Volume 58 - Number 1 - Spring 1992

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

58:10358 Beaujot, Roderic. Rationales used in marriage and childbearing decisions. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 91-7, ISBN 0-7714-1330-0. Apr 1991. 18 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"Based on intensive interviews in a small sample from London (Ontario) [Canada] and the surrounding region, this paper considers the basic rationales in terms of which people describe marriage and childbearing decisions. This permits us to see the way in which the culture sets limits to behaviour by making certain alternatives more or less acceptable and by indicating the 'ready rationalizations' that exist for these various alternatives." Data are from a 1986 survey in Middlesex and Oxford counties; the sample consisted of 444 persons aged 18 and over and covered 274 households.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10359 Behar, Cem. Polygyny in Istanbul, 1885-1926. Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jul 1991. 477-86 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is a historical review of the literature and data on polygyny in Istanbul, Turkey, during the period 1885-1926. "The data to be analyzed here are taken from the 5 per cent sample drawn from the basic rosters (Esas Defter) for the 1885 and 1906 Censuses (Tahrirs) in five central districts of Istanbul....As far as proportions are concerned, 2.29 per cent of all married men in Istanbul were married polygynously....This also means that around 5 per cent of married women were, at any one time, involved in polygyny....Even within the bounds of the Islamic world, these rates are comparatively low." Consideration is also given to characteristics of polygynous marriages, including male and female marriage age; duration of marriage; social correlates; and public opinion.
Correspondence: C. Behar, Bogazici University, Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Adminstrative Sciences, 80815 Babek, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10360 Belacek, Jaromir. Looking for explanatory divorce factors (regional application of dispersion analysis). [Hledani vysvetlujicich faktoru rozvodovosti (regionalni aplikace analyzy rozptylu).] Demografie, Vol. 33, No. 4, 1991. 309-16 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author uses mathematical models to analyze the divorce rate in Czechoslovakia for the period 1982-1987, with an emphasis on regional differences. The effects of age, number of dependent children, educational attainment, and marriage duration on the likelihood of divorce are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10361 Dechter, Aimee R. The expected economic impact of marital dissolution and its implications for the likelihood of divorce. Pub. Order No. DA9125627. 1991. 352 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(3).

58:10362 DeMaris, Alfred; Rao, K. Vaninadha. Premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital stability in the United States: a reassessment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 54, No. 1, Feb 1992. 178-90 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"In this study we have re-examined the association of premarital cohabitation with subsequent marital dissolution in the United States." The principal aim was to assess "(a) whether cohabitors would, as in other studies, show higher odds of marital dissolution, compared to noncohabitors, (b) whether this difference would vary by differences in the nature of the cohabiting relationship, and (c) whether any differences found in the risk of divorce between cohabitors and noncohabitors could be accounted for by a greater length of time at risk." The authors find that "cohabitation in the United States is associated with a greater hazard of dissolution even after counting the time spent in unmarried cohabitation as part of marital duration." Data from the U.S. National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) for 1987-1988 are analyzed and compared with those from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS72) to obtain a broader cohort for this reanalysis.
Correspondence: A. DeMaris, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0231. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10363 Edwards, John N.; Fuller, Theodore D.; Vorakitphokatorn, Sairudee; Sermsri, Santhat. Female employment and marital instability: evidence from Thailand. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 54, No. 1, Feb 1992. 59-68 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"A link between employment outside the home and instability in the marriages of married women has long been suspected. However, two decades of empirical research have produced mixed findings and have yielded few firm conclusions about how wives' employment increases marital instability. The present study provides further evidence on the employment-instability linkage, examining the direct and indirect effects employment may have. Using data from a study of intact marriages in Bangkok, Thailand, the analyses indicate that the effects of employment per se and the number of hours worked are class-linked and, where present, tend to be mediated by various marital processes....The findings in general lend strong support to a process model of marital instability, a model previously found to largely account for instability among American couples."
Correspondence: J. N. Edwards, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Sociology, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0137. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10364 Goyal, R. P. Raising female age at marriage: priority in India's population policy and programme. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 177-82 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper argues that it is primarily the...low age at marriage of [the] population that comes in the way of fertility decline and [the] slowing...of [the] population growth rate in India." The author suggests measures to raise the marriage age through social control and the improvement of educational and employment opportunities for women.
Correspondence: R. P. Goyal, Institute of Economic Growth, Population Research Centre, Delhi University Campus, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10365 Greene, Margaret E. The importance of being married: marriage choice and its consequences in Brazil. Pub. Order No. DA9125655. 1991. 265 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(3).

58:10366 Haskey, John; Kelly, Sue. Population estimates by cohabitation and legal marital status--a trial set of new estimates. Population Trends, No. 66, Winter 1991. 30-44 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors analyze recent trends in cohabitation in the United Kingdom and propose ways in which estimates could be prepared that reflect effective, rather than legal, marital status. They suggest that population estimates by legal marital status should be disaggregated by cohabitation status. A method to do this is described, and the resulting estimates are presented by age and sex. "The trial estimates suggest that there were 1.2 million cohabiting couples in Great Britain in 1989, and that one in 12 of all couples in 1989 was a cohabiting couple."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10367 Hibert, Therese; Roussel, Louis. Nuptiality: recent trends in France and in developed countries. [La nuptialite: evolution recente en France et dans les pays developpes.] Congres et Colloques, No. 7, ISBN 2-7332-4007-2. 1991. viii, 279, 23 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of the Ninth National Symposium on Demography, held in Paris, France, December 3-5, 1991. The subject of the symposium was recent trends in nuptiality in France and other developed countries. The proceedings are to be published in two volumes, of which this is the first; it contains the text of the invited papers. The 16 papers by various authors are grouped under the topics of first unions, marriage breakdown and second unions, the factors affecting nuptiality trends, and international comparisons.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10368 Hirosima, Kiyosi. Coresidence with parents and marriage in modern Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 47, No. 3, Oct 1991. 53-73 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Marriage trends and parental coresidence in Japan are analyzed using data on 9,000 couples from the 1987 Ninth National Fertility Survey. Consideration is given to age at marriage, residence characteristics, birth order, family size, and intergenerational transfers related to birth order. The author finds that "the percentage of children coresiding with parents at marriage has hardly changed and continued to be about 30 percent...since [the] 1960s." Comments on these findings by Kiyomi Morioka, Nobuyoshi Toshitani, and Makoto Atoh are included in Japanese (pp. 71-3).
Correspondence: K. Hirosima, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10369 Huang, I-Chiao. The formation and dissolution of second marriages. Pub. Order No. DA9131550. 1991. 170 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study concerns the United States and was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brigham Young University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(5).

58:10370 Kaneko, Ryuichi. Demographic analysis of the first marriage process. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 47, No. 3, Oct 1991. 3-27 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes the stages leading to first marriage in Japan, using data concerning the period 1905-1955 to illustrate probability models and life table methods. Factors taken into consideration include type of marriage (chosen or arranged), heterogeneity, and waiting times. A trend in marriage postponement at the outbreak of World War II and a decline in marriage age in the postwar period are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10371 Kapoor, P. N. An estimate of number of marriages in India. Demography India, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 157-64 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper, an attempt has been made to estimate the annual number of marriages among women of reproductive ages (15-44 years) in India on the basis of proportion of women married in different age-groups in two consecutive censuses [1971 and 1981]. The method is extended to provide estimates for post-censal periods also."
Correspondence: P. N. Kapoor, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Family Welfare, Niman Bhavan, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10372 Kutsar, Dagmar. Nonformal stability of marriage. [Neformalnata stabilnost na braka.] Naselenie, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1990. 74-80 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The need to distinguish between the legal, or official, breakup of a marriage and the actual breakup is discussed. The difference is illustrated using data from Estonia concerning young people getting married, five-year-old marriages, and divorcing couples since 1968.
Correspondence: D. Kutsar, Tartu State University, Laboratory of Family Studies, Ulikooli 18, Tartu 202400, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10373 Manting, Dorien. The timing of marriage of cohabitating women in the Netherlands. PDOD Paper, No. 7, Nov 1991. 18, [4] pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
Data from the Netherlands Fertility Survey of 1988 and other official sources are used to examine the timing of marriage among those in consensual unions in the Netherlands. "Apart from the impact of constant individual characteristics on the marital timing of cohabiting women, attention is given to the influence of individual statuses that vary across the life course. These parallel careers in other life spheres are of great importance in explaining the differences in timing of marriage among cohabiting women. For example, women's actual participation in the educational system has a significant delaying effect on marital timing of cohabiting women while the level of education is of no importance in the explanation of marital timing." Other factors considered include labor force participation, fertility, and religion.
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10374 Nakano, Eiko. Attitudes toward marriage and their effect on expected life course patterns of unmarried Japanese women. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 47, No. 3, Oct 1991. 42-52 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to study the perspectives unmarried women [in Japan] hold towards marriage, and towards their life course. This paper will also attempt to determine how changing life course perspectives among unmarried women are influencing the trend towards later marrying ages. [Data are from a] sample of 2,605 unmarried women aged 18-34 derived from the 9th National Fertility Survey conducted...in 1987....[The author finds that] while still planning to marry eventually, more women are putting off marriage. In conclusion, the increase in the proportion of unmarried women...is not so much because they have chosen the unmarried life course in order to pursue their careers, but rather merely because they are putting off marriage until later."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10375 Nawar, Laila. Status of women and selected nuptiality patterns in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 179-210 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
This study examines "the relationship between selected indicators of women's status and their timing of first marriages, [and] the frequency and speed of remarriage among women whose first marriages were dissolved." Data are from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10376 Preston, Samuel H.; Lim, Suet; Morgan, S. Philip. African-American marriage in 1910: beneath the surface of census data. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 1, Feb 1992. 1-15 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the quality of information about marital status, marital duration, and marriage order among African-American women in the U.S. Census of 1910. It compares the reported prevalence of widowhood to estimates of widowhood based on the mortality of black men and on the ages of women at first marriage. It also compares the reported distributions of duration of first marriage to estimates based on mortality and on age at first marriage. It concludes that census reports are subject to serious error. Widowhood is overreported, and marital turnover appears to have been faster than implied by census reports. The prevalence of 'own children' is used to confirm these conclusions and to suggest motivations for misreporting."
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10377 Rajulton, Fernando; Burch, Thomas K. A behavioural model of remarriage: motivation and market influences. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 91-8, ISBN 0-7714-1331-9. Sep 1991. 36, [8] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to develop a model of remarriage that captures some of its distinctive features....After a selective review of literature on marriage and remarriage, we set forth a cohort remarriage model which operationalizes notions of motivation and eligibility (modelled as unmeasured heterogeneity), on one side, and supply of mates on the other. The model is built in two steps: first, an accelerated failure time model is constructed using the Weibull distribution and including age at dissolution and supply of potential mates as covariates. Then, a gamma distribution is added to capture unmeasured heterogeneity in respect to motivation and eligibility for remarriage. In the final model, covariates are added for type of dissolution of first marriage and number of children in custody. The model is fit to data for Canadian men and women ages 18-64 from the 1984 Family History Survey...."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10378 Relethford, John H. Analysis of marital structure in Massachusetts using repeating pairs of surnames. Human Biology, Vol. 64, No. 1, Feb 1992. 25-33 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The author uses a method developed by Lasker and Kaplan that considers the total number of repeating pairs (RP) of surnames among marriages to analyze marital structure. "The RP method is applied here to data from 3,431 marriages that took place from 1800 to 1849 in 4 Massachusetts towns. The level of excess RP...is positively associated with population size and exogamy rate. These results indicate a tendency for greater relative subdivision in larger, more exogamous populations....In terms of genetic implications an excess of observed RP over random RP implies a slight reduction in genetic variation because of population subdivision."
Correspondence: J. H. Relethford, State University of New York College, Department of Anthropology, Oneonta, NY 13820. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10379 Rwabushaija, Margaret. The measurement and definition of age at marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa. Pub. Order No. DA9125747. 1991. 200 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 52(3).

58:10380 Sardon, Jean-Paul. Marriage and divorce in Eastern Europe. [Mariage et divorce en Europe de l'Est.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 3, May-Jun 1991. 547-97 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Recent nuptiality patterns in Eastern Europe, including Albania and Yugoslavia, are analyzed. The author notes that both marriage and divorce rates are higher in Eastern Europe than elsewhere on the continent. The proportion of never-married women at age 50 remains about 10 percent, and does not reach 15 percent in those countries in which marriage rates have recently declined. Cohabitation does not appear to be popular as an alternative to marriage, with the possible exception of the German Democratic Republic.
Correspondence: J.-P. Sardon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10381 Sawchuk, L. A. Historical intervention, tradition, and change: a study of the age at marriage in Gibraltar, 1909-1983. Journal of Family History, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1992. 69-94 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the age at first marriage among a series of temporally defined marriage cohorts spanning the period 1909 to 1983 for the civilian inhabitants of the Rock of Gibraltar. The pattern of late marriage among Gibraltarians remained relatively stable until 'a state of siege' was imposed by Spain. The reduction in matrimonial age is explored in terms of a host of factors, including a significant rise in the number of women entering the labour force, a reduction in spatially exogamous unions with Spain, and increased feasibility of marriage because of rises in income levels."
Correspondence: L. A. Sawchuk, University of Toronto, Scarborough College, Department of Anthropology, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, Ontario M1C 1A4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10382 Sayed, Hussein A.-A.; Khalifa, Nadia. Marital status analysis by increment-decrement life tables: theory and application to Egyptian data. CDC Occasional Paper, No. 5, 1989. 62 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"In this paper the mathematical principles behind the construction of multi-state life tables are summarized. [The method] is then applied to study patterns of first marriage, widowhood, divorce and remarriage of the Egyptian female and male population for the year 1976. We have shown that the mathematics of multi-state life table construction become simple if the matrix approach, initiated by Namboodiri and Suchindran (1987) for the design of multi-state life tables, is adopted. This approach does not only make the work easier, but it also makes it possible to follow the life histories of cohorts while keeping track of their original marital status."
For the article by Krishnan Namboodiri and C. M. Suchindran, see 53:30181.
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Centre, 2 Lebanon Street, P.O. Box 73, Mohandiseen 12655, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10383 Singh, Mohan. Changes in age at marriage of women in rural north India. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1992. 123-30 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the changes in age at first marriage [in rural north India], explores the motivations behind them and the mechanisms through which they have operated in a group of ten villages in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh, India." It is found that "there has been a dramatic increase in age at marriage for women....Age at marriage rose from under 12 years before 1930 to about 19 years in 1988, mainly as a result of socioeconomic development and advances in education of women."
Correspondence: M. Singh, Australian National University, Demography Programme, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10384 Singh, R. P.; Richard, J. Socio-economic and demographic correlates of age at marriage. Demography India, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1989. 183-90 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The main objectives of present research are: (i) to estimate the mean age at marriage by gender in rural and urban areas during 1981-88, (ii) to determine the association of age at marriage with specific socio-economic and demographic factors....The data for this study were collected from both rural and urban areas of North Arcot District of Tamilnadu State [India]."
Correspondence: R. P. Singh, Christian Medical College, Department of Biostatics, Vellore 632 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10385 Spasovska, Lilyana. On the concepts of stability and success of marriage. [Otnosno ponyatiyata stabilnost i uspeshnost na braka.] Naselenie, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1990. 44-58 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Differences in concepts of marriage and the family in Western and Marxist sociology are identified. The discussion covers both the family as a unit and the role of the family in society.
Correspondence: L. Spasovska, Balgarskata Akademiya na Naukite, Institut po Demografiya, ul. Akad G. Bonchev bl. 5, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10386 Suzuki, Toru. Attitudes toward marital and intergenerational relationships. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 47, No. 3, Oct 1991. 28-41 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"This study focuses on structures and determinants of normative attitudes concerning marital and intergenerational relationships [in Japan]. The data are based on the Public Opinion Survey on Population Issues carried out by the Institute of Population Problems in June, 1990. Three principal components are extracted from eleven questions on attitudes toward marriage and conjugal relationships. The first component is interpreted as [a] conservative attitude toward universal marriage and traditional sex-role differentiation. The second one is [an] intolerance for premarital and extramarital sexual intercourse, and the third one [a] positive attitude toward such current issues as divorce or preservation of wife's surname." The effects of age, education, marital status, community size, and parental coresidence are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10387 Taj, Anju M. Gender, intergenerational relations and marriage patterns in Indonesia. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 89-147, Jun 1989. 21, [7] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"In this paper, we attempt to incorporate both the gender and the generational contexts in analyzing spouse choice patterns in Indonesia. It is argued that where marriage is a family rather than a conjugal concern, parents have a basis and motivation for controlling the decision-making process. Since, however, sexual control of daughters is more critical for making appropriate matches, sons are allowed considerably more flexibility...than daughters; men usually have some say in whom they marry as compared to women whose options are more strictly controlled....The data are from the Indonesian portion of the Asian Marriage Survey, conducted in Central Java during 1979-80. Interviews and life-history matrices for 1,587 ever-married women aged 15-44 were collected and interviews were also conducted for a subsample of 888 husbands."
This paper was originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10388 Tan, Poo Chang; Jones, Gavin W. Malay divorce in Peninsular Malaysia: the near-disappearance of an institution. Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1990. 85-114 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
The authors explore factors affecting the sharp decline in divorce rates among the Malay population of Peninsular Malaysia during the period 1950-1985. They consider the rise in marriage age, trends away from arranged marriage and polygamy, and the contributions of Islamic reform movements and women's groups. The focus is on the changes in attitudes toward marriage and divorce. Data are from the 1981-1982 Study on Marriage and Marital Dissolution in Peninsular Malaysia. Appendixes containing laws and statutes concerning divorce are included.
Correspondence: P. C. Tan, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

58:10389 Alderson, Arthur S.; Sanderson, Stephen K. Historic European household structures and the capitalist world-economy. Journal of Family History, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1991. 419-32 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This study approaches the history of household patterns in early modern Europe from the perspective of Wallersteinian world-system theory. It is shown that the European core during this time was characterized predominantly by simple nuclear households. By contrast, the European periphery and semiperiphery were far more likely to be characterized by complex households. We explain these relationships in terms of the mode of labor control predominating in each zone of the world-economy. Simple nuclear households become the norm where labor is being freed from traditional feudal bonds and where capitalist labor markets exist. Complex households are most likely to persist under traditional feudal relationships because they constitute adaptations to the labor needs that arise under such circumstances. Complex households are also common, although somewhat less so, where sharecropping is a predominant mode of labor control."
Correspondence: A. S. Alderson, University of North Carolina, Department of Sociology, CB 3210, Hamilton Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10390 Arnaudova, Tsvetanka. Unmarried people in Bulgaria. [Bezbrachnite v Balgariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1990. 79-86 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Recent official data on families and households in Bulgaria are analyzed. A growth in the number of single persons is noted, and reasons for the growth of singles and one-person households are explored.
Correspondence: T. Arnaudova, Tsentralno Statistichesko Upravlenie, 2 P. Volov, Sofia, Bulgaria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10391 Bachrach, Christine A.; Stolley, Kathy S.; London, Kathryn A. Relinquishment of premarital births: evidence from national survey data. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1992. 27-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we use nationally representative data to examine trends in relinquishment of children born to unmarried women. In addition, we use multivariate analyses to explore factors associated with the decision to place a child for adoption. Data for the current study are drawn from the 1982 and 1988 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), which collects data on the fertility and fertility-related behavior of U.S. women aged 15-44."
Correspondence: C. A. Bachrach, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Center for Population Research, Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10392 Bawin-Legros, Bernadette; Gauthier, Anne; Guillaume, Jean-Francois. Child welfare and alimony payments after divorce in Belgium. [Interet de l'enfant et paiement des pensions alimentaires apres divorce en Belgique.] Population, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1991. 855-79 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper is a study of parental behaviour, and more particularly that of fathers, after divorce, in which findings from a national survey carried out in Belgium are used. The payment of alimony is considered to be not solely a financial solution, but as an indication of a certain acceptance of parental responsibility which is rooted in the marriage and family background that existed before the couple separated. Legal practice, which generally gives care and control of the child to the mother, also results in the continuity of the traditional type of the division of labour between the parents after their marriage has broken down. This supports the moral principle of a privileged mother-child relationship, but may also lead to a deterioration in the living standards of the mothers' households."
Correspondence: J.-F. Guillaume, Universite de Liege, Place du 20-Aout 7, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10393 Benitez Perez, Maria E. The Cuban family and household: a socio-demographic profile. [El hogar y la familia cubanos: una caracterizacion sociodemografica.] 1990. 87, [47] pp. Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demograficos [CEDEM]: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
Using statistics from the 1981 census of population and housing for Cuba, this report studies the relationships between family and household from a socio-demographic point of view. Part 1 provides general information about Cuba's population, including spatial and sex distributions and marital status. Part 2 details household composition and average size and gives head of household characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, and employment type. Part 3 describes the Cuban family by type of housing, average number of persons living in a given type of residence, and whether or not the family is complete.
Correspondence: Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demograficos, Avenida 41, Numero 2003 entre 20 y 22, Playa, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10394 Blake, Judith. Number of siblings and personality. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1991. 272-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Are children from small [U.S.] families advantaged and those from large families disadvantaged, other factors being equal?...Our results indicate that the assumption that children from smaller families are less sociable than children from larger families is weak and is confounded by other factors. Rather, the results suggest that, on average, those from more advantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are less sociable, and those from small families are more frequently from advantaged backgrounds." Data are from various published sources.
Correspondence: J. Blake, University of California, School of Public Health, Department of Sociology, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10395 Burr, Jeffrey A.; Mutchler, Jan E. The living arrangements of unmarried elderly Hispanic females. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 1, Feb 1992. 93-112 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to develop and analyze a model of living arrangements applicable to elderly Hispanic females in the United States. In order to accomplish this goal, we compare the living arrangements of older unmarried Hispanic females with those of non-Hispanic white females." The evaluation considers three sets of factors: "availability of kin, feasibility in terms of both health and economic status, and cultural desirability....Our findings suggest that there is an increase in the likelihood of independent living as measured by living alone when the analysis controls for such factors as children ever born, poverty status, ability to speak the dominant language, and immigration background. Nevertheless, the impact of Hispanic ethnicity remains significant...."
Correspondence: J. A. Burr, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Buffalo, NY 14260. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10396 Canada. Statistics Canada. Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division. Target Groups Project (Ottawa, Canada). The family in Canada: selected highlights. [La famille au Canada: faits saillants choisis.] Pub. Order No. 89-509. ISBN 0-660-53439-8. Jan 1989. 47, 49 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
This report provides selected data on families in Canada, presented in sections that correspond to different stages in the family life cycle. Time-series data are used to illustrate changes in various aspects of family life. The data, which are from official sources, are primarily in chart formats.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Publication Sales, Ottawa K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10397 Chacon Jimenez, Francisco. New trends in Spain's historical demography: studies about family history. [Nuevas tendencias de la demografia historica en Espana: las investigaciones sobre historia de la familia.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1991. 79-98 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is a general survey of recent trends in the study of historical aspects of family demography in Spain. In addition to reviewing recently published works, the author suggests some new perspectives for study. An extensive bibliography selected from various disciplines is included.
Correspondence: F. Chacon Jimenez, Universdad de Murcia, Avda. Teniente Flomesta s/n, Edificio Convalecencia, 30001 Murcia, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10398 De Vos, Susan. The one-person household in Latin America: a brief note. Social Biology, Vol. 38, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1991. 277-80 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
The author compares data from the United States and Europe with statistics from Latin America and the rest of the world regarding numbers of persons living alone. It is concluded that countries in the northwestern European culture group have the highest proportion of one-person households. Data are from published sources.
Correspondence: S. De Vos, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10399 Desai, Sonalde. Children at risk: the role of family structure in Latin America and West Africa. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 28, 1991. 41 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Focusing on family systems in Latin America and West Africa, this paper examines two dimensions of neo-classical household models: (1) the assumption of altruism within the family, and (2) the importance of flexible household boundaries to intra-household decisions and resource availability." The author uses data on the nutritional status of children to examine the importance of these two issues in predicting the levels of resources available to children. She finds that "in addition to the family's total income, the level of resources available to children depends on resource pooling within the household....Although parents care about the welfare of their children, their level of altruism varies across different types of families and seems to depend on culturally acceptable practices. Additionally, household composition and relationships among household members affect child nutrition in a variety of ways." Implications of these findings for family welfare policies are discussed.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10400 Dyer, Jenny. The child population of Ladywood and Edgbaston 1851. Local Population Studies, No. 47, Autumn 1991. 30-8 pp. Matlock, England. In Eng.
The characteristics and size of the child population living in two districts surrounding Birmingham, England, in 1851 are outlined. The author considers mainly the household experience of children, with emphasis on the prevalence of child servants, parental marital status, and illegitimacy. Data accuracy is also discussed.
Correspondence: J. Dyer, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10401 Elisa, Woldeyesus. Desired family size and sex preference in North Sudan 1978/79. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 365-94 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The present study examines the available evidence on trends in family size preferences and investigates the socioeconomic and demographic differentials in family size preferences and their influence on the desired family size in the North Sudan."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10402 Florez, Carmen E.; Bonilla, Elssy; Echeverri, Rafael. The demographic transition and women's life-course in Colombia. Pub. Order No. E.90.III.A.1. ISBN 92-808-0719-6. 1990. xii, 149 pp. United Nations University Press: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This work is the product of two studies conducted between 1984 and 1987 concerning the impact of the demographic transition in Colombia on households in Bogota and in rural areas. "The study is based on an extensive survey of, on the one hand, women falling into roughly the 20-30 year-old range and, on the other, those in the 40-50 year-old range, the two groups thus corresponding to the period before and after the sharp decline in fertility rates that occurred in Colombia beginning in the 1960s. In analysing the results, the discussion centres on the processes of family formation and expansion and the socio-economic determinants bearing on those processes. The analysis also looks at such aspects as the relationship between women's labour participation and family formation, women's perceptions of their lives and of their role in the family, at their use of time, and at the division of labour in the household according to gender and age."
Correspondence: United Nations University Press, Toho Seimei Building, 15-1 Shibuya 2-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10403 Geronimus, Arline T.; Korenman, Sanders; Hillemeier, Marianne M. Does young maternal age adversely affect child development? Evidence from cousin comparisons. OPR Working Paper, No. 91-10, Oct 1991. 21, [7] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"In this study we employ an appropriate methodology to examine the degree to which family background characteristics that precede the first pregnancy account for differences in developmental measures between children of teen and nonteen mothers. We control for family background differences between teen and older mothers by comparing the children of sisters who experienced their first births at different ages, including cases where at least one sister became a mother as a teenager. In comparing sisters, we also address the concern that cross-sectional differences between the children of teen and older mothers in performance on developmental tests reflect class or cultural biases in the tests, rather than effects of maternal age....The sample is drawn from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-1988...."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10404 Guetta, Maurice. Urbanization and family structures in Algeria (1948-1987). [Urbanisation et structures familiales en Algerie (1948-1987).] Revue Francaise de Sociologie, Vol. 32, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1991. 577-97, 657-8, 660-2 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
The author challenges the hypothesis that urban households in Algeria tend toward the nuclear family model. Using data from censuses and a field study carried out in 1975-1976, he establishes the existence of a cyclic evolution in the structure of migrant households. The relationship between this cycle and rural-urban migration flows results in a reinforcement of factors strengthening the extended family.
Correspondence: M. Guetta, Centre Universitaire d'Orsay, CERS, 97 rue de Versailles, 91400 Orsay, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

58:10405 Guhl, Nora L.; Sayed, Hussein A.-A. The economic well-being of Egyptian households: 1980-1984. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 263-83 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to lay the groundwork for an assessment of the changes that occurred in the economic well-being of Egyptian households between 1980 and 1988." The impact of international migration on Egypt's economy is also considered. Data are from demographic surveys conducted in 1980, 1984, and 1988.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10406 Guo, Zhigang. Single-person households in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1990. 163-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes distribution data from China's 1982 census and a 1987 sampling survey of one percent of the population to determine why the proportion of single-family households in China is small, relative to Western countries, and why it has been decreasing.
Correspondence: Z. Guo, People's University of China, Institute of Population Studies, 39 Haidian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10407 Hamed, Mohy E. Impact of child loss experience on fertility preference and regulation in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 229-62 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
In this study, "an attempt has been made to examine the differences in demand for children and fertility regulation between women who had and who had not experienced child loss, using [1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey] data. Accordingly, the effect of child loss experience on desired family size, additional children wanted, and ever, current and future use of contraception have been studied."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10408 Hanushek, Eric A. The trade-off between child quantity and quality. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 100, No. 1, Feb 1992. 84-117 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author explores the effect of family size and birth order on children's scholastic achievement using data for the United States. "A distinct trade-off between quantity and quality of children is found to exist. The theoretical model, extending the basic analyses in economic demography, considers the allocation of time to children and describes the implications of alternative within-family allocation schemes. The empirical analysis finds that achievement falls systematically with increased family size." The impact of teacher quality on student performance is also analyzed.
Correspondence: E. A. Hanushek, University of Rochester, Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

58:10409 Kechki, Margit. The two-child family--a cell for reproduction. [Dvudetnoto semeistvo--kletka za vazproizvodstvo.] Naselenie, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1990. 71-8 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Problems of population reproduction are considered in light of the two-child family that is the norm in Hungary. Pronatalist measures that have been adopted are described, and their effect on family size and the age spacing of children is assessed. Particular attention is given to the problems posed by having only two children whose ages are very close together.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10410 Kessler, Daniel. Birth order, family size, and achievement: family structure and wage determination. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 9, No. 4, Oct 1991. 413-26 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The influence of birth order and childhood family size on future achievement is discussed. Two major empirical findings are presented by the author. "First, neither birth order nor childhood family size significantly influences the level or growth rate of wages, a result that is consistent with previous research. Second, family size is both a statistically and economically significant determinant of women's employment status: women from small families work less than women from large families when they are young and more than women from large families when they are more mature." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: D. Kessler, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

58:10411 Kuijsten, Anton; Oskamp, Anton. Household development in Europe, 1950-1990. [Huishoudensontwikkeling in Europa, 1950-1990.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1991. 107-41 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This contribution aims at an explanation of post-1950 changes in the number and average size of households in 26 European countries, in terms of...demographic and structural effects. After presenting some empirical developments..., the authors develop a method of analysis enabling them to separate these demographic and structural effects. The results of an application of this method allow them to develop a phase model for the transition from a situation of relatively high average household size to a situation of relatively low average household size."
Correspondence: A. Kuijsten, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Jodenbreestraat 23, 1011 NH Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10412 Lee, Hung-Tak. Household patterns in early 18th-century Korea--a study based on the triennial household register data of Danseong-Hyon, Kyongsang province, 1720. Journal of the Population Association of Korea, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1990. 19-47 pp. [Seoul], Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
The author attempts to identify the characteristics of households in premodern Korea through the analysis of household registers from a southeastern section of the country for the year 1720. The data concern 390 households and were collected for taxation and other purposes. Household characteristics, age and sex distribution within them, characteristics of head of household, and household size are considered.
Correspondence: H.-T. Lee, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, 270 Imun-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10413 Lee, Yean-Ju; Palloni, Alberto. Changes in the family status of elderly women in Korea. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 1, Feb 1992. 69-92 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Family-status life tables are used to examine the impact of changes in demographic processes on the family status of elderly women in the Republic of Korea. Consideration is given to the effects of the fertility decline on traditional family support networks, of mortality decreases on the probability and duration of widowhood, and of demographic aging on the dependency burden. An appendix describing the methodology used is included.
Correspondence: Y.-J. Lee, University of Chicago, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10414 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Desai, Sonalde. Children's living arrangements in developing countries. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 31, 1991. 41 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine aspects of children's living arrangements, using data [for selected countries of Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa] from 19 Demographic and Health Surveys. We begin with a discussion of the ways in which living arrangements might affect child welfare. We then present various statistical indicators of potential vulnerability for all children...in order to paint a comprehensive picture of children's circumstances. Finally, we analyze children's living arrangements directly, focusing on children who live with their mothers as well as on the determinants of mother-child separation." Three elements of living arrangements that determine children's access to resources are noted, including mother-child coresidence, presence of father and/or other relatives, and the presence and age of siblings.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10415 Matskovski, Mikhail; Gurko, Tatyana. Factors and conditions of stability in young families. [Faktori i usloviya za stabilnost na mladite semeistva.] Naselenie, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1990. 59-73 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors review the Soviet literature on marital stability. They examine the concepts used in defining the success of a marriage and give results from their study of young families in Moscow.
Correspondence: M. Matskovski, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Institut po Sotsiologiya, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10416 Osman, Maged. Pattern of family sex composition preference in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1988. 1989. 87-96 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Patterns of sex preference in Egypt are analyzed using data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey. The focus is on the effect of such preferences on attitudes toward family size.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10417 Park, Ju-Moon; Kim, Hee-Jin. Changing patterns and projections of headship rates in Korea. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jul 1991. 100-25 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to calculate the headship rate for time-series analysis,...to review the patterns of changing headship rates and related factors and to estimate the headship rates to 2010 [for the Republic of Korea]....The data used for this study were derived from the Population and Housing Census Reports from 1960 through 1990, U.N. Manual VII and household-related literature....[The authors predict that] the total headship rate will maintain a uniform pattern of decrease and increase by specific age and peak headship rates will gradually extend to younger people....Rural headship rates will decrease steadily and be greatly influenced by age structure....In addition, the difference in headship rates between male and female will be great....Lastly, both the divorced and the single will have increasing headship rates for all ages [with] the single [having] the most rapid increase rate after their thirties."
Correspondence: J.-M. Park, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10418 Pavlova, Veselka. Some basic trends and specific features of the dynamics in number and structure of families in Bulgaria. [Nyakoi osnovni tendentsii i spetsifichni osobenosti na dinamikata na broya i strukturata na semeistvata v Balgariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1990. 16-27 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Basic trends in the number and structure of families in Bulgaria over the period 1965-1985 are analyzed using census data. The author suggests that the far-reaching changes in family size and characteristics require changes in the types of data currently being collected on families.
Correspondence: V. Pavlova, Tsentralno Statistichesko Upravlenie, 2 P. Volov, Sofia, Bulgaria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10419 Popenoe, David. Family decline in the Swedish welfare state. Public Interest, No. 102, Winter 1991. 65-77 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author develops the argument that the family in Sweden has grown weaker in recent years as a direct result of the development of the welfare state. Factors considered include trends in marriage and divorce rates and the decline of the family as a social institution. Lessons are drawn for social policy in the United States.
Correspondence: D. Popenoe, Rutgers University, Department of Sociology, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

58:10420 Pullum, Thomas W. Evidence for and against the emergence of family size norms in Pakistan. Pakistan Population Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn 1990. 1-11 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
Responses to questions on desired and ideal family size from the 1984-1985 Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey are analyzed for the presence of norms regarding family size. Factors analyzed include region, residence characteristics, educational status, wife's labor force participation, husband's occupation, and wife's age and parity. Pakistani culture and its level of fatalism concerning family size are also considered.
Correspondence: T. W. Pullum, University of Texas, Population Studies Center, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10421 Rendall, Michael S. Transition probability change and the growth of female family headship in the United States, 1968-88. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 92-02, Feb 1992. 47, 4, [7] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"The growth in female family headship (single motherhood) in the United States over the 1968-88 period, both as a proportion of all 18 to 59 year old women and as a proportion of all those who are raising families, is studied. Family structure transition probabilities are estimated from Panel Study of Income Dynamics data. The implications of these transition probabilities for population headship proportion growth are modeled by two- and three-state Markov processes....Headship growth was stronger in the 1970s than in the 1980s, and was produced entirely by headship entry probability increases: mostly by increases in union dissolutions among women with families in the 1970s, although increases in family initiations by unpartnered women became the major source of headship growth into the 1980s."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10422 Rerrich, Maria S. Family balancing act: between old patterns and new forms of living. [Balanceakt Familie: zwischen alten Leitbildern und neuen Lebensformen.] 2nd ed. ISBN 3-7841-0488-6. 1990. 192 pp. Lambertus-Verlag: Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany. In Ger.
Changes in marriage and family structure in developed countries are examined, with an emphasis on West Germany. A theoretical and historical analysis of traditional family structure is first presented. Changes in family patterns in West Germany since 1950 are then discussed. The final chapter deals with the impact of these changes on daily family life.
Correspondence: Lambertus-Verlag, Wolflinstrasse 4, Postfach 1026, 7800 Freiburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10423 Stolnitz, George J. Household approaches to population aging analysis. PIRT Working Paper, No. 22, Oct 1990. 29, [2] pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
The author investigates the use of household approaches to the analysis of population aging. "An underlying premise of this paper is that the household categories typically most needed in this field are compositional in nature; in effect, such categories are not derivable from household characteristics classified for individuals only, however detailed the characteristics." After a discussion of the use of household (as opposed to family) data, he lists possible research topics on the links between population aging and household characteristics. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10424 Stutzer, Erich; Wingen, Max. One-parent families in the Federal Republic of Germany: a data-oriented analysis of demographic and socioeconomic structures. [Alleinerziehende in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: eine datenorientierte Analyse demographischer und soziookonomischer Strukturen.] Materialien und Berichte der Familienwissenschaftlichen Forschungsstelle, No. 21, 1989. 51 pp. Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Wurttemberg: Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Trends in the number of one-parent families in West Germany between 1961 and 1985 are reviewed using data from official sources. Selected breakdowns by parent's sex, age group, and marital status and by number and age of children are included. Consideration is also given to labor force participation, child care, and the economic and housing situations of these families.
Correspondence: Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Wurttemberg, Boblinger Strasse 68, Postfach 10 60 33, 7000 Stuttgart 10, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10425 Wojtkiewicz, Roger A. Diversity in experiences of parental structure during childhood and adolescence. Demography, Vol. 29, No. 1, Feb 1992. 59-68 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study uses the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households to examine the parental structure experiences of children who had ever lived in nonintact families. The results show considerable variation in experiences among such children. The analysis illustrates the diversity by considering parental structure experiences given 1) mother-only family at birth, 2) mother/father family at birth and later parental marital disruption, and 3) parental structure at age 15." Data were collected between March 1987 and May 1988.
Correspondence: R. A. Wojtkiewicz, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, Baton Rouge, LA 70803. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10426 Yoon, Jong-Joo. Changes in the support system for the aged in Korea. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jul 1991. 58-81 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
Recent changes in familial support of the elderly in the Republic of Korea are described. The author notes that concurrent with urbanization and industrialization has been a trend toward nuclear families and a weakening of the traditional values and norms that define caring for the aged within the extended family. The implications of these changes for social welfare policies are assessed.
Correspondence: J.-J. Yoon, Seoul Women's University, 126 Kongnung 2-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-744, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

58:10427 Zelle, Karl; Schechtner, Oswald. New models for forecasting household structures: development and testing using the example of the state of Styria and its districts. [Neue Modelle zur Prognose von Haushaltsstrukturen: Entwicklung und Erprobung am Beispiel des Bundeslandes Steiermark und seiner Bezirke.] Osterreichische Zeitschrift fur Statistik und Informatik, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1989. 107-38 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger.
Two models for forecasting household structure are presented and tested using data for the Austrian state of Styria and its districts. The results of the models are evaluated through comparisons with 1981 census data.
Correspondence: K. Zelle, Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Dokumentations-, Informations- und Planungssysteme (ADIP-Graz), St. Veiter Anger 18, 8046 Graz, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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