Volume 58 - Number 2 - Summer 1992

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

58:20617 Moreland, R. Scott. Socio-demographic models and the integration of population and development: how successful are they? In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 945-62 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The term 'integration of population and development' can take on several meanings and has been used to describe several phenomena. In this paper I shall concentrate on three principal areas concerning this concept....I shall concentrate on one technique for integration, namely the use of models. However, the development and use of models necessarily involves either directly or indirectly...various strategies for integration...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20618 Swaney, James A. Julian Simon versus the Ehrlichs: an institutionalist perspective. Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jun 1991. 499-509 pp. Lincoln, Nebraska. In Eng.
The debate between those, like the Ehrlichs, who see population growth as a global problem and those, like Julian Simon, who maintain that population growth acts as a catalyst for development is reviewed. The author maintains that both schools are at fault in focusing on the number of people rather than on their behavior. He concludes that the carrying capacity of the planet is indeed limited, whether an ecological or an economic approach to the problem is employed.
Correspondence: J. A. Swaney, Wright State University, Department of Economics, Dayton, OH 45435. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

58:20619 Bradshaw, York W.; Fraser, Elvis E. City size, birthrates, and development in China: evidence of modernization? Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1990. 401-24 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper uses recently published aggregate data to examine the relationship among cities, birthrates, and development in the People's Republic of China. Postrevolutionary China has long attempted to limit birthrates, arguing that population control will enhance economic development and physical quality of life. The one child policy and other population control programs have been concentrated mainly in urban areas, which have lower absolute birthrates than nonurban areas. Despite this fact, multivariate statistical analysis shows that urban areas do not have lower birthrates after controlling for secondary education, industrial employment, and several other variables. By contrast, most cities do have higher levels of economic development and physical quality of life, even after controlling for numerous indicators. These findings (1) suggest that innovative public policies have influenced urban China and (2) support several arguments associated with modernization and demographic transition theories."
Correspondence: Y. W. Bradshaw, Indiana University, Department of Sociology, Ballantine Hall, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

58:20620 Caldwell, John C. The soft underbelly of development: demographic transition in conditions of limited economic change. In: Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics, 1990. ISBN 0-8213-1607-9. 1991. 207-74 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationships between demographic trends and socioeconomic development in Sub-Saharan Africa are explored. The author first looks at the relevance of the demographic transition theory and the theory that slowing population growth will lead to faster growth in per capita income, and discusses their limited application to Africa. "Evidence indicates that African fertility is peculiarly sensitive to infant and child mortality levels, and therefore amenable to decline through service-intensive combined health and family planning programs; but it is not clear that governments can implement such programs on a national scale. On the demographic-economic nexus, some evidence suggests that in Sub-Saharan Africa high levels of natural population increase do slow growth in per capita income. Family planning programs might also catalyze changes in family social and economic structures that would contribute to faster economic growth." Comments by Ron Lesthaeghe (pp. 255-9) and Susan H. Cochrane (pp. 261-70) and a summary of the floor discussion (pp. 271-4) are included.
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20621 Flores, Manuel; Bidegain, Gabriel. Honduras: population and development. [Honduras: poblacion y desarrollo.] 1990. x, 149 pp. Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Unidad de Docencia e Investigacion en Poblacion [UDIP]: Tegucigalpa, Honduras. In Spa.
This volume contains five papers presented by various authors at a seminar entitled Population and Development in the Central American Isthmus, which was held in October 1989 in Managua, Nicaragua. The first paper discusses the importance of incorporating courses in family planning into Honduras's formal education system and the effects of population growth on economic development and quality of life. The second describes the training of professionals in population fields. The importance of women to economic development and population control in Honduras is the focus of the third paper. Articles four and five are methodological in nature. One is a study of ways to overcome poverty in Honduras; the other evaluates the impact of development projects on income and employment.
Correspondence: Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Unidad de Docencia e Investigacion en Poblacion, Ciudad Universitaria, Edificio 3, Piso 2, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20622 Goldstein, Alice; Goldstein, Sidney; Gu, Shengzu. Rural industrialization and migration in the People's Republic of China. PSTC Reprint Series, No. 92-01, Feb 1992. [26] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This article explores some aspects of rural industrialization in the People's Republic of China....After a brief review of the situation in China before 1949, the article considers government policies with regard to rural-to-urban migration and rural, agricultural development as they affect rural industrialization. Attention then turns to Hubei Province, in central China, as a case study that focuses on the growth and transformation of small towns and on the populations of these towns and the province's rural areas. The data for Hubei are derived from two sources: a 1987 survey of all small towns in northern Hubei Province and a 1988 sample survey of the population of the entire province."
This article is reprinted from Social Science History (Durham, North Carolina), Vol. 15, No. 3, Fall 1991, pp. 289-314.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20623 Greenaway, David; Milner, Chris. Did Mauritius really provide a "case study in Malthusian economics"? Journal of International Development, Vol. 3, No. 4, Jul 1991. 325-38 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"In the early 1960s James Meade visited Mauritius as adviser to a Commission evaluating population structure and growth. Out of that visit emerged two papers which were Malthusian in their prognosis of economic prospects for Mauritius. This paper reconsiders the Meade Evaluation and compares his predictions with actual outcomes. As it turns out, his pessimism was not justified. The factors which led him to reach his set of conclusions, and the factors which explain actual economic performance, are both assessed in detail."
Correspondence: D. Greenaway, University of Nottingham, Centre for Research in Economic Development and International Trade, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20624 Sanchez Almanza, Adolfo. Considerations concerning population and regional urban development in the National Development Plan, 1989-1994. [Consideraciones sobre la poblacion y el desarrollo urbano-regional en el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo, 1989-1994.] Momento Economico, No. 47, Sep-Oct 1989. 10-3 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
Some aspects of the Mexican Development Plan for 1989-1994 are examined, including population growth, quality of life, and regional and urban planning.
Correspondence: A. Sanchez Almanza, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Torre 11 de Humanidades, Aptdo. Postal 20-721, Mexico City 20, DF, Mexico. Location: New York Public Library.

58:20625 van Marrewijk, Charles; Verbeek, Jos. Endogenous population growth: a problem for development. Institute for Economic Research Discussion Paper, No. 9109/G, May 1991. 23 pp. Erasmus University, Institute for Economic Research: Rotterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors develop a model of the relationship between population growth and economic development in third-world countries to "endogenize the growth rate of the population in such a way that it stressed the empirically supported negative relation between fertility and per capita income." A primary outcome of the model is "the possibility of multiple steady states (alternatingly stable and unstable) where the initial capital-labor ratio determines whether the economy will end up in a high per capita income/low fertility stable steady state or in a low per capita income/high fertility stable steady state. The less developed economy can get stuck in a variant of the 'Malthusian trap', also called the poverty trap."
Correspondence: Erasmus University, Institute for Economic Research, Room H09-23, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

58:20626 Als, Georges. Population and the economy in Luxembourg, 1839-1989. [Population et economie du Luxembourg, 1839-1989.] Realites et Perspectives, No. 1989/5, [1989]. 76 pp. Banque Generale du Luxembourg: Luxembourg. In Fre.
Population trends in Luxembourg from 1839 to 1989 are reviewed. Consideration is given to population growth and demographic aging, population characteristics, declining fertility, decreasing mortality, and sociological change. Economic changes over the same period are also examined.
Correspondence: Banque Generale du Luxembourg, Service Presse et Relations Publiques, 27 avenue Monterey, L-2951 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20627 Borsch-Supan, Axel. Aging population: problems and policy options in the U.S. and Germany. Economic Policy, Vol. 12, 1991. 103-39 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This paper is concerned with the policy options available to developed market-economy countries faced with substantial demographic aging. "In order to discuss these options, this paper systematically exploits the differences between the U.S. and Germany to shed light on the economic mechanisms underlying retirement, savings and housing choices with the elderly, and how they are affected with public policy, such as institutional arrangements, government regulations and laws."
Correspondence: A. Borsch-Supan, Universitat Mannheim, Schloss, Postfach 103462, 6800 Mannheim 1, Germany. Location: New York Public Library.

58:20628 Brandts, Jordi; de Bartolome, Charles A. M. Population uncertainty, social insurance, and actuarial bias. Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 47, No. 3, Apr 1992. 361-80 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors examine the relation between changes in the size of the working population and the value of a social insurance contract between unborn workers and future retirees. They develop a model suggesting that such a contract will benefit both of the generations concerned. The implied geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: C. A. M. de Bartolome, New York University, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:20629 Creedy, John; Disney, Richard. Financing state pensions in alternative pay-as-you-go schemes. Bulletin of Economic Research, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jan 1992. 39-53 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors challenge the assumption that demographic aging will inevitably lead to unacceptably high costs for state pension schemes and the need to reduce pension payments. They argue that there are many policy options available concerning the financing of state pensions, particularly if income redistribution is a policy objective. The tax structure of a typical developed Western country is examined in detail. "The analysis suggests that the combination of direct and indirect taxes and the significant non-linearities in the system of direct taxation, along with additional incomes of the retired, permit a wide range of policy responses to rising pension costs. Similarly the replacement ratio can be measured in a number of ways, with the pension based on after-tax earnings or treated as taxable income."
Correspondence: J. Creedy, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:20630 Jensen, Svend-Erik H.; Nielsen, Soren B. Population aging in a small, open economy with a public pension system. [Demografiske forskydninger, det offentlige pensionssystem og makrookonomien.] Nationalokonomisk Tidsskrift, Vol. 129, No. 3, 1991. 288-302 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
"The first part of the article discusses the phenomenon of population aging in the OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] area. It stems from two distinct sources: On one hand, fertility rates have fallen, and on the other, life expectancy at birth has increased. The projected near-doubling of the so-called old-age dependency ratio in many countries (including Denmark) will put public pension systems under pressure, as illustrated by some simple calculations. The second part shows how recent macroeconomic theory can be used to appraise macroeconomic consequences of population aging in a small open economy with a public pension system."
Correspondence: S.-E. H. Jensen, Handelshojskolen i Kobenhavn, Institut for Nationalokonomi, Struenseegade 7-9, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Location: New York Public Library.

58:20631 Mooney, Peter J. The impact of immigration on the growth and development of the U.S. economy, 1890-1920. ISBN 0-8240-0300-4. LC 90-3718. 1990. viii, 258 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a doctoral dissertation originally prepared in 1970 on the relationship between economic development and immigration in the United States, with a focus on the period 1890-1920. The author examines the impact of the labor force characteristics of the foreign-born population on U.S. economic development. "Specifically, I will concentrate on the influence on labor productivity and the returns to labor rendered by foreign-born white immigrants and their children during the period 1890-1920." He analyzes the effect of the immigrants on productivity, with particular reference to their industrial distribution relative to the distribution of capital, and the effect of immigration on wages. Data are primarily from official sources.
Correspondence: Garland Publishing, 717 Fifth Avenue, Suite 2500, New York, NY 10022. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

58:20632 Camp, Sharon L. Population, poverty, and pollution. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, Vol. 6, No. 2, Summer 1991. 5-17 pp. Davenport, Iowa. In Eng.
The relationships among global population growth, poverty, and environmental pollution are explored, with the primary focus on developing countries.
Correspondence: S. L. Camp, Population Crisis Committee, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036-3605. Location: New York Public Library.

58:20633 Commoner, Barry. Rapid population growth and environmental stress. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1991. 199-227 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
The relationship between rapid population growth in developing countries and environmental pollution is explored. The author concludes "that the rate of increase in pollution is largely determined by the technology factor, which governs the amount of pollution generated per unit of goods produced or consumed. This observation extends earlier evidence that both the increasing levels of pollution observed...and the results of efforts to reduce them support the view that the decisive factor determining environmental quality is the nature of the technology of production, rather than the size of the population."
Correspondence: B. Commoner, City University of New York, Queens College, Center for the Biology of Natural Systems, Flushing, NY 11367. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

58:20634 Goodland, Robert. The case that the world has reached limits: more precisely that current throughput growth in the global economy cannot be sustained. Population and Environment, Vol. 13, No. 3, Spring 1992. 167-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The aim of this chapter is to present the case that limits to growth have already been reached [and] that further input growth will take the planet further away from sustainability....This chapter seeks to convince the reader of the urgent need to convert to a sustainable economy, rather than of the related need of poverty alleviation." Consequences of overstepping the sustainable growth boundary are described, including global warming, lack of food, thinning of the ozone layer, and land degradation.
Correspondence: R. Goodland, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Room S-5035, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20635 Hauser, Jurg A. Population and environmental problems of the third world. Volume 1. [Bevolkerungs- und Umweltprobleme der Dritten Welt. Band 1.] UTB fur Wissenschaft: Uni-Taschenbucher, No. 1568, ISBN 3-258-04168-7. 1990. 365 pp. Paul Haupt: Bern, Switzerland. In Ger.
This is the first of two volumes dealing with the interrelationships among population, resources, the environment, and development in third-world countries. Chapters are included on demographic-ecological transition theory; environmental problems such as changes in climate, forest ecology, land erosion, and water resources; relationships among developing and developed countries; and socioeconomic characteristics of developing countries. The second volume covers demographic trends and problems.
Correspondence: Buchhandlung, Verlag Paul Haupt, Falkenplatz 14, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20636 Smil, Vaclav. Population growth and nitrogen: an exploration of a critical existential link. Population and Development Review, Vol. 17, No. 4, Dec 1991. 569-601, 754-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author describes the uses of nitrogen as a fertilizer and its importance to world food supplies. The focus is on the consequences of fertilizer-nitrogen dependence for food production, population growth, individual well-being, and environmental conditions.
Correspondence: V. Smil, University of Manitoba, Department of Geography, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20637 Tabutin, Dominique; Thiltges, Evelyne. Relationship between population growth and environment: from the doctrinaire to the empirical. [Relations entre croissance demographique et environnement: du doctrinal a l'empirique.] Revue Tiers-Monde, Vol. 33, No. 130, Apr-Jun 1992. 273-94 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The relationship between population growth and environmental degradation is explored. The changing attitude toward this relationship since the 1950s is summarized, and three main theoretical approaches are identified: the neo-Malthusian, the modified neo-Malthusian, and the anti-Malthusian. The authors then consider problems posed by the division of the world's population into rich and poor and the existence of regional pressures such as deforestation. The need for a global approach to the easing of population pressures on the environment is stressed.
Correspondence: D. Tabutin, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:20638 Vesterby, Marlow; Heimlich, Ralph E. Land use and demographic change: results from fast-growth counties. Land Economics, Vol. 67, No. 3, Aug 1991. 279-91 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The authors analyze and compare two data sets on land-use change in U.S. counties with rapidly growing populations for the period from 1960 to the early 1980s. The results show that "the net effect of changing household numbers, household characteristics, and economic constraints on demand for land is likely to mean less conversion of land for urban uses in the future. Our studies showed that marginal urban land consumption remained nearly constant between 1960 and the early 1980s."
Correspondence: M. Vesterby, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Resources and Technology Division, Economic Research Service, Washington, D.C. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

58:20639 de Oliveira, Orlandina; Garcia, Brigida. Work, fertility, and the status of women in Mexico. [Trabajo, fecundidad y condicion femenina en Mexico.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1990. 693-710, 827 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
This article begins with an examination of changes in female labor force participation brought about by Mexico's economic recession during the 1980s. "Emphasis is placed on the increase observed in the economic participation of older married women with children, and in the modifications that this entails for the known relations between fertility and work. In a second part of the paper, the authors explore the different ways in which women possibly experience these changes and the expected impact on their status of subordination." The authors review pertinent literature and propose methods for further research. Data are from fertility surveys conducted during the 1980s.
Correspondence: O. de Oliveira, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20640 Henkens, Kene; Siegers, Jacques. Labour force status of older men and women in the Netherlands. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1991, edited by Gijs Beets, Robert Cliquet, Gilbert Dooghe, and Jenny de J. Gierveld. 1991. 77-94 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Lisse, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In the Netherlands, the labour force participation of the elderly is low in comparison with other EC countries. Partly due to the increasing percentage of the elderly in society, it is necessary to reevaluate their status in the labour force. This contribution presents the results of an analysis of the labour force status of 50 to 64 year old men and women....A distinction is made here between four types of status for men: employed, disabled for work, unemployed, and retired. For women a separate category of housewife is also included. In...bivariate and trivariate analyses, these types of status are related to age and education. The results of a multivariate analysis are then represented, using a multinomial logit model."
Correspondence: K. Henkens, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20641 Kantiebo, Mireille. Household work and work for pay among homemakers in Bamako district. [Travaux domestiques et activites remuneratrices des menageres dans le district de Bamako.] Working Paper du CERPOD, No. 7, Oct 1991. 64 pp. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement [CERPOD]: Bamako, Mali. In Fre.
This is a study of female economic activity in Bamako, Mali, using data from a demographic survey undertaken in 1985. The author concludes that women make an essential contribution to the average household income by their work outside the home.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement, INSAH, BP 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20642 Kempeneers, Marianne; Lelievre, Eva. A life history analysis of women's work. [Analyse biographique du travail feminin.] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1991. 377-400 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article demonstrates how life event history analysis applied to the interaction between fertility and female economic activity can lead to new perspectives in the analysis of this complicated relationship. The authors identify limits to the analysis of the interaction given the anticipatory nature of behaviour. They conclude that progress in this field requires not the refinement of methods but rather a fundamental change in the approach to the data collected....They recommend a conception of women's work as a whole, a conception that does not dissociate domestic and paid work....They argue that data on the interaction, collected at its source, would yield a more revealing life history than that which sees domestic work and paid work as separate spheres, and fails to take account of changes in their relationship." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: M. Kempeneers, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Sociologie, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20643 Krishnan, Vijaya. Family life cycle and labour force behaviour of married women. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 1992. 119-35 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impact of selected demographic, socioeconomic, and attitudinal variables on the likelihood that a married woman is in the labour force at three different points in the early stages of the life cycle. The effects of these variables depend on whether a woman is childless, whether she has children and expects more, and whether she has completed her childbearing. Probit models indicate that age, age at marriage, and husband's income have significant effects on the women's market activity during early and later stages of the life cycle. Nativity and number of children are found to be most important in predicting labour force behaviour for mothers who expect no more children and least important for those who expect more children. Similarly, husband's attitude towards wife's employment seems to be more important for those who expect no more children than [for] those who expect more children....The data analyzed in this article were drawn from the [1984] Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS)."
Correspondence: V. Krishnan, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20644 Li, Zhongmin. Demography and social structures of the labor force in mainland China. Pub. Order No. DA9200672. 1991. 224 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was undertaken as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(7).

58:20645 Mayaka, W. C. Estimating loss of active life due to unemployment (1986) and forecasting unemployment in Zambia (1986-1991). In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 629-76 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Trends in unemployment in Zambia are analyzed and projected using data from the 1986 Labour Force Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20646 Morelos, Jose B. Demographic information in crisis: one point of view. [Informacion demografica en crisis: un punto de vista.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1990. 677-91, 826-7 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article, a brief review is made of some of the studies that have produced important findings enhancing our understanding of the phenomenon of the labor force and suggested methods and procedures for correcting and adjusting it, a presentation whose goal is to serve as a basis for the recommendation to continue with tradition. Instead of using new sources, it is suggested that efforts be channelled toward the intensive use of available data. To this end the author illustrates, by means of a very simple outline, one of the many ways for effecting an analysis of congruence and also putting to suitable use the existing set of statistics." The geographical focus is on Mexico.
Correspondence: J. B. Morelos, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20647 Osheba, Ibrahim K. T. Utilization of census data on labour force in scientific research and development planning. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 397-409 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper examines the changes in [Egypt's] labour force structure by industry, occupation and employment status." Attention is paid to women's employment and to the importance of census labor force data for development planning. Data are from the 1947, 1960, 1976, and 1986 censuses.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20648 Psacharopoulos, George; Tzannatos, Zafiris. Latin American women's earnings and participation in the labor force. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper, No. WPS 856, Feb 1992. 38 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Aspects of women's inferior employment and earnings position in the labor markets of Latin America are explored. The authors "first examine broad trends in female participation in 15 [Latin American] countries using population census data for the post-war period. [They] subsequently present the results of female participation functions that show which characteristics influence a woman in her decision to join or not to join the labor market. In addition, [they] utilize the latest national household surveys to assess the earnings differentials between women and men." They conclude that "sound public policy on education, family planning, childcare, and taxes--as well as public efforts to increase women's job opportunities--is most likely to improve women's (and hence children's) welfare."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20649 Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L.; Sechzer, Selig L. Substitution and complementarity between immigrant and native labor in the United States. In: U.S. immigration policy reform in the 1980s: a preliminary assessment, edited by Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz, Selig L. Sechzer, and Ira N. Gang. 1991. 89-116 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"It is the purpose of this chapter to provide a new, alternative perspective on the effects of immigration and immigration restrictions on wages in the United States and an exploratory estimate of such impact using data from the 1980 census....We begin with a survey of the existing literature, specifying how our approach fits into--and diverges from--that literature. The next part sets up the theoretical model that we use to describe domestic production and the determinants of wages; a presentation of the empirical model and our key results follow, then our conclusions. Finally, a technical appendix provides a more detailed description of the estimation procedures."
Correspondence: F. L. Rivera-Batiz, Columbia University, Institute for Urban and Minority Education, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20650 Shaker, Magdi R. Some indicators of imbalance in the Egyptian labour market. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 249-90 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Problems and issues concerning the labor force in Egypt are described. Consideration is given to spatial distribution, sex distribution, and the low proportion of the population who are of working age. The effects of these factors and economic conditions on labor force participation rates are analyzed. Data are primarily from the 1976 and 1986 censuses.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20651 Sundstrom, Marianne; Stafford, Frank. Female labor force participation, fertility and public policy. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 63, ISBN 91-7146-966-4. Nov 1991. 27 pp. Stockholm University, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper compares Sweden to twenty other OECD countries with respect to female labor force participation, fertility and public policies. Among countries studied, Sweden in the late 1980s had the highest female labor force participation rate and the highest fertility rate next to Ireland. We find Sweden's unique position to be a result of public policies such as subsidized day-care, parental leave and the tax system. These policies stimulate both fertility and women's gainful employment to a greater extent than is the case in the other OECD countries. Specifically, our intercountry regression analysis shows that generous parental leave benefits, extensive daycare systems and a high public consumption have positive effects on female labor force participation."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20652 van Dongen, Walter. An integrated analysis of the individual and societal division of labour. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1991, edited by Gijs Beets, Robert Cliquet, Gilbert Dooghe, and Jenny de J. Gierveld. 1991. 53-76 pp. Swets and Zeitlinger: Berwyn, Pennsylvania/Lisse, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author presents "a theoretical, empirical, and policy-oriented investigation into the combination of professional labour and household labour by women in Flanders....The investigation focuses on the relationship between the internal and external division of labour in the household and its members, emphasizing the human and non-human, monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits of the different activities for the individuals." Policy proposals to aid the integration of women into the work force are included.
Correspondence: W. van Dongen, Population and Family Study Centre, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20653 Zayyan, Ezzat S. N. Labour force structural characteristics and changes in Egypt, 1976-1986. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 291-316 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The present paper deals with the employment status and the educational, the occupational and the industrial structures of the Egyptian labour force for...working persons only--by sex and place of residence for the intercensal period 1976-1986."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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