Volume 58 - Number 2 - Summer 1992

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

58:20054 Betbout, Hamadi. Patterns and processes of spatial organization in Tunisia. Pub. Order No. DA9203910. 1991. 312 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Cornell University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(8).

58:20055 Ferrer Regales, Manuel. Population distribution and urbanization in Spain. Journal of Regional Policy, Vol. 11, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1991. 215-31 pp. Naples, Italy. In Eng.
Recent trends in population distribution and urbanization in Spain are reviewed. The focus is on the period from 1960 to 1986. The importance of regional subsystems of spatial distribution prior to 1975 is noted. After 1975, a major transformation occurred, which has brought the country more into line with the situations in other developed Western countries.
Correspondence: M. Ferrer Regales, Universidad de Navarra, Departamento de Geografia Humana, Ciudad Universitaria, 31080 Pamplona, Spain. Location: New York Public Library.

58:20056 Waniez, Philippe. From digital maps to geographical information systems: new methods and techniques applied to spatial analysis. [De la "cartomatique" aux systemes d'information geographique: methodes et techniques nouvelles pour l'analyse spatiale.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1991. 505-16 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews new computer software for the analysis of spatial distribution. "To help find how best to answer specific needs, three trends are dealt with here: the CD ROM as support for new geographical databases, the Exploratory Data Analysis associated to digital mapping, [and] the GIS procedures using square grid mapping."
Correspondence: P. Waniez, Institut Francais de Recherche pour le Developpement en Cooperation et GIP RECLUS, Maison de la Geographie, 17 rue Abbe de l'Epee, 34000 Montpellier, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

58:20057 Brambila Paz, Carlos. Demographic dynamics of urban growth in Mexico: 1940-1980. [Dinamica demografica del crecimiento urbano en Mexico: 1940-1980.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1990. 413-51, 820-1 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article, the author analyzes the relationship between growth rates and the sizes of cities [in Mexico] to determine what kind of cities are the most dynamic ones in terms of their demographic growth during the 1940-1980 period. [His findings contradict] the widespread belief that in Mexico, as of 1970, there has been a process of 'metropolitanization' and of 'growth of intermediate cities'." He proposes changes to current population policy, which attempts to control urban growth through regulation.
Correspondence: C. Brambila Paz, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20058 Deshpande, Sudha; Deshpande, Lalit. Problems of urbanisation and growth of large cities in developing countries: a case study of Bombay. Population and Labour Policies Programme Working Paper, No. 177, ISBN 92-2-108234-2. Oct 1991. x, 143 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This is one in a series of case studies on problems of urbanization and growth of large cities in developing countries. The present paper focuses on Bombay, India. After a review of difficulties faced by all Indian cities, the authors describe the spatial distribution, economic growth, employment levels, income distribution, and living conditions of residents of Bombay. They then identify "a number of shortcomings in existing policies and suggest changes in industrial location policy, zoning and rent control laws and pricing policy for urban services. They have also argued for removal of general subsidies, improved sharing of resources between city and national governments, and devolution of authority to local governments to deal more effectively with economic and social issues at the city level."
Correspondence: International Labour Office Publications, 4 Route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20059 Diop, Amadou. Population and towns in Senegal: demo-geographic growth. [Population et villes Senegal: la croissance demogeographique.] Afrique et Developpement/Africa Development, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1990. 33-43 pp. Dakar, Senegal. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Using data from the 1976 and 1988 censuses, the author notes that the population of Senegal has grown by 37.6 percent over the period and that this growth is concentrated in urban areas. One feature of this trend has been the growing primacy of the capital Dakar and a decline in the relative importance of smaller towns. The need to discourage rural-urban migration by promoting socioeconomic development in rural areas is stressed.
Correspondence: A. Diop, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Departement de Geographie, BP 5005, Dakar-Fann, Senegal. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20060 Guidugli, Odeibler S. Differential urban growth as a process of redistribution of population: a case study of Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Population Geography, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1990. 69-84 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"This paper identifies the process of the differential concentration of population in urban areas....[Data for the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, have] been subjected to an ambiguous model of development. This model is reflected in the pattern of population distribution."
Correspondence: O. S. Guidugli, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, CP 8191, 05508 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20061 Jones, Gavin W. Urbanization issues in the Asian-Pacific region. Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, Vol. 5, No. 2, Sep 1991. 5-33 pp. Guildford, England. In Eng.
"The paper reviews urbanization trends in the Asian-Pacific region, and discusses the causes of urbanization. It then briefly reviews the public policy responses recommended in the literature or actually practised in the region. A series of issues in urban policy and planning are then discussed." The study is based on a review of the published literature.
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

58:20062 Kim, Jong-Gie; Kim, Kwan-Young; Son, Jae-Young. Problems of urbanization and the growth of Seoul, Korea. Population and Labour Policies Programme Working Paper, No. 179, ISBN 92-2-108327-6. 1992. viii, 133 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The present study discusses the nature and magnitude of problems faced by Seoul city [Republic of Korea] in recent years and the policy response of both the national government and city authorities....As the study demonstrates...the city authorities have been quite successful in decentralising population and economic activities away from the capital. A number of policy measures such as decentralisation of manufacturing industry through special incentives, infrastructure development in other regions, and reduction in urban bias in economic and social policies have contributed to this success....Notwithstanding the relative success of Seoul...the city still suffers from several problems such as environmental pollution, urban unemployment, rising land values and shortage of low cost housing....The authors suggest a number of policy measures on how to cope with these problems."
Correspondence: International Labour Office, Publications Branch, 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20063 Partida Bush, Virgilio. Mexico: population in localities with 10,000 or more residents according to the censuses of 1960, 1970, and 1980. [Mexico: poblacion en localidades censadas con 10,000 o mas habitantes en 1960, 1970 y 1980.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1990. 765-803 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
Data on localities in Mexico with populations of 10,000 or more according to the censuses of 1960, 1970, and 1980 are presented in tabular format. A brief description of the methodology used in each census is included.
Correspondence: V. Partida Bush, Secretaria de Programacion y Presupuesto, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20064 Rowland, Richard H. Regional population trends in the city of Moscow during the 1979-1989 intercensal period. Post-Soviet Geography, Vol. 33, No. 3, Mar 1992. 150-69 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This article investigates regional population trends in the city of Moscow during the intercensal period of 1979-1989. Results indicate that the Outer Zone grew more rapidly than the Inner Zone, which experienced population decline overall. As a result, the population of Moscow continued to shift to the Outer Zone. Although the Inner Zone still had a higher population density, the density gradient between the zones had flattened appreciably. Regional population growth rates were strongly and positively related to changes in housing space."
Correspondence: R. H. Rowland, California State University, 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA 92407. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20065 Sayed, Hussein A.-A. Greater Cairo, demographic and health profile based on the Egypt Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS, 1988). In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1990. 1991. 13-61 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to use the EDHS (1988) findings to examine the demographic and health profile of Greater Cairo and show the level of homogeneity between its parts. To this end the sampling frame will be discussed and the basic characteristics of respondents will be also examined." The results are compared with those for Egypt as a whole; a wide level of heterogeneity is found.
Correspondence: H. A.-A. Sayed, 59 Toret El-Zomer Street, Omerama, Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20066 St-Hilaire, Marc. The formation of Quebec's urban populations: the Saguenay region in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. [La formation des populations urbaines au Quebec: les cas du Saguenay aux XIXe et XXe siecles.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1991. 1-36 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author explores trends in urbanization during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries for the Saguenay region of Quebec province, Canada. He finds that "the Saguenay region experienced rapid urbanization at the end of the 19th century....Towns...attracted large numbers of immigrants from various geographic origins, with a marked male dominance. Flows from the East of Quebec...increased significantly (rural exodus) while new recruitment areas appeared in the more distant and more urbanized regions of western Quebec (selective outmigration)."
Correspondence: M. St-Hilaire, Universite Laval, Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherches sur les Populations, Cite Universitaire, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20067 Stern, David I. Population distribution in an ethno-ideologically divided city: the case of Jerusalem. Urban Geography, Vol. 13, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 164-86 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper examines the distribution of population within the city of Jerusalem and changes in its population density between 1972 and 1983, by estimating a polycentric exponential population density function and testing various hypotheses that represent alternative urban structures, while implementing various improvements of the standard statistical techniques. The Jewish and Arab sectors differ markedly in their socioeconomic characteristics. The population density gradients in the two sectors are different, though a polycentric or segregated structure is rejected. The changes that have occurred in the density gradients of the Jewish and Arab sectors between 1972 and 1983 are those predicted for a developed and a developing country city, respectively, but are not statistically significant."
Correspondence: D. I. Stern, Boston University, Department of Geography, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

58:20068 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA] (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). Patterns, causes and consequences of urbanization in Africa. Pub. Order No. ECA/POP/TP89/1 2.5ii. Sep 1989. ii, 62 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
This comparative analysis of urbanization in Africa uses data from U.N. sources based on definitions of urban localities as provided by the countries supplying the data. Chapters are included on patterns of urbanization in Africa, their causes, and consequences, particularly the development of urban primacy. Government development policies in Cameroon, the Ivory Coast, Egypt, Kenya, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe are described.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, P.O. Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:20069 Warnes, Anthony M. London's population trends: metropolitan area or megalopolis? In: London: a new metropolitan geography, edited by Keith Hoggart and David Green. ISBN 0-340-49319-4. 1991. 156-75 pp. Edward Arnold: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author reviews selected major themes concerning the population geography of London, England. The chapter "opens with a broad historical account and an assessment of London's standing among major world cities. Thereafter the chapter concentrates upon London's population composition and major demographic characteristics at the beginning of the 1990s. The principal geographical themes to be covered are those significant for the city's social change and its management and government. They include the decentralization of London and the formation of a diffuse megalopolis, the migration relationships between London and the remainder of Great Britain, and its internal patterns of fertility, mortality and age structure."
Correspondence: A. M. Warnes, University of London, King's College, Institute of Gerontology, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

58:20070 Weinstein, Jay. Urban growth in India: demographic and sociocultural prospects. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 26, No. 4, Winter 1991. 29-44 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper explores some of the complexities of India's urban growth since its first post-Independence census of 1951. Two levels of analysis are pursued as they affect one another: numerical or demographic changes, on one hand, and changes in living conditions, or sociocultural trends, on the other. The general conclusion of the study is that a process of 'erosion' of traditional society is occurring, but it is occurring slowly....Moreover, the sociocultural change is occurring in a non-linear fashion, as much that is traditional endures along side of the modern....Finally, while the growth is occurring in cities of all sizes, the intermediate, regional capitals like Hyderabad and Ahmedabad--rather than the largest cities such as Bombay or Calcutta--are experiencing the most rapid growth."
Correspondence: J. Weinstein, Eastern Michigan University, Department of Sociology, Ypsilanti, MI 48197. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20071 Williamson, Jeffrey G. The macroeconomic dimensions of city growth in developing countries: past, present, and future. In: Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics, 1991. ISBN 0-8213-1975-2. 1992. 241-66 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper surveys the sources of developing-country city growth in historical perspective and notes the slowdown since the first OPEC shock. It then quantifies the sources of city growth, first in small, open economies with modest government regulation, and second in a rather closed, large economy with extensive government regulation--India. By using computable general equilibrium models, the paper identifies the [roles] of technological progress, population pressure, world market forces, foreign capital, fuel scarcity, the urban bias, and various policy choices. The paper concludes with projections for the 1990s and into the next century."
Correspondence: J. G. Williamson, Harvard University, Department of Economics, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

58:20072 Baltensperger, Bradley H. A county that has gone downhill. Geographical Review, Vol. 81, No. 4, Oct 1991. 433-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a survey of population declines in the central Great Plains region of the United States in general, and a detailed analysis of spatial variations in depopulation in one county. "Population growth bypassed large portions of the central Great Plains during the 1970s. Counties without large central places or access to interstate highways continued to lose population. Examination of conditions in the Republican River valley and in Furnas County, Nebraska, illustrates how open-country population decline was especially severe in areas of upland terrain."
Correspondence: B. H. Baltensperger, Michigan Technological University, Department of Geography, Houghton, MI 49931. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20073 Berlan-Darque, Martine; Collomb, Philippe. Rural population--rural vitality. Sociologia Ruralis, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1991. 252-61 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The authors first discuss the problems involved in defining the concept of 'rural population'. They believe that definitions based on such criteria as housing density and economic activity are inadequate. Instead they argue for the development of new statistical instruments based on the specific characteristics of the living space of different population groups....The second part of the paper deals with the recent trend of population moving from urban to rural areas. The authors examine the backgrounds of this trend and argue that it constitutes a fundamental transformation in human living space and population distribution patterns with far-reaching consequences for the administration of land, water and energy resources." The geographical focus of the study is on Europe.
Correspondence: M. Berlan-Darque, Ministere de l'Environnement, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20074 Etchelecou, Andre. Population, territory, environment: a new challenge for social regulation. Sociologia Ruralis, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1991. 300-8 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
Trends affecting the rural population of France over the past 20 years are reviewed. These include the increase in second or vacation homes, the temporary occupation of several primary residences, the growth of urban fringes, and the structural transformation of populations in remote rural areas. Attempts by outsiders to lay claim to territory in formerly remote areas such as the mountain regions, and the consequent risk of conflict with local inhabitants, are noted.
Correspondence: A. Etchelecou, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Centre de Recherches sur les Interactions Socio-Spatiales et l'Amenagement, 68 rue Montpensier, BP 576 Pau-Universite, 64010 Pau Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:20075 Stambuk, Maja. Agricultural depopulation in Croatia. Sociologia Ruralis, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1991. 281-9 pp. Assen, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
Trends in urban depopulation since 1945 in Yugoslavia and specifically in Croatia are analyzed. Two phases are identified: the first involved the eradication of the peasant farm under the Communist system, which resulted in a large-scale exodus from agricultural to urban-based activities. The second phase, which has lasted until the present, has two features: one is the tendency of those staying on family farms to have other employment off the farm; the other involves the likelihood of seeking employment abroad.
Correspondence: M. Stambuk, University of Zagreb, Institute for Social Research, POB 815, Trg Marsala Tita 14, 41000 Zagreb, Croatia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

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