Volume 58 - Number 2 - Summer 1992

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

58:20674 Birg, Herwig; Mackensen, Rainer. Demographic impact of political action: papers from the 1986 International Conference of the German Society for Demography, in cooperation with the European Association for Population Studies. [Demographische Wirkungen politischen Handelns: Dokumentation der Internationalen Konferenz 1986 der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft in Zusammenarbeit mit der European Association for Population Studies.] Forschungsberichte des Instituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik (IBS) der Universitat Bielefeld, Vol. 15, ISBN 3-593-34249-9. 1990. 391 pp. Campus Verlag: New York, New York/Frankfurt, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng; Ger.
This work contains 16 papers from a 1986 conference held in Bielefeld, West Germany, to examine the demographic effects of policy action. Half of the papers are in German and half are in English. Papers are included on the influence of government measures on population structure and distribution; problems of analyzing population and family policy; family and household as objects of political action; techniques for measuring the demographic effects of political action; social policy and population processes; interrelations between the labor market and demographic change; international migration in Europe; the impact of regional and housing policy on internal migration; and population and family policy in various European countries, including East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Austria, the Netherlands, France, and West Germany.
Correspondence: Campus Verlag, Bockenheimer Landstrasse 100, 6000 Frankfurt am Main 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20675 Dumon, Wilfried. Family policy in the EC countries: a general overview. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1991, edited by Gijs Beets, Robert Cliquet, Gilbert Dooghe, and Jenny de J. Gierveld. 1991. 1-16 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Lisse, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this overview, the different family policies within the EC [European Community] are dealt with. Explicit/implicit and qualitative/quantitative family policies are distinguished. Furthermore, the controversies between family policies and competing policy domains are outlined." The author concludes that although "there is no country in the EC with an explicit overall population policy," the family is the focus of some political attention in most member countries. A discussion of possible policy implementation at the Community level is included.
Correspondence: W. Dumon, Catholic University of Louvain, Van Evenstraat 2c, 3000 Louvain, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20676 Dumon, Wilfried; Bartiaux, Francoise; Nuelant, Tanja. National family policies in EC-countries in 1990. Pub. Order No. V/2293/91-EN. [1991]. 269 pp. Commission of the European Communities, European Observatory on National Family Policies: Louvain, Belgium; Directorate General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
This is a collection of reports by various authors outlining family policies and laws in the member countries of the European Community. Separate consideration is given to fiscal policies, family allowances, family and work, leave-taking and caretaking policies, housing, policies concerning family violence, social aid and poverty, and education and culture. The publication is also available in French.
Correspondence: European Observatory on National Family Policies, c/o Sociological Research Institute, E. Van Evenstraat 2c, B-3000, Louvain, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20677 Greenhalgh, Susan. State-society links: political dimensions of population policies and programmes, with special reference to China. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 276-98 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This article begins with an overview of the influence of politics on population policies and programs, mainly in developing countries. A case study of China is then presented. Rural China's social structure, that structure's influence on family planning policy, and the successes and failures of that policy are described, as are proposals for further research.
Correspondence: S. Greenhalgh, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20678 Herrin, Alejandro N. Assessment of population, health and education policies in the Philippines, 1986-1988. Philippine Institute for Development Studies Working Paper, No. 90-10, Jan 1990. 28 pp. Philippine Institute for Development Studies: Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the major policy initiatives [in the Philippines] of the Aquino administration in the area of population, health and education. In each of these areas, a brief description is first made of the issues that the Aquino administration was expected to confront. The paper then assesses the major policy responses to these issues."
Correspondence: Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Research Information Staff, Room 307, Neda Sa Makati Building, 106 Amorsolo Street, Lespagi Village, Makati 1200, Metro Manila, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20679 Kaufmann, Franz-Xaver; Strohmeier, Klaus P.; Federkeil, Gero. Effects of policy measures on the population process. [Wirkungen politischen Handelns auf den Bevolkerungsprozess.] Schriftenreihe des Bundesinstituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Vol. 21, ISBN 3-7646-1919-8. 1992. ix, 122 pp. Harald Boldt-Verlag: Boppard am Rhein, Germany. In Ger.
Methodological and theoretical aspects of analyzing the impact of policy measures on demographic trends are examined. Both population policies and socioeconomic policies are considered. The geographic emphasis is on Germany. Chapters are included on the political and socioeconomic significance of population trends, a literature review of the demographic effects of policy measures, theoretical models and levels of effects, evaluation research as a means of estimating the demographic impact of policies, models of the effects of government policy on family structure, and alternative methodologies.
Correspondence: Harald Boldt-Verlag, Am Alten Sportplatz 4, Postfach 1110, 5407 Boppard 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20680 Mundigo, Axel I. The determinants of impact and utilization of fertility research on public policy: China and Mexico. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 299-322 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author explores the relationships among policy, programs, and research in order to assess the effect that different political environments can have on the initiation of demographic investigation. "The discussion...centres on the following questions: what are the conditions, the mechanisms, the arrangements that determine the utilization of research in policy processes and its impact in shaping these? Two case-studies, China and Mexico, illustrate the interface between research and policy."
Correspondence: A. I. Mundigo, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research on Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20681 Piekut-Brodzka, Danuta. Population funds and provisions for population needs. [Fundusz populacyjny a azaspokajanie potrzeb ludnosci.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 350, 1991. 177 pp. Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author describes financial resources and investments that are required to meet individual needs in modern societies and to develop effective social policies. A methodology for identifying both the specific needs of various subpopulations and resource availability is outlined. The main focus is on the changes in such needs across age groups. The geographical focus is on Poland.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Handlowa, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, A1. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-544 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20682 Rollet-Echalier, Catherine. Policy concerning early childhood under the Third Republic. [La politique a l'egard de la petite enfance sous la IIIe Republique.] Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 127, ISBN 2-7332-0127-1. 1990. xi, 677 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study is concerned with the development of policies designed to improve the living conditions of very young children in France from 1871 to 1940. The first part describes the demographic, ethnological, and political conditions affecting early childhood in the late 1860s. The second part examines the two bases of the social policy concerning early childhood that developed under the Third Republic, namely, the law and the development of science and medicine. The third part looks at how specific policies took shape and at the individuals who influenced that process. The fourth part summarizes the process as a whole and examines changes in infant mortality by social class, region, and cause over time, as well as changes in such practices as abandoning infants and sending children away to wet-nurses. The bibliography and indexes are published in a separate volume.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de France, Departement des Revues, 14 Avenue du Bois-de-l'Epine, B.P. 90, 91003 Evry Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20683 Sinding, Steven W. Strengthening the bank's population work in the nineties. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper, No. WPS 802, Nov 1991. 34 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reviews the World Bank's efforts to support and develop projects in population in the developing world, and makes recommendations for the bank's future work in this area. The recommendations focus on changing bank strategies, not policy. The author "argues that the Bank should give renewed priority to population matters and accelerate the current upward trend in lending for family planning programs in the 1990s."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20684 Vaupel, James W.; Zeng, Yi. Population tradeoffs in China. Policy Sciences, Vol. 24, No. 4, Nov 1991. 389-406 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors examine the problems and issues arising from China's policies to reduce its population growth rate. "Efforts to reduce the population growth will increase the proportion elderly. To increase the size of the work force, a substantial delay in the age of retirement may be necessary. To reduce the number of births, some judicious mix of delayed childbearing and lower fertility will be required. The population policy choices made in China will determine the future size, age composition, employment structure, and family patterns of a population that currently includes more than a fifth of the world's people."
Correspondence: J. W. Vaupel, University of Minnesota, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, Center for Population Analysis and Policy, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

58:20685 Aghajanian, Akbar. Population change in Iran, 1966-86: a stalled demographic transition? Population and Development Review, Vol. 17, No. 4, Dec 1991. 703-15, 756, 758 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The author assesses recent demographic changes in Iran against the backdrop of two sharply different ideological and socioeconomic environments, approximated by contrasting the two ten-year periods 1966-76 and 1976-86. In 1967 the government of Iran introduced a population policy aimed at lowering fertility, and over the next decade the country experienced the onset of fertility transition, sustained through commitment to a family planning program, symbolic and legal changes in the status of women, and significant structural changes. Following the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the new government abandoned the fertility control policy, and official policy fostered early marriage and childbearing. The influx of refugees from Afghanistan and a significant rise in the level of fertility, especially in urban areas, contributed to this stalling of the demographic transition. Since 1989, however, the government has taken practical steps to slow population growth, including the provision of family planning services and social support for using them."
Correspondence: A. Aghajanian, Fayetteville State University, Department of Sociology, 1200 Murshison Road, Fayetteville, NC 28301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20686 Carlson, Allan C. The Swedish experiment in family politics: the Myrdals and the interwar population crisis. ISBN 0-88738-299-1. LC 89-5092. 1990. xx, 235 pp. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
The author describes the role played by Alva and Gunnar Myrdal in shaping pronatalist policy in Sweden in the 1930s. Specifically, he shows how they were able to wrest the population issue away from Swedish nationalists and conservatives and turn it toward the service of socialist goals. Having summarized the Myrdals' ideas and how they were formed, the author describes the policy debate that took place during 1934-1935 and the extraordinary intellectual influence they had over the Population Commission of 1935. The new policies developed as a result from 1936 to 1938 are outlined. "A final chapter offers conclusions about the ability of ideas bound to modern social science to influence human events and suggests how the Swedish debate of the 1930s may be replicated in the American domestic policy debate of the 1990s."
Correspondence: Transaction Publishers, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20687 Cleland, John; Robinson, Warren. The use of payments and benefits to influence reproductive behaviour. In: Family planning programmes and fertility, edited by James F. Phillips and John A. Ross. 1992. 159-77 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors assess whether payments as a state instrument of reproductive policy are effective in light of the ethical controversy that surrounds them. They conclude "that the use of financial incentives to promote contraception can be better justified for reversible than for irreversible methods." Programs in several developing countries are described as illustrations.
Correspondence: J. Cleland, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20688 Hao, Cailan. Population policy of China and its impact on family size and structure. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 36, No. 1, Mar 1990. 7-21 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes problems associated with population growth in China and reviews government population policies. The impact of the current one-child population policy on family size and structure is also assessed.
Correspondence: C. Hao, Zhengzhou University, Population Research Centre, Henan Province, China. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

58:20689 Heitlinger, Alena. Pronatalism and women's equality policies. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1991. 343-75 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Since pronatalism and women's equality are terms that cover a broad spectrum of ideas and practices, the article first examines various definitions of pronatalist, pronatal and women's equality policies. The major focus is on policies designed to enhance women's economic equality or independence, and on various forms of state assistance to families with children....The main thesis of the article is that broadly conceived women's equality policies, which address systemic and indirect discrimination, offer a new rationale for policies which in other contexts may be called pronatal. Parental leaves, childcare services, flexible work arrangements, re-entry training programs, and social security and taxation policies that do not penalize women for motherhood have been promoted as measures of equal opportunities for women, but they can be also seen as having a pronatal potential...." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: A. Heitlinger, Trent University, Department of Sociology, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20690 Kupinsky, Shlomo. Fertility trends and policies in low fertility countries and their applicability to Israel. In: World Jewish population: trends and policies, edited by Sergio DellaPergola and Leah Cohen. 1992. 276-300 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel; Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Demographic Center: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to analyze the population policies of the countries with low fertility, particularly those of Europe, and relate them to Israel. To do so first requires an understanding of the current trends in fertility in these low fertility countries, followed by a discussion in the second part of this paper of the various policies that have been developed. The third part will review the assessments of these policies. The last part will review Israel's current demographic situation, particularly as it relates to fertility, and the possibility of developing and implementing a pro-natal policy in Israel."
Correspondence: S. Kupinsky, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Demographic Center, 10 Yad Haruzim Street, Box 1260, 91000 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20691 Lajous, Adrian. Mexico shifts position, cuts its growth rate. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, Vol. 6, No. 2, Summer 1991. 18-20 pp. Davenport, Iowa. In Eng.
The author describes the change in Mexican governmental policy from neutral to antinatalist during the early 1970s. The extent to which the rate of population growth has declined since that change is described.
Location: New York Public Library.

58:20692 Lee, Ronald D.; Miller, Timothy. Population growth, externalities to childbearing, and fertility policy in developing countries. In: Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics, 1990. ISBN 0-8213-1607-9. 1991. 275-308 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The childbearing costs and benefits that are borne by society as a whole rather than by individual parents in developing countries are estimated using a mathematical model. "Externalities to childbearing might include public costs of education, health, and pensions, as well as taxes to be paid by children in the future; cost sharing for public goods and social infrastructure over an enlarged tax base; the dilution of per capita value of various forms of collective wealth; and the reduction of wages and per capita incomes in the future." The implications for policies designed to influence fertility are considered. The results indicate that "there are many sources of positive and negative externalities, and each estimate is uncertain, so the total externality is itself highly uncertain and often does not provide a clear case for policies going beyond family planning." Comments by Martha Ainsworth are included (pp. 305-8).
Correspondence: R. D. Lee, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20693 Llera, Silvia. Mexico: a decade of family planning and contraceptive use. [Mexico: una decada de planificacion familiar y practica anticonceptiva.] In: Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, August 5-7, 1991, Washington, D.C.: proceedings. Volume 1. 1991. 343-66 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Spa.
The author first reviews the history of Mexican population policy, which up until the 1970s was generally pronatalist. The various family planning initiatives begun in the 1970s are then described, as is their impact on overall fertility. Tables are included on country-wide fertility levels from 1940 to 1990 and on percent of contraceptive users by method, age, sex, educational status, parity, and place of residence. The bulk of the current data is from DHS surveys conducted in 1977 and 1987 and from a national health survey conducted in 1982.
Correspondence: S. Llera, El Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20694 Narayana, G.; Kantner, John F. Doing the needful: the dilemma of India's population policy. ISBN 0-8133-8432-X. LC 91-23370. 1992. xi, 187 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study examines the problems posed by rapid population growth in India. The authors argue that the country's relative failure to tackle the population problem is due to the fact that the "things it must do to save itself as a unified and democratic nation frequently run counter to the deep-seated, conflicting interests of obdurate and powerful constituencies. [The authors]...unearth the social and cultural roots of the persistent failure of India's attempts to intervene in the realm of population control and related issues of social welfare. Following a critical, comprehensive examination of programs (both public and private) and policies, they discuss prospects for future developments in the population arena and conclude with concrete policy recommendations."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2847. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20695 Nebenfuhr, Eva. Current trends in population policy in the Philippines. [Aktuelle Tendenzen der Bevolkerungspolitik auf den Philippinen.] Mitteilungen des Instituts fur Asienkunde Hamburg, No. 187, ISBN 3-88910-078-3. 1990. 166 pp. Institut fur Asienkunde: Hamburg, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in population policies affecting fertility in the Philippines are examined. The transition from narrowly focused family planning programs in the 1970s to an integrated approach incorporating family planning in development policies is noted. Chapters are included on regional differences in the components of natural population growth, socioeconomic and sociocultural development and its effects on demographic trends, the impact of family planning programs on fertility, and problems incorporating population policy in development policy.
Correspondence: Institut fur Asienkunde, Rothenbaumchaussee 32, D-2000 Hamburg 13, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20696 Qu, Geping. China views control of population as vital. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, Vol. 6, No. 2, Summer 1991. 26-30 pp. Davenport, Iowa. In Eng.
The reasons for China's efforts to continue to develop policies to slow the rate of population growth are described.
Correspondence: G. Qu, National Environmental Protection Agency, Beijing, China. Location: New York Public Library.

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

58:20697 Borjas, George J. Immigration policy, national origin, and immigrant skills: a comparison of Canada and the United States. NBER Working Paper, No. 3691, Apr 1991. 28, [2] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Over 12 million persons migrated to Canada or the United States between 1959 and 1981. Beginning in the mid-1960s, the immigration policies of the two countries began to diverge considerably: the United States stressing family reunification and Canada stressing skills. This paper shows that the point system used by Canada generated, on average, a more skilled immigrant flow than that which entered the United States. This skill gap, however, is mostly attributable to differences in the national origin mix of the immigrant flows admitted by the two countries. In effect, the point system 'works' because it alters the national origin mix of immigrant flows, and not because it generates a more skilled immigrant flow from a given source country."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20698 Bouvier, Leon F. Peaceful invasions: immigration and changing America. ISBN 0-8191-8402-0. LC 91-26853. 1991. 234 pp. University Press of America: Lanham, Maryland/London, England; Center for Immigration Studies: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author argues for a U.S. immigration policy that considers the country's current demographic situation, which because of low fertility and demographic aging presents a need for a certain level of immigration. The policy proposed is one "which will not lead to an ever-growing United States population and which will ease the process of cultural adjustment for newcomers. Such an immigration policy is called 'liberal limitationist' because some of the reasons for advocating less immigration are to protect United States workers and steer the United States economy toward a high productivity trajectory so that there is more income to share with the poor."
Correspondence: University Press of America, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. Location: New York Public Library.

58:20699 Chiswick, Barry R. Illegal immigration and immigration control. In: U.S. immigration policy reform in the 1980s: a preliminary assessment, edited by Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz, Selig L. Sechzer, and Ira N. Gang. 1991. 45-63 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The first sections of this chapter develop an economic analysis of the illegal-alien labor market [in the United States], including the determinants of illegal migration and the impact on the economy. Then, that model is applied to the major provisions of IRCA [Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986] and used to describe its likely consequences. A concluding section argues that because IRCA does not address the economic realities it is not likely to accomplish its objectives. The partial amnesty and impotent employer sanctions have not solved the illegal alien dilemma."
This is an updated version of the 1988 study cited in 55:10723.
Correspondence: B. R. Chiswick, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, Box 4348 University Hall, Chicago, IL 60680. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20700 DeFreitas, Gregory. Economic implications of immigration law reform. In: U.S. immigration policy reform in the 1980s: a preliminary assessment, edited by Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz, Selig L. Sechzer, and Ira N. Gang. 1991. 117-29 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author attempts to estimate the economic implications of the 1986 U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA). He examines the size of the illegal alien population, their employment characteristics, and their impact on the public treasury. He concludes that IRCA is unlikely to improve U.S. workers' earnings or reduce their vulnerability to unemployment.
Correspondence: G. DeFreitas, Hofstra University, Department of Economics, Hempstead, NY 11550. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20701 Donato, Katharine M.; Durand, Jorge; Massey, Douglas S. Stemming the tide? Assessing the deterrent effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 2, May 1992. 139-57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study uses a new source of data to assess the degree to which the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) deterred undocumented migration from Mexico to the United States. Data were collected from migrants interviewed in seven Mexican communities during the winters of 1987 through 1989, as well as from out-migrants from those communities who subsequently located in the United States. We conduct time-series experiments that examine changes in migrants' behavior before and after passage of the IRCA in 1986....In none of these analyses could we detect any evidence that IRCA has significantly deterred undocumented migration from Mexico."
Correspondence: K. M. Donato, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, Baton Rouge, LA 70803. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20702 Hoefer, Michael D. Background of U.S. immigration policy reform. In: U.S. immigration policy reform in the 1980s: a preliminary assessment, edited by Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz, Selig L. Sechzer, and Ira N. Gang. 1991. 17-44 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author describes the characteristics of the illegal aliens who became eligible for permanent residence status under the 1986 Immigration and Reform Control Act (IRCA). Background information on the major provisions of IRCA and their implementation by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service is provided. "Data on legalization applications and apprehensions by the United States Border Patrol are also presented in order to begin to understand the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act on the size of the current illegal alien population."
Correspondence: M. D. Hoefer, U.S Immigration and Naturalization Service, Statistical Analysis Branch, Demographic Analysis Section, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20703 Kohler, Dirk. The immigration policy of the United States of America between 1917 and 1929. [Zur Immigrationspolitik der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika zwischen 1917 und 1929.] Migrationsforschung, No. 25, 1991. 32-45 pp. Rostock, Germany. In Ger.
The history of immigration policy in the United States between 1917 and 1929 is reviewed, with particular reference to the restrictive laws that were enacted during this period. The impact of such restrictions on the structure of immigration by country of origin is noted.
Correspondence: D. Kohler, Universitat Rostock, Fachbereich Geschichtswissenschaften, Wilhelm-Kulz-Platz 4, 0-2500 Rostock, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20704 Kritz, Mary M. The British and Spanish migration systems in the colonial era: a comparison of policy approaches. Population and Development Program: 1990 Working Paper Series, No. 2.15, [1990?]. 11 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"Using a systems framework, this paper examines the [policy] approaches taken by Spain and England toward migration to their American colonies and argues that the difference in the way they proceeded stemmed from their demographic structure at home, the type of production systems they developed in the colonies, and their differing sociocultural views of the type of social system that should be established in the colonies." The effects of the Reformation, Counter-Reformation, and of labor force needs in England, Spain, and their colonies are also described.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20705 Meissner, Doris. Managing migrations. Foreign Policy, No. 86, Spring 1992. 66-83 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The policy issues posed by migration pressures are explored, with a focus on developed countries. Five categories of migrants are identified: legal immigrants and nonimmigrants, contract labor migrants, illegal immigrants, asylum-seekers, and refugees. The author suggests that the primary causes of most migrations are economic, and that policies cannot therefore be developed without taking into account economic as well as social factors. The long-term solution to international migration pressures lies in reducing the gap between the levels of economic development and wages in rich and poor countries. Meanwhile, developed countries will have to develop "reasoned admissions policies for labor market, refugee, and family immigrant groups, along with firm, judicious enforcement regimes."
Correspondence: D. Meissner, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Program for Immigration and U.S. Foreign Policy, 11 Dupont Circle, Washington, D.C. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20706 Nack, Beatrix. The relationship between migration policy and economic policy during the time of the Franco regime. [Zum Zusammenhang von Migrations- und Wirtschaftspolitik in der Zeit des Franco-Regimes.] Migrationsforschung, No. 25, 1991. 46-60 pp. Rostock, Germany. In Ger.
This article deals with the use of migration policy as a component of economic policy in Spain during the Franco regime. The focus is on the transition at the end of the 1950s from a policy of restrictive emigration to one of forced emigration. The economic goals and the impact of this policy are discussed.
Correspondence: B. Nack, Universitat Rostock, Fachbereich Geschichtswissenschaften, Wilhelm-Kulz-Platz 4, 0-2500 Rostock, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20707 Pereira, Miriam H. Some complementary observations on Portuguese emigration policy. [Algumas observacoes complementares sobre a politica de emigracao portuguesa.] Analise Social, Vol. 25, No. 4-5; 108-109, 1990. 735-9 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por.
This is a review of factors affecting Portuguese emigration policy. Factors limiting emigration are identified as the policies of countries of destination, travel costs, illiteracy, and military service obligations in Portugal. The author also examines the extent of illegal migration from Portugal to the United States and Brazil.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20708 Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L.; Sechzer, Selig L.; Gang, Ira N. U.S. immigration policy reform in the 1980s: a preliminary assessment. ISBN 0-275-93620-1. LC 90-7377. 1991. xii, 145 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This book contains five papers by various authors assessing the impact in the United States of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA). The papers were presented at a colloquium held at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, on October 14, 1988. They attempt to answer the questions: "how has the implementation of IRCA proceeded? What have been its effects so far? Have the goals of the immigration policy reform been fulfilled? What potential impact on the U.S. economy can the policy reform be expected to have over the next few years?"
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1992-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.