Volume 58 - Number 1 - Spring 1992

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

58:10683 Aguilar, Adrian G.; Olvera, Guillermo. The control of urban growth in Mexico City. Suppositions regarding poor planning. [El control de la expansion urbana en la ciudad de Mexico. Conjeturas de un falso planteamiento.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1991. 89-115, 216-7 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The aim of this article is to show that the planning mechanisms and/or instruments for controlling the expansion of Mexico City have largely failed due to their rigidity and the fact that they are plagued with technicisms, for they are rather inconsistent with proposals for social distribution found in urban policies. To this end, the [authors make] reference to the urban control strategy in the Federal District..., presenting specific evidence on the Chalco-Ixtapaluca zone."
Correspondence: A. G. Aguilar, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Investigadores del Instituto de Geografia, Ciudad Universitaria, Del Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10684 Andorka, Rudolf; Urzua, Raul. The utilization of demographic knowledge in policy formulation and planning. 1991. [vii], 508 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This publication is a product of two seminars organized by the IUSSP's Committee on the Utilization of Demographic Knowledge in Policy Formulation and Planning. It consists of some general papers by the various authors on aspects of this topic concerning developing countries, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and developed countries; and a selection of country case studies concerning South Korea, Malaysia, Brazil, and Peru.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, rue des Augustins 34, B-4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10685 Boye, Abd-el K.; Hill, Kathleen; Isaacs, Stephen; Gordis, Deborah. Marriage law and practice in the Sahel. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 343-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The legal systems of Sahelian African countries combine customary law, Islamic law, French colonial law, and civil law introduced since independence in 1960. Utilizing a framework developed by the...University of Dakar, Senegal, and the...[U.S.] Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University, the Sahel Institute undertook a comprehensive study of the legal and social status of women in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. Since 1960, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Senegal have replaced French family law with national marriage codes. Niger has not yet adopted a family code; the laws on the family inherited from the French remain in force. The postindependence marriage codes have attempted to give young women more say in choosing a husband, to regulate the practice of bride price, and to limit the practice of polygyny. They have done this by integrating customary law and government-passed civil law. Mali, Niger, and Senegal have repealed provisions in their codes prohibiting the distribution of contraception, based on a 1920 French law. Although it has taken no formal legal action, Burkina Faso has adopted family planning policies that effectively nullify the 1920 law."
Correspondence: A. K. Boye, Cheik Anta Diop University, Department of Legal and Economic Sciences, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10686 International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP] (Liege, Belgium). Population policy in Sub-Saharan Africa: drawing on international experience. [Echanges d'experiences internationales en matiere de politique de population en Afrique au Sud du Sahara.] [1991?]. [v], 718 pp. Liege, Belgium. In Eng; Fre.
These are the proceedings of a seminar organized by the IUSSP Committee on Policy and Population and held in Kinshasa, Zaire, from February 27 to March 2, 1989. The 24 papers by various authors, which are in English or French, are organized under the topics of health policy, migration and urbanization policy, fertility policy, family and welfare policy, and contributed papers. The geographical focus is on Sub-Saharan Africa, although papers are included on other countries around the world for comparative purposes.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, rue des Augustins 34, B-4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10687 Moors, Hein; Palomba, Rossella. People, policy and perspectives: a comparative survey on population policy acceptance in Italy and in the Netherlands. Collana Monografie, No. 3, 1991. 210 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Eng.
This volume is the result of a collaborative project between the Italian National Institute for Population Research (IRP) and the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI). The project involved similar surveys on attitudes toward and acceptance of aspects of population policy. Although the study is primarily concerned with Italy and the Netherlands, consideration is also given to Europe as a whole. Chapters concern attitudes toward migration policy, the value of having children, social policies related to the position of women and children, and family policies. The questionnaires used are also included.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10688 Nasman, Elisabeth. Models of population policy--the Swedish case. [Modelle der Bevolkerungspolitik--das Beispiel Schweden.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1991. 159-89 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author describes changes in Swedish family and household formation patterns and the factors affecting these changes, particularly those associated with population policy measures. Consideration is given to fertility rates, consensual unions, divorce, female employment, and male involvement in parenting. An overview of Swedish family policy and its effect on child care, parental leave, and fertility is then offered. The demographic impact of labor shortages as a result of population aging is also discussed.
Correspondence: E. Nasman, Swedish Center for Working Life, Box 56 06, 11 486 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10689 Oberai, A. S. Assessing the demographic impact of development projects: conceptual, methodological and policy issues. ISBN 0-415-06841-X. LC 91-10017. 1992. xiii, 143 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This volume consists of a synthesis of country studies reviewing the demographic impact of development projects carried out in Bangladesh, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. It also includes analysis of the demographic impact of development interventions in several other countries such as Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, India and Nigeria. The study discusses conceptual, methodological and policy issues in assessing the demographic impact of development projects. In particular, it examines why development planners should be interested in assessing demographic effects and whether such effects can be assessed. It also examines whether and to what extent economic and social changes generated by specific development interventions...have influenced demographic behaviour...in a particular context. At the same time it suggests how desired effects can be enhanced and undesired effects minimized by policy-makers and planners in developing countries in order to deal with problems of population growth and its distribution."
Correspondence: Routledge, 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10690 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Integrating development and population planning in Turkey. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/112, 1991. viii, 67 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a report evaluating the extent to which demographic concerns are considered in development planning and policy in Turkey. Separate chapters cover conceptual frameworks underlying policies, sources of knowledge and data needed for planning, planning methodologies, and institutional networks. It is concluded that "the concept of integrated population and development planning has not yet been fully embraced by Turkey's planners. Consequently, population policy formulation has been linked with development planning neither in the comprehensive planning stage nor during programme and project formulation." The need for an institutional framework within which to develop and coordinate a national population plan is stressed.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

58:10691 Aguirre, Alejandro; Fort, Alfredo L. Guidelines for an effective population policy in Peru: realistic population projections for the year 2000. [Lineamientos para una politica efectiva de poblacion en Peru: proyecciones realistas de poblacion para el ano 2000.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 18-19, No. 51-52, Dec-Apr 1990-1991. 63-96 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper shows, based on population projections and the use of the TABRAP [Target Birth Rate Acceptor Program] model, that the goal proposed by the National Population Council of Peru to reduce the total fertility rate to 2.5 in the year 2000 is unattainable. The consistency of different population projections is evaluated in terms of the contraceptive practice required, and the highest and the lowest [limits] for the possible evolution of the Peruvian population until the end of the century are established. Some intermediate alternatives are also analyzed."
Correspondence: A. L. Fort, University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies, Exeter EX4 4QS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10692 Ahlberg, Beth M. Women, sexuality and the changing social order: the impact of government policies on reproductive behavior in Kenya. International Studies in Global Change, Vol. 1, ISBN 2-88124-499-8. LC 91-12553. 1991. xiv, 274 pp. Gordon and Breach: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/Montreux, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author investigates "the impact of government policies and social restrictions on the reproductive behaviour and family life of the women of Kenya, especially the Kikuyu....The book discusses the historical significance of techniques for social and behavioural regulation from the developed world, traditional influences on Kenyan women and the current widespread concern about AIDS prevention." Data were collected in the administrative district of Murang'a.
Correspondence: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, P.O. Box 161, 1820 Montreux 2, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10693 Cheng, Chaoze. Communication techniques in mainland China's planned birth policy. Issues and Studies, Vol. 27, No. 11, Nov 1991. 103-25 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
"This study explores the range of methods used to communicate family planning policies in mainland China in the past four decades. The study reconstructs the evolution of mainland birth control policy since 1949 when the Communist Party took power. It reviews the various interconnected techniques used in communicating the planned birth policies and assesses the extent to which these techniques have affected mainland China's fertility rate. Finally, it suggests what, if any, of the Chinese experience could be adopted and modified for use in family planning programs in other developing countries."
Correspondence: C. Cheng, University of Western Ontario, Program in Social Demography, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

58:10694 Davis, William L. Family planning services: a history of U.S. federal legislation. Journal of Family History, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1991. 381-400 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"U.S. Federal legislation related to family planning services for women has been an ongoing process for several decades. Over the years numerous researchers have written about and speculated on many different Congressional acts germane to family planning. Most of these studies, however, have limited their discussions to a specific piece of legislation, its implications, and/or social consequences. The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive (but relatively brief) history of federal legislation related to family planning services for women of all ages." The period covered is from the nineteenth century to the present.
Correspondence: W. L. Davis, University of Tennessee, Department of Economics, Martin, TN 38328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10695 Donovan, Patricia. Our daughters' decisions: the conflict in state law on abortion and other issues. ISBN 0-939253-23-2. 1992. 35 pp. Alan Guttmacher Institute: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews U.S. state laws concerning adolescents' rights in making decisions about abortion and other issues. "The examination sought to answer questions in three areas: To what extent can a minor, without a parent's consent or knowledge, obtain medical care for pregnancy, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and other sensitive health problems? Can a minor, without the involvement of her parents, make independent decisions in other important areas of her life, such as the decision to drop out of school before the 12th grade, [or] the decision to get married...? Do states treat a minor's decision regarding abortion differently from other decisions?...In this report, we begin with a brief history of how the law has traditionally viewed minors, and a summary of key Supreme Court decisions pertaining to parental involvement for abortion. We then...discuss whether mandatory parental involvement for abortion constitutes good public policy. In the conclusion, we explore some approaches to the parental involvement issue that might promote the best interests of minors who are facing decisions about abortion and other sensitive areas of their lives."
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10696 Gerdzhikova, Tsvetana. Topical problems of social policy with regard to young families. [Aktualni problemi na sotsialnata politika kam mladite semeistva.] Naselenie, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1990. 81-93 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author reviews family planning measures that have been adopted in Bulgaria with the objective of raising the birth rate. The focus is on the effectiveness of such measures.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10697 Johansson, S. Ryan. "Implicit" policy and fertility during development. Population and Development Review, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep 1991. 377-414, 564, 566 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author asserts that the fertility transitions of all Western European countries were affected by government policy. "The experience of England and Wales is explored to show how the government used implicit as well as explicit policies to differentially affect the private decisionmaking patterns of several key subpopulations in such a way as to first support high levels of fertility during development, and subsequently to reduce them."
Correspondence: S. R. Johansson, Stanford University, Humanities Center, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10698 Klinger, Andras. Family policies in Eastern Europe. [Les politiques familiales en Europe de l'Est.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 511-26 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this paper population policies in six of the eight Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, Poland, and Romania) are discussed. The principal aspects of social legislation during the past years are examined: maternity grants, maternity leave, parental leave, family allowances, tax rebates, reductions in the working hours of employed mothers, as well as the provision of different kinds of child-care centres (day nurseries, kindergartens, nursery schools). The objective of all these policies has been to encourage women and couples to have children. [The author concludes that] recent changes in Eastern Europe are unlikely to challenge these general objectives; indeed, they may even be strengthened."
Correspondence: A. Klinger, Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Keleti Karoly U.5-7, 1525 Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10699 Knoppers, Bartha M.; Brault, Isabel; Sloss, Elizabeth. Abortion law in francophone countries. American Journal of Comparative Law, Vol. 38, No. 4, Fall 1990. 889-922 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
This is a review of abortion law in francophone countries around the world. "Undertaken in 1986-88, the objective of this study was to determine whether there was evidence of a similar type of juridical patrimony stemming back to early French legislation, and to see whether a similar trend toward liberalization is reflected in these countries. As a derivative of the substantial study undertaken, this paper attempts to highlight some of the most important issues revealed, briefly illustrate the influence of early French legislation, and to outline the state of the law at present."
Correspondence: B. M. Knoppers, Universite de Montreal, Faculty of Law, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:10700 Monnier, Alain. The effects of family policies in the German Democratic Republic: a re-evaluation. Population. English Selection, Vol. 2, 1990. 127-40 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author examines "the impact which various pro-natalist measures adopted since 1976 in the German Democratic Republic have had on women's birth cohorts....A period analysis of subsequent birth and fertility trends would seem to indicate that this policy was remarkably effective. The annual number of births...started to rise rapidly in 1976 and reached a peak of 245,132 births in 1980, an increase of 37%....Furthermore, comparison with the period fertility trend in the Federal Republic of Germany...shows that the gap between the two Germanys has widened since 1977...whereas the trends had been very similar in the two countries before that date....However...other factors should be taken into account: in particular, the number of marriages has fallen steeply during the last few years, and at the same time the number of births outside marriage has soared. These changes, which were in all probability prompted by the adoption of social legislation which favoured single mothers (or fathers)...must be taken into account when assessing the consequences of the new family policy."
This is a translation of the French article published in 1989 and cited in 55:40651.
Correspondence: A. Monnier, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10701 Narayana, G. Population stabilization: a review of policies and programmes. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 49-57 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper...analyses the concept of population stabilization, looks into population growth in India over a period of time, examines population policies and programmes and comments on future directions." The focus is on policies designed to control the rate of population growth.
Correspondence: G. Narayana, Administrative Staff College, Social Service Studies Division, Bella Vista, Hyderabad 500 049, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10702 Wang, Jianguo. A soft population control policy: a possible solution to China's population crisis. Papers of the Center for Modern China, No. 15, Jan 1992. 25, [6] pp. Center for Modern China [CMC]: Somerset, New Jersey. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"The author analyzes China's population crisis and assesses the advantages and disadvantages of the current 'one child per family' policy. Based on this analysis and assessment, the author presents a new set of population control policies, characterized as a 'soft' approach in that, instead of relying on administrative orders to curtail excess births, these policies use social and especially economic incentives and dis-incentives to motivate couples to reduce family size."
Correspondence: Center for Modern China, P.O. Box 7281, Somerset, NJ 08875-7281. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10703 Zhou, Jianle. Evolution of population policy and fertility transition in Jiangsu province, China. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 721-46 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author examines the effect of China's population policy on trends in fertility, marriage, and contraceptive prevalence, with a focus on Jiangsu province. Topics covered include marriage age, family planning programs, and age at first birth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

58:10704 Body-Gendrot, Sophie; d'Hellencourt, Bernard; Rancoule, Michel. No entry: legislation concerning immigration in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. [Entree interdite: la legislation sur l'immigration en France, au Royaume-Uni et aux Etats-Unis.] Revue Francaise de Science Politique, Vol. 39, No. 1, Feb 1989. 50-74 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Recent developments in the legislation on immigration and nationality in France (1980-1986), in Britain (1981 and 1988) and in the United States (1986) are set in historical perspective in order to throw light on the legislators' choices in these three countries. The analysis shows common points in the definition of the problems to be dealt with and in the nature of solutions envisaged in a context of economic crisis: 'closing' the borders or specifying 'acceptable' types of immigrants and redefining the means for their integration. Some important distinctions are however highlighted, which can largely be explained by the different histories, particularly colonial, of the three countries studied."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:10705 Borrie, W. D. Immigration to New Zealand, 1854-1938. ISBN 0-7315-1305-3. 1991. 198 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. Distributed by Bibliotech, ANUTECH Pty, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. In Eng.
This is a review and analysis of migration policy formation and implementation in New Zealand from 1854 to 1938. Separate consideration is given to the impact of immigration during the provincial era, including the Maori wars of resistance to settlement; immigration and public works projects; the movement of European minorities into group settlements; changes in industry and agriculture; and the effects of economic depression, war, decreases in migration flows, and the formation of the modern state of New Zealand. Aspects of migration policy covered include the assessment and selection of migrants permitted to enter, the individuals who shaped migration policies, labor force needs, and socioeconomic factors. Appendixes present data on migrant characteristics and changes in population size and distribution.
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10706 Diaz-Briquets, Sergio; Weintraub, Sidney. The effects of receiving country policies on migration flows. Series on Development and International Migration in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Basin, Vol. 6, ISBN 0-8133-8342-0. LC 91-8644. 1991. xv, 303 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is one in a series presenting essays by various authors on the relationship between development and international migration. The 10 essays in this volume focus on the impact on migration flows of policy decisions made by receiving countries. The primary focus is on U.S. policy, although two papers are concerned with Europe. Works are included on how U.S. development assistance affects migration, labor migration from Mexico, and illegal migration; and on how economic and labor policies in receiving countries can have lasting and unforeseen consequences for migration.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10707 Iacovetta, Franca. Ordering in bulk: Canada's postwar immigration policy and the recruitment of contract workers from Italy. Journal of American Ethnic History, Vol. 11, No. 1, Fall 1991. 51-80 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This essay examines the recruitment and experiences of Italian immigrants selected by the Canadian government to fill jobs as farm laborers, railway workers, miners, and a small number of female domestics. An examination of the so-called 'bulk orders' reveals how labor priorities heavily influenced Canada's approach to Italian immigrants; how nativist biases against southern Italians prompted officials to attempt to keep the number of southerners to a minimum, and how the immigrants themselves found ways to manipulate the system for their own purposes." The period covered is that following World War II.
Correspondence: F. Iacovetta, University of Toronto, Scarborough Campus, Ontario M1C 1A4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:10708 Ronfeldt, David; Ortiz de Oppermann, Monica. Mexican immigration, U.S. investment, and U.S.-Mexican relations. Urban Institute Report, No. 91-4, Pub. Order No. RAND/JRI-08. ISBN 0-87766-528-1. LC 90-23007. Nov 1990. xvii, 70 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California; Urban Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents an analysis of the potential effects of the U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 on U.S.-Mexican relations. It is intended for a broad audience with an interest in immigration and immigrant issues, including public policymakers, the business community, state and local officials, and academic researchers." The focus of the study is on differing opinions in the two countries regarding the relative merits of Mexican immigration to the United States and of U.S. investment in Mexico.
Correspondence: RAND Corporation, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1992-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.