Volume 58 - Number 1 - Spring 1992

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

58:10586 Blanchet, Didier. Population growth and income growth during the demographic transition: does a Malthusian model help explain their relationship? Population. English Selection, Vol. 2, 1990. 37-52 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"In this paper, we re-examine the links that may exist between the growth of income per head (agricultural or total) and the growth of population during the demographic transition. Two opposed approaches to this question are frequently used. The first has its roots in Malthusian thought....The other approach is more optimistic. It considers that one of the main errors in the Malthusian model is to treat technological factors as exogenous....We shall discuss, more by way of illustration than formally, the relationship between economic and demographic progress in the Malthusian system when it is started off by some exogenous technical progress. We shall add a short review of some empirical results, [and]....conclude with a short comparison with the neo-Boserupian model and by presenting some implications of our analysis concerning the desirability of population policies."
This is a translation of the French article published in 1989 and cited in 56:10690.
Correspondence: D. Blanchet, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10587 Blomenkamp, Andreas. Population and technical progress. [Bevolkerung und technischer Fortschritt.] Volkswirtschaftliche Schriftenreihe, Vol. 2, ISBN 3-88660-523-X. LC 90-186648. 1989. vii, 251 pp. Lit: Munster, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The relationships between population trends and technological progress are analyzed. In the first sections, the concepts of technological progress and technology are discussed, and a framework for analysis is presented. The relationships among population growth, population pressure, and economic change are then reviewed using historical European examples, and some models of population and technological progress are outlined. The final sections examine the impact of population size, growth, density, and structure on technological progress.
Correspondence: Lit Verlag, Dieckstrasse 56, 4400 Munster, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10588 Daly, Herman E. Sustainable development: from concept and theory to operational principles. In: Resources, environment, and population: present knowledge, future options, edited by Kingsley Davis and Mikhail S. Bernstam. 1991. 25-43 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The major conceptual issue we must resolve in thinking about economic development and the environment over the next decade is to integrate the one-way throughput as the basic starting point of economic analysis, even more fundamental than the circular flow. Next we must distinguish clearly the problem of the optimal allocation of the throughput from that of its optimal scale....(1) The main principle is to limit the human scale to a level which, if not optimal, is at least within carrying capacity and therefore sustainable....(2) Technological progress for sustainable development should be efficiency-increasing rather than throughput-increasing....(3) Renewable resources...should be exploited on a profit-maximizing sustained-yield basis and in general not be driven to extinction, since they will become ever more important as nonrenewable resources run out....[and] (4) Nonrenewable resources should be exploited at a rate equal to the creation of renewable substitutes." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: H. E. Daly, World Bank, Environment Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10589 Keyfitz, Nathan. Toward a theory of population-development interaction. In: Resources, environment, and population: present knowledge, future options, edited by Kingsley Davis and Mikhail S. Bernstam. 1991. 295-332 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article juxtaposes the divergent viewpoints of scholars on population and development, in the hope of contributing to a synthesis of what the several disciplines have to say about the effects of population increase....I classify the reasons for population control under four heads, and find each one subject to its own special considerations. In four words they are resources, capital, employment, and Earth, and they constitute the four main sections of this essay." The geographical scope is worldwide. Comments are included by Ronald D. Lee (pp. 315-22), Virginia Abernethy (pp. 323-8), and David and Marcia Pimentel (pp. 329-32).
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Population Program, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10590 Lovins, Amory B. Energy, people, and industrialization. In: Resources, environment, and population: present knowledge, future options, edited by Kingsley Davis and Mikhail S. Bernstam. 1991. 95-124 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the extent to which energy constraints will limit future industrial expansion and, as a consequence, future global population growth. The study "first explains why energy need not limit traditional industrial expansion (at least not until very far beyond most other limits) and then explores why goals other than indiscriminate growth are worthier." The focus is on the need to rethink the fundamentals of industrialization, development, and economic growth.
Correspondence: A. B. Lovins, Rocky Mountain Institute, Old Snowmass, CO 81654. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

58:10591 Almeida, Renan M. V. R.; Thamer, Mae; Attinger, Ernst O. Characterisation of health and social development. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1992. 1-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The relative performance of less developed countries in their health, demographic and economic sectors was assessed by means of comparative indices constructed with the help of a factor analysis....Data [for 1960, 1970, and 1980] were obtained from the World Health Organization, the World Bank and United Nations Research Institute for Social Development....To compare the differences between developed and less-developed countries, the sample was divided, in each year, into these two groups."
Correspondence: R. M. V. R. Almeida, University of Virginia, Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA 22903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10592 Bravo, Jorge H. Changes in employment, retirement age, and fertility: their effects on economic dependency and per capita income. [Cambios en el empleo, la edad de jubilacion y la fecundidad: sus repercusiones sobre la dependencia economica y el ingreso per capita.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 18-19, No. 51-52, Dec-Apr 1990-1991. 97-120 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of changes in employment status, retirement age, and fertility on economic dependency and per capita income is analyzed and compared for six Latin American countries. "In general, the magnitude of the first two, and both the size and direction of the third of these effects depend on the population and the labor force age distribution....The analysis suggests that most of the countries of the Latin American region have not reached to date the stage where small reductions in fertility would be clearly detrimental to dependency and per capita income, although there are important differences among them in the degree to which small reductions would be beneficial."
Correspondence: J. H. Bravo, U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10593 Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable [CEPAR] (Quito, Ecuador). Socioeconomic factors and the demographic process. [Aspectos socioeconomicos en el proceso demografico.] Aug 1990. 33 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
This report begins by summarizing some basic theories concerning the relationship between population factors and economic growth. It then looks at global economic and social development trends. Next, social and economic growth in Ecuador are examined, with some consideration given to demographic factors. Prospects for both the country's population growth and socioeconomic development up to the year 2000 are also included.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable, Montes 423 e Hidalgo, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10594 Chang, Kyung-Sup. Economic development with limited supplies of family labor: Chinese peasant families in balancing demographic and economic requisites. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jul 1991. 47-76 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"In examining the Chinese experience of rural reform, this paper places its theoretical focus on the complex relationship between population change and economic development as...shaped by various economic functions of the peasant family. It is theoretically argued and empirically shown here that the family-reliant strategy of economic reform has fundamentally undercut the effectiveness of the population control programs and has ramified such unintended consequences as the reconstruction of 'families of old designs' and the inverted proletarianization of small peasant families."
Correspondence: K.-S. Chang, Seoul National University, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10595 Chesnais, Jean-Claude; Wang, Shuxin. Population ageing, retirement policy and living conditions of the elderly in China. Population. English Selection, Vol. 2, 1990. 3-27 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The authors discuss economic and social aspects of the predicted rapid aging of China's population. They conclude that "its economic impact will depend on the outcome of the birth control campaign in rural areas...and on the pace of transition towards the nuclear family. In view of the very primitive nature of the retirement and health insurance systems, a rapid breakdown of family structures would constitute a major threat to the welfare of the elderly. Excepting certain middle- or upper-class pensioners in large cities, the standard of living of the elderly population remains very low and, due to the co-residence of generations, it is closely linked to trends in average income."
This is a translation of the French article published in 1989 and cited in 56:20553.
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10596 Cuellar, Oscar; Henriquez, Guillermo. Population and development. [Poblacion y desarrollo.] Revista IDIS, No. 20, Dec 1988. 141 pp. Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Desarrollo: Cuenca, Ecuador. In Spa.
This special issue contains six papers on aspects of the relationship between population and development in Ecuador. Topics covered include the reproduction of the labor force; economic structure and population in Azuay, 1950-1982; labor force trends in Canton Paute, 1962-1982; and education in Canton Paute, 1962-1982.
If requesting this document from CELADE, specify DOCPAL No. 14508.00.
Correspondence: Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, Casilla 1566, Cuenca, Ecuador. Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile. Source: DOCPAL Resumenes sobre Poblacion en America Latina 14(1).

58:10597 de Bremaeker, Francois E. J. Economic performance and urbanization in the countries of Latin America. [O desempenho economico e a urbanizacao dos paises latino-americanos.] IBAMCO Serie Estudos Internacionais, No. 4, 1990. 25 pp. Instituto Brasileiro de Administracao Municipal, Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas Urbanas, Banco de Dados Municipais: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
The relationship between urbanization and economic development in Latin America is analyzed using data from published sources, with a focus on the 1980s. The considerable burden caused by the rapid growth of poverty in urban areas is noted.
Correspondence: Instituto Brasileiro de Administracao Municipal, Largo IBAM No. 1, Humaita, 22282 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10598 Diaz-Briquets, Sergio; Weintraub, Sidney. Migration, remittances, and small business development: Mexico and Caribbean Basin countries. Series on Development and International Migration in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Basin, Vol. 4, ISBN 0-8133-8340-4. LC 91-8691. 1991. xv, 209 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is one in a series presenting essays by various authors on the relationship between development and international migration. The focus of this volume is on the growth of small businesses in the Caribbean and Central America. It "offers an analysis of the employment and income potential of the small business sector in a number of migrant-sending countries. Contributing authors evaluate programs that support the sector and give recommendations for improving their effectiveness. Several seek to explain why most countries in the region have not made the most of remittance income to create employment. Finally, others examine the imperfectly understood linkages between remittances and small businesses."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10599 Osheba, Ibrahim K. Development and demographic changes in Egypt and Tunisia. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 321-42 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author investigates the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of demographic changes in Egypt and Tunisia during the period 1960-1980. The impact of political changes, including fertility limitation policies, on both socioeconomic and demographic development is also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10600 Palloni, Alberto; Tienda, Marta. Demographic responses to economic recessions in Latin America since 1900. CDE Working Paper, No. 91-14, [1991]. 34, [10] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper explores the linkages between economic cycles and demographic processes in Latin America since 1900. We identify the mechanisms through which economic conditions impact demographic outcomes and assess the demographic and socioeconomic consequences of the recession of the 1980s. Selected historical evidence is reviewed illustrating the effects of economic cycles in Western Europe and...hypotheses are derived to interpret empirical evidence about the effects of the 1929 and 1980 depressions in selected Latin American countries. Results show that the demographic consequences of the Great Depression were nontrivial. The analyses of demographic and socioeconomic responses of the post-1980 recession, however, reveal only weak linkages for some outcomes. We argue that the weak relationships may mask important transformations currently underway, and conclude with a discussion of the implications for future research."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented by A. Palloni at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10601 Reher, David-Sven. Population and the economy in eighteenth-century Mexico: an analysis of annual fluctuations. [Population et economie dans le Mexique du XVIIIe siecle: une analyse des fluctuations annuelles.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1991. 1,185-205 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Based on annual series of vital statistics and series of corn prices during the eighteenth century in the central part of Mexico, the present paper systematically analyzes the relation between short-term demographic and economic fluctuations. This study makes use of five year distributed lag models which enable us to see the directionality, intensity and temporal structure of the relations between population and economy. Wherever possible, the data have been controlled for social-ethnic group. The strong influence of prices on fertility and on mortality, as well as the clear social differentiation of many of the observed responses, are among the most salient results of this study."
Correspondence: D.-S. Reher, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10602 Shumaker, Linda D.; Clark, Robert L. Population dependency rates and savings rates: stability of estimates. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 40, No. 2, Jan 1992. 319-32 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This study examines the link between savings and dependency rates by exploring the stability of dependency effects over time, holding the sample of countries constant. Specifically, savings rate equations are estimated for the years 1975, 1980, and 1985. We also examine regional differences in the effects of dependency ratios on the national savings rate. Separate equations are estimated for each year for developing countries in Africa, Latin America, and Asia." Data are from published U.N. and World Bank sources.
Correspondence: L. D. Shumaker, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

58:10603 Universidad de la Habana. Centro de Estudios Demograficos [CEDEM] (Havana, Cuba). Cuba: the relationship between economic development and population. [Cuba: interrelacion entre desarrollo economico y poblacion.] 1988. 475, [18] pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
This two-volume collection, which presents the results of work by various authors on the relationship between economic development and population factors in Cuba, was prepared for the Fifth Scientific Conference in the Social Sciences at Havana University. The first chapter looks at population and development in Cuba in general. The following chapters deal with fertility, demographic aging, internal migration, and the labor supply. Together, they make up a Marxist analysis of socioeconomic development in Cuba, was in recent decades.
Correspondence: Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demograficos, Avenida 41, Numero 2003 entre 20 y 22, Playa, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

58:10604 Boadway, Robin; Marchand, Maurice; Pestieau, Pierre. Pay-as-you-go social security in a changing environment. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1991. 257-80 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine the optimal pay-as-you-go social security scheme which reallocates resources across generations in a changing environment, that is, with fluctuations in population growth rates and in productivity levels. We use an overlapping generations model along with a social welfare function consisting of the sum of generational utilities either unweighted or weighted by population size and a discount factor. We show how intergenerational resource sharing can be used to improve social welfare even though the extent of intergenerational redistribution is hampered by payroll tax deadweight losses...." The authors also consider the effects of an economy's openness on resource sharing. The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: P. Pestieau, University of Liege, Department of Economics, 7 Boulevard du Rectorat, B-4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10605 Del Colle, Enrico. Service activities and demographic trends in some regions of the Mezzogiorno. [Attivita terziarie ed evoluzione demografica in alcune regioni del Mezzogiorno.] Rassegna Economica, Vol. 15, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1991. 361-85 pp. Naples, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the 1981 census of Italy are used to analyze the relationship between population growth and the growth of the tertiary, or service, sector of the economy in parts of southern Italy.
Correspondence: E. Del Colle, Universita degli Studi, G. D'Annunzio, Via dei Vestini, 66013 Chieti Scalo, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:10606 Dooghe, G. Age structure of the population in Belgium and social security. Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1991. 1-11 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The effects of demographic aging and of various socioeconomic factors on the social security system in Belgium are explored. "Special attention is given to the impact of the ageing of the population on the pension problem. Based on a simple formula a series of percentages of taxation have been calculated as a function of shifts in the proportion of retired vs. active population and in the proportion of the average income vs. the average amount of pension. One of the conclusions is that the progressive ageing of the population will become the most significant factor in the growth of social expenditures."
Correspondence: G. Dooghe, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Markiesstraat 1, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10607 Ljones, Olav; Aamdal, Kyrre. Demographic changes and local public expenditure in a macroeconomic perspective. Some Norwegian examples. Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1991. 45-55 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The impact of demographic aging and changes in the age structure on local government expenditures for social services in Norway is analyzed and projected. "To model the production of the local government sector, we have developed a macro model which reflects the coverage of different services according to demographic characteristics and standards defined as man-hours per client....The results of a simulation show that demographic changes are of minor importance for local government expenditures in most sectors when compared to changes in standard and coverage rates....Results [also] indicate that a shift in standards and coverages in different client sectors would have rather important effects on the Norwegian economy."
Correspondence: O. Ljones, Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 8131 Dep., N-0033 Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10608 Manton, Kenneth G. The dynamics of population aging: demography and policy analysis. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 69, No. 2, 1991. 309-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article I will review some critical aspects of the impact of the growth of the elderly population in the United States, examine the accuracy of the initial characterization of the problem, and speculate on the future course of population aging and the need for innovative health care strategies."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10609 Murphy, Brian B.; Wolfson, Michael C. When the baby boom grows old: impacts on Canada's public sector. Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1991. 25-43 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors discuss the dependency burden that is expected to result from demographic aging in Canada. "The estimated size of the burden depends on projections of demographic change, economic growth, and structural aspects of the major age-sensitive public-sector programmes. The burdens are analysed for 2016 and 2036, the period when demographic aging may be expected to have its most adverse impacts on old-age dependency ratios and public-sector programme costs. Contrary to many popularly expressed concerns, demographic aging is not the most important factor in determining future public-sector costs and revenues. Rather, aspects of the design and management of public-sector programmes represent the greatest area of uncertainty."
Correspondence: B. B. Murphy, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch, R. H. Coats Building, 24th Floor, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10610 Paganetto, Luigi; Quintieri, Beniamino; Rosati, Furio C. Some macroeconomic effects of demographic trends in Italy. [Effetti macroeconomici delle trasformazioni demografiche.] Revista di Politica Economica, Vol. 80, No. 10, Oct 1990. 159-85 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
The macroeconomic effects of demographic aging in Italy are predicted. The analysis is based on a model of the life cycle which determines endogenously both consumption and labor demand. Demographic projections up to 2038 are first reviewed, focusing on changes in the age distribution. Relationships among savings, interest rates, and the age structure of the population are then analyzed.
Correspondence: L. Paganetto, Universita degli Studi di Roma, Tor Vergata, via Orazio Raimondo, 00173 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:10611 Steinmann, Gunter. Population trends in the Federal Republic of Germany and their effects on the economy and society. [Die Bevolkerungsentwicklung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und ihre Auswirkungen auf Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft.] Osterreichische Zeitschrift fur Statistik und Informatik, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1988. 306-26 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger.
Demographic trends in West Germany up to the mid-1980s are reviewed, with reference to fertility, mortality, international migration, population size, and age structure. Population projections to 2035 are also presented. The economic effects of these trends are then assessed. Emphasis is on the impact of a shrinking and aging population on factors such as labor supply, productivity, and income distribution.
Correspondence: G. Steinmann, Universitat-Gesamthochschule Paderborn, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Postfach 1621, D-4790 Paderborn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10612 Walker, Alan. The economic "burden" of ageing and the prospect of intergenerational conflict. Ageing and Society, Vol. 10, No. 4, Dec 1990. 377-96 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author argues that the growing concern of policymakers, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom, over the implications of demographic aging have been exaggerated by an ideological dislike of public expenditure on pensions and health care in general. He suggests that this approach, which may also exacerbate intergenerational conflicts, is deficient as a basis for the development of social policy.
Correspondence: A. Walker, University of Sheffield, Department of Social Policy, Sheffield S10 2TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

58:10613 Ananta, Aris. The impact of demographic variables on the quality of the environment. [Dampak variabel demografi pada masalah lingkungan.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 17, No. 33, Jun 1990. 1-16 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper discusses the impact of changes in the [size] of population on [the] natural environment. The discussion includes a quantitative model on the mechanism of the demographic impact on population pressure. The paper concludes that population growth is not the main 'villain' of the deterioration of natural environment. Rather, high population growth will worsen the already bad condition of [the] natural environment. Therefore, efforts in reducing population rate will...[curb environmental] problems...." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: A. Ananta, Universitas Indonesia, Fakultas Ekonomi, Lembaga Demografi, POB 295, J1. Salemba Raya 4, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10614 Andelson, Robert V. Commons without tragedy: protecting the environment from overpopulation--a new approach. ISBN 0-85683-126-3. 1991. ix, 198 pp. Shepheard-Walwyn: London, England; Barnes and Noble Books: Savage, Maryland. In Eng.
This book contains seven papers by British and U.S. authors on problems resulting from demographic pressure on the world's natural environment. "While not denying the role birth control may have to play, the authors of this volume question whether the problem is really one of overpopulation. They suggest that the present environment and population crises have a common cause in the inequitable access to natural resources. Thus large numbers of people are forced off land, which would support them adequately and without threat to the long-term viability of the planet, onto inferior land, such as the Amazon forest, where their efforts to feed themselves produce meagre results and have serious ecological consequences on a global scale."
Correspondence: Shepheard-Walwyn, 26 Charing Cross Road, Suite 34, London WC2H 0DH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10615 Bernstam, Mikhail S. The wealth of nations and the environment. In: Resources, environment, and population: present knowledge, future options, edited by Kingsley Davis and Mikhail S. Bernstam. 1991. 333-73 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article will venture to show how, and explain why, the long-term relationship between economic growth and pollution may be concave and decreasing. Simply put, as economies grow, discharges to the environment increase rapidly, then decelerate, and eventually decline. I will also analyze why this relationship is effective for market economies while the trend in socialist economies is monotonically concave and ever-increasing; it may be backward-bending at the end. The first section surveys the evidence across nations with different economic systems. The second section discusses the distinct forces of resource throughput....The third section shows that the resulting trend in resource use and pollution ultimately depends on economic systems....The fourth section puts this divergence in the context of global economic development....I provide rough estimates of future environmental conditions according to different scenarios of the global choice of economic system."
Correspondence: M. S. Bernstam, Stanford University, Hoover Institution Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10616 Bilsborrow, Richard E.; DeLargy, Pamela F. Land use, migration, and natural resource deterioration: the experience of Guatemala and the Sudan. In: Resources, environment, and population: present knowledge, future options, edited by Kingsley Davis and Mikhail S. Bernstam. 1991. 125-47 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Many environmental problems, including elimination of tropical forests, desertification, and reductions in biodiversity, are most clearly evident in the Third World. While rapid population growth is often considered an important factor in this environmental degradation, solid empirical evidence on its role is almost nonexistent. Understanding the effects of population on the environment requires careful consideration of the full range of factors responsible for environmental deterioration and of how they interact with demographic factors. The nature of this relationship is heavily determined by land use patterns and agricultural policies adopted by governments. This essay describes some of the relationships between population growth, migration, and natural resources with reference to agricultural practices in two very different less developed countries, Guatemala and the Sudan."
Correspondence: R. E. Bilsborrow, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, Department of Biostatistics, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10617 Brown, Lester R.; Brough, Holly; Durning, Alan; Flavin, Christopher; French, Hilary; Jacobson, Jodi; Lenssen, Nicholas; Lowe, Marcia; Postel, Sandra; Renner, Michael; Ryan, John; Starke, Linda; Young, John. State of the world, 1992: a Worldwatch Institute report on progress toward a sustainable society. ISBN 0-393-03082-2. 1992. xv, 256 pp. W. W. Norton: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is the latest in a series of reports on the state of the world, particularly global environmental conditions. It contains 11 chapters by various authors on topics related to solving current problems of pollution, resource depletion, energy supplies, inequality, and population growth. One chapter, by Jodi L. Jacobson, is concerned with improving women's reproductive health.
Correspondence: W. W. Norton, 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10618 Davis, Kingsley. Population and resources: fact and interpretation. In: Resources, environment, and population: present knowledge, future options, edited by Kingsley Davis and Mikhail S. Bernstam. 1991. 1-21 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author assesses the difficulties encountered by researchers attempting to study the relationships between population and natural resources, since one is a natural science and the other a social science. "I shall briefly examine four concepts that have been used in the field of population and resources. These are the search for scientific 'laws' linking population and resources, the idea of 'carrying capacity,' the related notion of 'limits to growth,' and the concept of the 'demographic transition'....My perspective is that of a demographer." He concludes that "simple or mechanical formulas do not exist for understanding the relation between population and resources....[there is] no comforting reassurance that a balance between population and resources can be trusted to come about through spontaneous convergence to a stabilized global population enjoying a high level of material affluence."
Correspondence: K. Davis, Stanford University, Hoover Institution, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10619 Davis, Kingsley; Bernstam, Mikhail S. Resources, environment, and population: present knowledge, future options. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, Suppl., ISBN 0-19-507049-6. LC 91-3939. 1991. xii, 423 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
This volume is based on an interdisciplinary conference held in California at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University, on February 1-3, 1989. In it, social and natural scientists explore the complex interrelationships among population trends, resource availability and use, and environmental impacts. Sections are included on future trends, resources and development, pollution, deforestation and its consequences, and possible limitations to population growth. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10620 Falkenmark, Malin. Rapid population growth and water scarcity: the predicament of tomorrow's Africa. In: Resources, environment, and population: present knowledge, future options, edited by Kingsley Davis and Mikhail S. Bernstam. 1991. 81-94 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the degree to which the level of population is resource-determined, using Africa as an illustration. "The poorest of the world continents in terms of annual freshwater renewal is Africa....Accelerating water scarcity [there] may well influence the time to population stabilization--for example, by significantly influencing birth rates, death rates, migration patterns, or all of these variables....Awareness of the implications of water scarcity is greatly needed both among planners and political leaders in the arid and semi-arid developing countries and among donors and international organizations....Problems due to water scarcity--whether in the soil or in terrestrial water systems--need to be addressed in a more integrated manner, taking account of the long run."
Correspondence: M. Falkenmark, Swedish Natural Science Research Council, Box 6711, S-113 85 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10621 Fang, Shan. Grain production and population growth in mainland China. Issues and Studies, Vol. 27, No. 9, Sep 1991. 94-106 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
Prospects for improving the balance between grain production and population growth in mainland China are assessed. The author notes that the official target is to raise annual grain production to 450 million tons a year over the period 1991-1995 and to 500 million tons by the year 2000. In practice, primitive agricultural technology, lack of economic incentives, and insufficient agricultural investment are adversely affecting grain production. As a baby boom is almost inevitable during the period 1991-1995, the author estimates that at least 520 million tons of grain per year will be needed by the year 2000 to maintain the per capita grain intake at the level of the late 1980s.
Correspondence: S. Fang, Institute of International Relations, 64 Wan Shou Road, Mucha, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

58:10622 Fargues, Philippe. Subsistence crop deficit and family structure in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population. English Selection, Vol. 2, 1990. 53-68 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author seeks to provide demographic explanations for the current food crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa. "In the present paper, we will consider the possibility that one of these [explanations] may lie in the way African families are structured, particularly in countries that are still in the first stage of the demographic transition. More specifically, we will examine the following two assumptions: the effects which the rural-urban migration...has on food production may be amplified by the way family labour is divided between the sexes and the different age groups; [and] lower mortality increases the size of the kin group, while rural-urban migration decreases the proportion of family members engaged in agricultural production, thus perturbing the distribution and consumption of subsistence foods."
This is a translation of the French article published in 1989 and cited in 56:10609.
Correspondence: P. Fargues, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10623 Hinrichsen, Don. The need to balance population with resources: four case studies. Populi, Vol. 18, No. 3, Sep 1991. 27-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Four case studies are presented on the capacity of developing countries to continue to support rapidly growing populations. They concern Pakistan, the Philippines, Kenya, and Mexico. The author concludes that "rapid population growth and uneven distribution, urbanization and loss of vital resources make their struggle for development an overwhelming task."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10624 Kasturi, Kamu. The impact of population on environmental conservation. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 65-9 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines rural and urban population growth and their effect on the ecosystem in India. Separate consideration is paid to water and air pollution, industrially caused degradation of ecosystems, and population pressure and carrying capacity in rural areas.
Correspondence: K. Kasturi, World Wide Fund for Nature, Lodi Estate, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10625 Keyfitz, Nathan. Population and development within the ecosphere: one view of the literature. Population Index, Vol. 57, No. 1, Spring 1991. 5-22 pp. Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"Contemporary academic economists, unlike those of the nineteenth century, find that although population growth and density can have bad effects on development, these will only be severe with wrong economic policies. Technical advance and substitution in free markets avoid major difficulties, for example shortage of materials. But ecologists see the poor cutting trees for firewood, the rich pouring carbon in to the atmosphere, and doubt the capacity of the environment to absorb the effects of dense and growing populations and their present technologies. On both sides are distinguished scholars, whose writings cannot here be covered exhaustively, but only enough said for background to the question posed to demographers: Should this central population issue not be on our research agendas?"
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10626 Misra, B. D. Population, eco-system and the environment: an Indian scenario. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 59-64 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The impact of demographic factors on the environment in India is analyzed. The author describes problems concerning carrying capacity, agricultural productivity, and development planning as they relate to overpopulation. Some suggestions for further research in this area are made.
Correspondence: B. D. Misra, Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Kanpur 208 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10627 Myers, Norman. The world's forests and human populations: the environmental interconnections. In: Resources, environment, and population: present knowledge, future options, edited by Kingsley Davis and Mikhail S. Bernstam. 1991. 237-58 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article has several aims. First, it seeks to describe, analyze, and appraise the multiple ways in which population growth often proves a major factor in deforestation of the tropics--especially at a time of unprecedented economic activity and material demands. Second, the article reviews and evaluates the diverse consequences of deforestation for human welfare. Finally, it describes a major proposal for reforestation that could be undertaken to offset the negative climatic and other consequences of environmental destruction." Comments are included by Eugene Zavarin (pp. 252-3) and Jing-Neng Li (pp. 254-8).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10628 Pearce, David. Population, poverty, and the environment. [Poblacion, pobreza y medio ambiente.] Pensamiento Iberoamericano, No. 18, Jul-Dec 1990. 223-58 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This article examines the relationships among population growth, the deterioration of the environment, and poverty in the developing world. While the author concludes that population growth is indeed the cause of unsustainable pressures on renewable resources and to a lesser extent on nonrenewable ones, and that poverty severely limits the capacity to achieve economic development, he states that it is necessary to understand more about how these factors directly affect one another.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:10629 Raven, Peter H. Winners and losers in the twentieth-century struggle to survive. In: Resources, environment, and population: present knowledge, future options, edited by Kingsley Davis and Mikhail S. Bernstam. 1991. 259-67 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The massive loss of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that is taking place during our lifetime will seriously limit the ability of our descendants to construct stable and productive ecosystems and to provide for themselves in sound and substainable ways....With the human population projected not to stabilize until it reaches a level of 10-14 billion during the twenty-first century...it is clear that new modes of using the Earth's productivity on a sustainable basis must be developed rapidly." The author goes on to discuss deforestation levels and the extinction rates of species worldwide, with a focus on tropical regions.
Correspondence: P. H. Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10630 Strong, Maurice F. The challenge before the Earth Summit. Populi, Vol. 18, No. 3, Sep 1991. 4-15 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the issues that will be considered at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Population and Development. The focus is on the difficulties involved in striking a balance between environmental considerations and development priorities. He notes that rapid population growth in third-world countries has begun to make permanent changes in the environment and that these changes will reach critical levels in the 1990s.
Correspondence: M. F. Strong, United Nations, Conference on Environment and Development, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10631 Varshney, C. K. Population and environment: a growing challenge. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 71-8 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
India's population size and density and their effect on the environment are discussed. The focus is on how overpopulation and the poverty that occurs with it cause the destruction of natural resources, including water pollution, deforestation, and soil erosion. The need for more comprehensive and effective development policies is noted.
Correspondence: C. K. Varshney, Jawaharlal Nehru University, School of Environmental Sciences, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

58:10632 Abdalla, Ahmed A. M. M. Women's work and intermediate fertility variables in Egypt and Ghana. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 157-76 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The main objective of the present study is to examine the relationship between women's work and three intermediate variables, namely, age at first marriage, contraceptive use and breastfeeding in Egypt and Ghana." Data are from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey and the Ghana Fertility Survey of 1979-1980.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10633 Beaie, Sonkarley-Teahtune. Structural changes of labour force: Liberia (1962-1984). In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 507-44 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author describes "the levels, trends and patterns of the labour force [in Liberia] with respect to industrial and occupational structure as well as status of individuals among these groups and the interrelationships between them in the entire country along with its rural and urban [areas]." Data are from the 1962, 1974, and 1984 censuses.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10634 Botev, Nikolai. Economic activity of the Bulgarian population in the last two decades. [Ikonomicheskata aktivnost na naselenieto v Balgariya prez poslednite dve desetiletiya.] Naselenie, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1990. 28-44 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Some methodological problems in analyzing economic activity in Bulgaria are first introduced. The author then outlines trends in economic activity over the last 20 years. Particular attention is given to the employment of women and its impact on fertility. Reasons for changes in men's economic activity are also discussed, including premature male mortality.
Correspondence: M. Botev, Karl Marx Higher Institute of Economics, Laboratoriya ps Demografski Izsledvaniya, Studentski grad Hristo Botev, 1156 Sofia, Bulgaria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10635 Connelly, Rachel. Self-employment and providing child care. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 1, Feb 1992. 17-29 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper considers self-employment and providing child care as occupational strategies that can lower the cost of child care....The results show that the presence of young children is an important factor in choosing self-employment and in choosing to be a child care provider. Finally, simulations are presented which show that a woman's choice among these sectors is quite sensitive to the number and ages of her young children." Data are from the 1984 U.S. Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation.
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. Connelly, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10636 Costa, Leticia B. The Sao Paulo labor force: a critical analysis of data sources. [A forca de trabalho paulista: analise critica das fontes.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1990. 125-61 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The author traces the recent evolution of the labor force in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. After a comparison of the two main sources of labor statistics, the decennial census and the annual survey entitled Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios, her findings are presented separately by sex for the period 1971-1988. An increase in the number of women who are heads of households is shown across most age groups and all types of union. Data are also included by sex on educational status, unemployment, residence characteristics, and hours of work.
Correspondence: L. B. Costa, Fundacao Sistema Estadual de Analise de Dados, Avenida Casper Libero 464, Caixa Postal 8223, 01033 SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10637 El-Yazidi, El-Hassan. Analysis of underemployment in urban Morocco: 1984. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 425-52 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"An attempt will be made in this paper to study the extent of underemployment in urban areas [of Morocco] in 1984. This includes the analysis of demographic as well as regional and economic features of underemployment....[and] an examination of...the future state of underemployment in urban Morocco."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10638 Garcia, Brigida; de Oliveira, Orlandina. Work and family in sociodemographic research in Mexico. [Trabajo y familia en la investigacion sociodemografica de Mexico.] Temas de Poblacion, Vol. 1, No. 2, Jun 1991. 15-25 pp. Puebla, Mexico. In Spa.
The authors review research undertaken in Mexico on the relationship between employment and the family over the last 50 years. Three main themes are considered: labor force characteristics, the household as a unit of labor force analysis, and the growing heterogeneity of the labor force due to the expansion of the unsalaried sector and the growth in female employment.
Correspondence: B. Garcia, Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, Apartado Postal 20671, Mexico 01000 DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10639 Greenhalgh, Susan. Women in the informal enterprise: empowerment or exploitation? Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 33, 1991. 43 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the implications of women's involvement in the informal labor sector, with a focus on developing countries. "Drawing on notions of informality as a process and economic organization as 'socially embedded,' this article develops a new, more sociologically informed approach to understanding the consequences of informal work for women. In the absence of a larger data set, it reviews and analyzes anthropological case studies from six countries for insight into the economic prospects of women in such enterprises and the constraints imposed on women by the embeddedness of the firm within the family. A conclusion extracts general hypotheses for future testing." The case studies cover Egypt, Ghana, India, Mexico, Taiwan, and Thailand.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10640 Gustafsson, Siv. Separate taxation and married women's labor supply: a comparison of West Germany and Sweden. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1992. 61-85 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The focus of this paper is an empirical analysis of the effects of taxation on women's incentives to contribute to family income. Data on earnings and individual characteristics in 1984 for married or cohabiting Swedish couples...are used together with similar data on German couples....The main features of the personal income taxation of the two countries have been programmed, and are used for simulating after tax incomes using both tax systems for both countries....The difference between the Swedish and German tax systems is an important factor in explaining why Swedish women participate more than German women in the labor market, although paid parental leaves and subsidized childcare are other important explanations for the Swedish situation."
Correspondence: S. Gustafsson, University of Amsterdam, Department of Economics, Jodenbreestraat 23, 1011 NH Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10641 Hashmi, Sultan S. Trends in the growth of population and labour force in Pakistan. Pakistan Population Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn 1990. 13-53 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
Past and future trends of population growth and labor force participation in Pakistan are analyzed. The author examines age structure, employment rates for industry and agriculture by age and sex, dependency ratios, carrying capacity, and population densities in rural and urban areas. Some policy implications are discussed. Data are from official and other published sources and concern the period 1962-2031.
Correspondence: S. S. Hashmi, United Nations, Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, Khartoum, Sudan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10642 Hirway, Indira. Labour force, labour markets and right to work. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 93-107 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author considers India's efforts to provide guaranteed employment and examines system and planning issues related to a government strategy called Right to Work. Consideration is given to past experiences of wage employment and public works programs, program costs, labor markets, and planning concerns.
Correspondence: I. Hirway, Gandhi Labour Institute, Ahmedabad, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10643 Jatoba, Jorge. Labor supply and economic fluctuations: Brazil, 1979-1986. [Oferta de trabalho e flutuacoes economicas: Brasil, 1979-1986.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1990. 162-79 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to study how the Brazilian labor supply responded to the business cycle of the period 1979-1986. In doing so, the article analyzes the growth and the structure of the Brazilian labor force as well as its demographic traits over that time span. The analysis focuses on the cyclical sensitivity of the labor force participation rate (LFPR) of particular labor force groups. The study breaks down the LFPR by age, sex, schooling and family income. The main finding is that the labor supply measured by the time series behavior of the LFPR is sensitive to the business cycle although the direction and the degree of responsiveness varies among labor force groups."
Correspondence: J. Jatoba, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Economia, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, Campus Universitario, 50739 Recife, PE, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10644 Li, Shuqing. Women's employment and the production force. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1990. 179-85 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines women's employment as a function of social production forces. It is noted that as a country's economy develops and moves from a primarily agricultural to a more industrial mode, changes in production can result in better opportunities for women in the labor market. However, women's employment cannot be improved beyond the limits imposed by current production levels. Diversification, growth, and the structure of women's employment are discussed, and their relationship to China's current problems of increased population and surplus labor is analyzed.
Correspondence: S. Li, Hebei Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Economics, Hebei Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10645 Mikova, Zuzana. Influence of the number of children on total extent and structure of parental work (French and Czech comparison). [Vliv poctu deti na celkovy rozsah a strukturu prace rodiny (francouzsko-ceska komparace).] Demografie, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1991. 317-26 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author compares the effects of number of children per family on the amount of work done by parents in France and Czechoslovakia. Financial considerations are taken into account, as are the time constraints upon child care of the amount of work performed both inside and outside the home. Data concern the period 1975-1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10646 Oyekunle, Adewale A. Labour force dynamics and socio-economic development: the case of Nigeria between 1963 and 1983. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 545-71 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Changes in the labor force and in socioeconomic conditions in Nigeria are analyzed and compared for the years 1963-1983, a period of progress in economic and educational spheres.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10647 Stolnitz, George J. Demographic aging and labour markets in the ECE region: main variables and an agenda for research. PIRT Working Paper, No. 29, Sep 1990. 12 pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
"A framework is presented...for identifying major research needs concerning labour market linkages with demographic aging in the ECE [European Commission for Europe] region....The focus is on potentially useful analysis of how the region's upper-age labour force and populations actually respond, wish to respond or should be encouraged to respond to income security, health and other life-style or life cycle goals. It will be seen that the framework is intended to serve both policy and non-policy purposes in comprehensive ways. Although some of the main research needs singled out are well known and widely recognized, for example those relating to participation rates by sex and age, considerable emphasis will be on seldom identified research areas or on issues as yet little explored, often because of newly emerging factual developments in both demographic and labour market areas."
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10648 Uthoff, Andras. Population and employment in Latin America. [Poblacion y empleo en America Latina.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 18-19, No. 51-52, Dec-Apr 1990-1991. 155-81 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Both high rates of labor force growth and large dependency ratios are forecast in this paper for the countries of Latin America in the 1990s. The author concludes that "population and employment problems must be given high priority in bilateral negotiations and/or with international organizations when deciding upon structural adjustment strategies."
Correspondence: A. Uthoff, U.N. Comision Economica para America Latina, Casilla 179 D, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10649 Wainerman, Catalina H. Improving the accounting of women workers in population censuses: lessons from Latin America. World Employment Programme Research Working Paper, No. 178, ISBN 92-2-108324-1. 1992. xi, 119 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This monograph summarizes the findings of empirical research specifically designed to improve the accuracy of the censal measurement of the female labour force. Its ultimate aim was to grant women workers the same chances as men of being counted in labour statistics. The research was guided by two objectives....We wanted to assess the effects upon the enumeration of women workers of three possible sources of underreporting: the type of procedure of data collection on the activity condition of the population..., the length of the reference period, and the length of the minimum working time required from people to be considered economically active....We also wanted to design and to test the adequacy of alternative census procedures....The study was conducted in...Argentina and Paraguay."
Correspondence: International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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