentally sustainable development in one of the most densely populated areas of the world without sacrificing many of the benefits of economic growth."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30637 McConnell, Robert. Population growth and environmental quality in California: an American laboratory. Population and Environment, Vol. 14, No. 1, Sep 1992. 9-29 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines problems faced by the state of California and associates them with the rapid growth of the state's population. "Rapid population growth, industrial and military activity, agriculture, and motor vehicles have had severe, quantifiable adverse impact on California's environment and social fabric. Cumulative impact of ground and surface water contamination will take decades to remedy at costs that may prove politically unbearable. The state's educational and welfare systems are approaching insolvency, due to factors associated with population growth, largely fueled by immigration. Increasingly severe restrictions on motor vehicles will be necessary to remediate degraded air, while number of vehicles will double before 2020." He concludes by suggesting that "the cumulative impact of these processes may prove a severe test to consensus-based American representative government."
Correspondence: R. McConnell, Mary Washington College, Department of Chemistry and Geology, Fredericksburg, VA 22401-5358. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30638 Population-Environment Balance (Washington, D.C.). Why excess immigration damages the environment. Population and Environment, Vol. 13, No. 4, Summer 1992. 303-12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The need to limit immigration to the United States as an essential step toward the protection of the environment through population stabilization is discussed. The focus is on the concept of long-term carrying capacity, but consideration is given to the brain drain in countries of origin, migrant characteristics, costs of immigration to U.S. taxpayers, and the experiences of other countries with immigration restriction policies.
Correspondence: Population-Environment Balance, 1325 G Street NW, Suite 1003, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30639 Rudel, Thomas I. Relationships between population and environment in rural areas of developing countries. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 31-32, 1991. 52-69 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present report reviews a number of studies that have attempted to assess the impact of population change on some of the environmental trends that are occurring in the rural areas of selected developing countries....The report begins with a brief review of some studies that have dealt with population environment interactions at the global level. The report then describes research findings on population environment relationships in three critical ecological zones in the rural areas of the developing regions."
Correspondence: T. I. Rudel, Rutgers University, Department of Human Ecology, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30640 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Report of the ESCAP/UNDP Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development: 13-18 May 1991, Jomtien, Thailand. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 106, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1033. 1991. iv, 41 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This publication contains the report of the Workshop plus brief summaries on the interrelationships between population and natural resources; population, environment and poverty; population growth and consumption patterns, technological changes and sustainable development; social aspects of the population; and the role of women in population, sustainable development and environment among others." The geographical focus is on Asia and the Pacific.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

58:30641 Ambrosini, Maurizio. Foreign migrants in the labor force. The case of Lombardy. [Il lavoro degli immigrati. Analisi del caso lombardo.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 29, No. 105, Mar 1992. 2-20 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The article examines...the integration of immigrant workers into the regular labour force [in Italy]. The analysis concentrates its attention upon Lombardy, one of the regions in which the integration is more relevant. The author compares the situation in Milan, a metropolis where the tertiary sector is highly developed and job opportunities are very diversified, with the one in Brescia where immigrants are mainly employed as factory workers."
Correspondence: M. Ambrosini, Universita Cattolica di Milano, Largo A. Gemelli, 20123 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30642 Bodson, Paul; Roy, Paul-Martel; Thouez, J.-P. Long term unemployment and job search in an urban surrounding. In: Essays on population economics in memory of Alfred Sauvy, edited by Giuseppe Gaburro and Dudley L. Poston. 1991. 143-74 pp. Casa Editrice Dott. Antonio Milani [CEDAM]: Padua, Italy; Verona, Italy. In Eng.
"In this study, we considered the way in which the process of adjustment to prolonged unemployment develops by observing a group of unemployed Montrealers between 25 and 45 years of age....On the basis of this analysis, we obtain insights into the dynamics of job search that can translate into policy suggestions to improve the aid given by public or private agencies to long term unemployed." Data are from a survey carried out in Montreal, Canada, in 1983-1984.
Correspondence: P. Bodson, University of Quebec, CP 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30643 Csaba, Erika. Statistical methods for measuring unemployment. [A munkanelkuliseg meresenek statisztikai modszerei magyarorszagon.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 70, No. 4-5, Apr-May 1992. 349-64 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Techniques to measure unemployment are discussed, using data for Hungary for the period 1890-1991.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30644 Gendell, Murray; Siegel, Jacob S. Trends in retirement age by sex, 1950-2005. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 115, No. 7, Jul 1992. 22-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Trends in retirement age for U.S. workers are examined by sex for the period 1950-2005. The authors conclude that "age at final retirement has fallen by between 4 and 5 years for both men and women since mid-century; continued declines are projected for the 1990's, accelerating for the period 2000-05." Data are from the Social Security Administration's annual records and from the monthly Current Population Survey.
Correspondence: M. Gendell, Georgetown University, Department of Demography, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (Docs).

58:30645 Goldin, Claudia. Understanding the gender gap: an economic history of American women. NBER Series on Long-Term Factors in Economic Development, ISBN 0-19-505077-0. LC 89-33502. 1990. xix, 287 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a study of the economic history of women in the U.S. marketplace, particularly of change and continuity in the gender gap over time. It is primarily based on data from U.S. censuses from 1890 to 1980. The author examines changes in female labor force participation and in factors such as advances in education, the growth of sectors such as clerical work and sales, the shorter workday, the decline in fertility, and advances in household production. Particular attention is given to the extent and causes of changes over time in earnings differences between men and women.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30646 Gustafsson, Siv. Cohort size and female labour supply. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1992. 1-21 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Easterlin's relative income hypothesis projects for smaller cohorts: (a) increasing wages, (b) increasing fertility and (c) decreasing female labour supply. This paper reviews the literature on the substitutability of female for male labour, on relative income changes as a result of changes in cohort size and on husband's income as a determinant of female labour supply. It is concluded that own wage is a more important determinant of female labour supply than husband's income, and that policies that increase female net wages are therefore a stimulus to female labour supply. The example of Sweden shows that pronatalist policies can be combined with policies that stimulate female labour supply."
Correspondence: S. Gustafsson, University of Amsterdam, Economics Department, Jodenbreestraat 23, 1011 NH Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30647 Hsieh, Yeu-sheng. The effect of demographic structural change on labor utilization in Taiwan. Journal of Population Studies, No. 14, Dec 1991. 1-27 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of demographic structural change on labor utilization in Taiwan....Both purging method and decomposing rate differences method are used to analyze labor utilization data obtained from reports on the Manpower Utilization Survey from 1980 to 1989. The results suggest that the age-sex composition change of labor force from 1980 to 1989 pushed down the crude rate of labor underutilization in the labor market; the education-sex composition change pulled up crude rate of underutilization; and marital status-sex composition change also pushed down crude underutilization rate. In sum, the demographic structural change of labor force in Taiwan does have [an] obvious impact on labor utilization."
Correspondence: Y.-s. Hsieh, National Taiwan University, Department of Agricultural Extension, 1 Roosevelt Road IV, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30648 Jiang, Zhenghua. The basic instrument for the study of China's population and employment: the labor life table. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1991. 89-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author describes the construction and application of life tables for the analysis of labor force structure in China. Data are for 1987 and concern employees from 13 different nonagricultural regions.
Correspondence: Z. Jiang, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Institute of Population Research, 26 Xianning Road, Xian 710049, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30649 Koestoer, Raldi H. Accessibility to employment in BOTABEK: a modelling approach. Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 18, No. 36, Dec 1991. 63-101 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
The author studies the impact of commuting to work on economic development in Jakarta, Indonesia, and its suburbs, the region described by the acronym BOTABEK.
Correspondence: R. H. Koestoer, Griffith University, Division of Environment Sciences, Nathan, Brisbane, Queensland 4111, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30650 Levy, Michel L. The economically active population and social classes in the 1990 census. [Population active et categories sociales au recensement de 1990.] Population et Societes, No. 270, Jul-Aug 1992. [3] pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Changes in the structure of the labor force in France are analyzed based on 1990 census data. The focus is on changes in socio-professional categories between 1982 and 1990.
Correspondence: M. L. Levy, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30651 Li, Peter S.; Currie, Dawn. Gender differences in work interruptions as unequal effects of marriage and childrearing: findings from a Canadian national survey. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 23, No. 2, Summer 1992. 217-29 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purpose of this analysis is to use Canadian longitudinal data to compare gender differences in work interruptions, and to assess how marriage and childrearing interrupt careers." Data are from the Family History Survey conducted in 1984. The results confirm that not only are women more likely to experience work interruptions, they are also more adversely affected by them in their careers.
Correspondence: P. S. Li, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Sociology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0W0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:30652 Molnarne Venyige, Julia. Structural characteristics of the labor force. [A munkaero-struktura jellemzoi.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 70, No. 7, Jul 1992. 557-73 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The study analyses the influence exerted by...socio-economic change...on labour conditions and on the characteristics of the labour force [in Hungary], using mostly the...population census and demographic yearbooks. The [author] shows demographic characteristics (age and sex), health conditions, educational attainment, branch structure of the labour force as well as the number and structure of unemployed and the regional structure of working age population. Finally, she analyses regional mobility and within this the directions and extent of permanent migration."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30653 Nakamura, Alice; Nakamura, Masao. Children and female labour supply: a survey of econometric approaches. In: Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach, edited by Jacques J. Siegers, Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, and Evert van Imhoff. 1991. 213-36 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The authors "discuss a number of basic econometric choices concerning the limited nature of the dependent variables in models of female labour supply, sample selection bias, and bias problems associated with specific explanatory variables. They find that direct child-related effects are quantitatively more important on female labour market participation than they are on the hours of work for women with paid jobs....However, the empirical evidence on the wage response of labour supply suggests that the indirect effects of children on the hours of work of working women (as opposed to the probability of work) are probably modest. They note that little is known yet about the importance of indirect child-related effects on labour market participation, largely because information on wage offers is usually available only for those women who work." The geographical scope is worldwide, with some focus on developed countries.
Correspondence: A. Nakamura, University of Alberta, Faculty of Business, 3-23 Faculty of Business Building, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30654 Nakamura, Alice; Nakamura, Masao. Models of female labour supply, with special reference to the effects of children. In: Female labour market behaviour and fertility: a rational-choice approach, edited by Jacques J. Siegers, Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, and Evert van Imhoff. 1991. 191-212 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper, several different types of models of female labour supply are reviewed. For each model, attention is paid to the mechanisms by which the impacts of children are allowed for." The authors conclude that "empirical tractability is the reason for many of the behavioural simplifications embodied in the models outlined in this paper. However, estimation issues are not dealt with in this paper." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: A. Nakamura, University of Alberta, Faculty of Business, 3-23 Faculty of Business Building, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:30655 Norwood, Janet L. Working women: Where have we been? Where are we going? Population and Environment, Vol. 14, No. 1, Sep 1992. 95-103 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews trends in women's employment and labor force activity in the United States over the past century, and considers future trends.
Correspondence: J. L. Norwood, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30656 Ogawa, Naohiro. Female labor supply and family size aspirations in contemporary Japan. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 59, Dec 1991. vi, 29 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper examines the determinants of (i) labor force participation among married Japanese women of childbearing age and (ii) type of employment among those in the labor force, using nationwide micro-level survey data [for] 1986. In view of the fact that Japan is the only developed society in which the three-generation household is commonplace, analyses have been focused upon the impacts of residential pattern and life cycle stage on female labor force participation and type of employment....An attempt has also been made to demonstrate that the labor force position of married women is related to their future fertility aspirations."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30657 van der Berg, Servaas; Smit, Ben. The economic environment and employment creation in South Africa. Southern African Journal of Demography/Suidelike Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Demografie, Vol. 3, Jul 1990. 6-10 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
"In order to present evidence on future employment prospects, we shall forecast employment by utilizing a quantified relationship between past economic growth and employment growth, and the expected growth of the economy [in South Africa]....A number of conclusions can be drawn....In the first place, it is evident that the South African labour force, in terms of its employment profile, increasingly exhibits the characteristics common to less-developed countries....Moreover on past performance it is clear that this underdeveloped state is being exacerbated by the growth in the labour force, far exceeding the very limited employment creation in the formal sectors."
Correspondence: S. van der Berg, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, Cape Province, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:30658 Wichmann, Richard W. The relationship between population and organizational factors and the labor force: an ecological study. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 91-73, [1991]. 35, [4] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"The issue explored in this paper is how a population's characteristics (age composition, sex composition, racial composition, and ethnic composition) affect its organization, and more specifically the levels of unemployment and part-time employment. That is, variation in rates of unemployment and part-time employment in metropolitan areas are hypothesized to be influenced by population structure." Data are from the 1980 U.S. census, Summary Tape File 3.
Correspondence: Robert H. Weller, Editor, Working Paper Series, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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