Volume 57 - Number 4 - Winter 1991

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

57:40653 Faust, Kimberly; Bach, Rebecca; Gadalla, Saad; Khattab, Hind; Gulick, John. Mass education, Islamic revival, and the population problem in Egypt. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 22, No. 3, Autumn 1991. 329-41 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Caldwell has postulated five mechanisms by which mass education affects families, resulting in lower fertility....In this paper...we apply the findings of research done among Cairo schoolgirls and their mothers in 1980-83 to each of Caldwell's five hypotheses." The authors find support for "four of Caldwell's mechanisms: reduction of children's work potential, increased cost of children, prolonged dependency of children on family, and the school system's speeding of cultural change. However, Caldwell's fifth mechanism, propagation of Western middle-class values, is not wholly supported, particularly because of Islamic values concerning parental authority and influence, strongly promoted by Egyptian public education curricula. We hypothesize that this educational influence of the Islamic Revival may be a cause of the faltering, in recent years, of Egypt's population control program which had made [a] promising start after the 1952 Revolution."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 452).
For the article by John C. Caldwell, published in 1980, see 47:1323.
Correspondence: K. Faust, University of North Carolina, Department of Sociology, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SSA).

57:40654 Norvez, Alain. From birth to school: health, child care, and preschool in contemporary France. [De la naissance a l'ecole: sante, modes de garde et prescolarite dans la France contemporaine.] Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 126, ISBN 2-7332-0126-3. 1990. xii, 463, 22 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of the population of preschool age in France. The first part concentrates on the demography of this age group, and describes the relevant demographic trends since 1870, particularly the decline in the demographic size of this group vis-a-vis the population as a whole. The second part describes child health and social policies developed since 1945. The third and final part examines the child-care services formed in response to such changes as increased female labor force participation.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de France, Departement des Revues, 14 Avenue du Bois-de-l'Epine, B.P. 90, 91003 Evry Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40655 Williams, Linda B. Development, demography, and family decision-making: the status of women in rural Java. Brown University Studies in Population and Development, ISBN 0-8133-8020-0. LC 90-32924. 1990. xvii, 157 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this book the author examines the status of women within the family in rural Indonesia from the historical role they have played in Indonesian society to their current status in household decision-making. [She] considers the intergenerational dynamics involved in making marriage decisions, the effects of migration on a woman's ability to control major household decisions, and how the status of women within the family affects the use of contraception among Javanese couples. The study shows that marital duration and the education of both spouses' fathers are among the strongest predictors of both husbands' and wives' perceptions of their abilities to affect the marriage decision." The importance of urban residence and separation from parents on women's autonomy is noted. "Women's power within the household is shown to have a strong negative effect on contraceptive use. The author finds that women with little input into household decisions are most likely to succumb to external pressure urging the adoption of family-planning practices."
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

57:40656 Gobalet, Jeanne G.; Lapkoff, Shelley. Changing from at large to district election of trustees in two California community college districts: a study of contrasts. Applied Demography, Vol. 6, No. 2, Summer 1991. 1-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper, we describe the legal, political, and practical demographic issues and contrast the processes and outcomes of changing election methods in...two community college districts [in California]....Table 1 summarizes some important contrasts. In both community college districts, the decision to change from at large election of trustees to election from single member districts resulted from pressure from Latino (Mexican American) community groups...."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. G. Gobalet, 22361 Rolling Hills Road, Saratoga, CA 95070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40657 King, Miriam L. "The quantum of happiness": the politics of American population debates, 1850-1930. Pub. Order No. DA9112588. 1990. 318 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(12).

57:40658 Molina, Stefano. Demographic change and political representation. [Changement demographique et representation politique.] Futuribles, No. 144, Jun 1990. 59-68 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The political implications of demographic aging in Italy are reviewed. The main features identified are a shift in the balance of the electorate toward the south, and the increasing electoral importance of older voters.
Correspondence: S. Molina, Fondazione Agnelli, Turin, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:40659 Sebbag, Georges. Nuuumbers. [Nooombres.] Debat, No. 60, May-Aug 1990. 229-49 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The problems posed by rapid population growth around the world are discussed. The author concludes that democracy as a political system cannot survive unless population growth can be controlled.
Location: New York Public Library.

57:40660 Winter, J. M. Demographic history and the political economy of war in Western Europe, 1914-1918. Annales de Demographie Historique, 1990. 379-407 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper presents some demographic evidence to support the claim that the defence of public health through the maintenance of living standards was one of the prerequisites of military victory in the 1914-18 war. An analysis of civilian mortality trends demonstrates this gap between the adversary camps. We then offer an explanation as to how the Allies succeeded in this domestic task, and the Central Powers did not. The argument is that, in addition to a more effective blockade, the Allied political economy balanced the demands of the military and civilian sectors, whereas the German political economy, the first 'military-industrial complex' in history, did not. The militarization of the economy impoverished the population, which became intolerable once hopes of military victory faded in 1918. The result was domestic collapse and military defeat."
Correspondence: J. M. Winter, University of Cambridge, Pembroke College, Cambridge CB2 1RF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

57:40661 Akin, John S.; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M. The production of infant health: input demand and health status differences related to gender of the infant. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 7, 1991. 267-89 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The authors collected data on all births between May 1, 1983, and April 30, 1984, in the Cebu City area of the Philippines island of Cebu. Some 3,080 mothers were studied in order to "test the effects of gender preferences on infant health within the context of a well-defined model. This model considers the mechanisms by which sociocultural and biological factors affect infant health." The authors conclude that although there are some minor gender-related differences in health input demands, they should have little impact on the cohort's actual health outcomes.
Correspondence: J. S. Akin, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27514-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40662 Becchia, Alain. Towns that were spared? The 1832 cholera epidemic at Elbeuf. [Des villes epargnees? L'epidemie de cholera de 1832 a Elbeuf.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1990. 53-70 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Reasons why the French industrial town of Elbeuf was relatively unaffected by the cholera epidemic of 1832 are examined. The main reasons identified are public health and social welfare measures, especially those that reduced the vulnerability of the poor to the disease.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40663 Biraben, Jean-Noel. Pasteur, pasteurization, and medicine. In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 220-32 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of Pasteur's work on mortality, with particular reference to the spread of pasteurization, asepsis, antisepsis, cleanliness, and disinfection.
Correspondence: J.-N. Biraben, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40664 Blaxter, Mildred. Fifty years on--inequalities in health. In: Population research in Britain, edited by Michael Murphy and John Hobcraft. 1991. 69-94 pp. London School of Economics and Political Science, Population Investigation Committee: London, England. In Eng.
"The first section of this paper will offer a brief review of policy and research interests in equality in health in Britain over the last half century, considering particularly how the issue has been interpreted. A second section will consider the evidence: what is the current extent of inequality and what are the trends? Finally, models of explanation for inequality in health will be discussed, since it is on these that possible solutions are necessarily based."
Correspondence: M. Blaxter, University of East Anglia, School of Economic and Social Studies, Norwich NR4 7TJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40665 Boerma, J. Ties; Sommerfelt, A. Elisabeth; Rutstein, Shea O. Childhood morbidity and treatment patterns. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 4, Aug 1991. vi, 39 pp. Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Patterns in childhood morbidity and treatment in developing countries are analyzed and compared using data from Demographic and Health Surveys for the period 1985-1989. Separate consideration is given to the prevalence and treatment of diarrhea, respiratory infections, and fever. The authors explore the impact on disease prevalence and treatment success of such socioeconomic factors as educational level of mothers, residence characteristics, family size, and access to medical facilities.
Correspondence: Institute for Resource Development/Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40666 Bourdelais, Patrice. Cholera: a victory of medicine? In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 118-30 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author determines the extent to which the decline in the number of cholera cases and in cholera mortality can be attributed to medical progress or to social and cultural factors. The paper is primarily concerned with the cholera pandemic of the 1830s and how various authorities around the world attempted to keep the disease in check. The author concludes that the improvements in personal hygiene rather than advances in medical knowledge were primarily responsible for controlling the spread of the disease. The differences in the modern world between the control of cholera in developed countries and its spread in developing countries are also considered.
Correspondence: P. Bourdelais, Centre de Recherches Historiques, 54 Boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40667 Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat. What have we learnt about the cultural, social and behavioural determinants of health? From selected readings to the first Health Transition Workshop. Health Transition Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr 1991. 3-19 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The authors critically examine findings from the Health Transition Workshop held in Canberra, Australia, in 1989. "The workshop and its proceedings furthered knowledge in at least five important areas: (1) the existence of mortality-prone households; (2) the impact of differing cultural situations of women in terms of individualism on their children's survival; (3) the mechanisms whereby maternal education is translated into child survival; (4) the impact of culture and ethnicity on mortality; and (5) indirect indices of the impact of care." The geographical scope is worldwide, with a focus on developing countries.
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40668 Feachem, Richard G.; Jamison, Dean T. Disease and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. ISBN 0-19-520826-9. LC 91-11991. 1991. xv, 356 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The purpose of this book is to document the progress made in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past few decades toward the goal outlined in the Alma Ata declaration of health for all by the year 2000. The 22 chapters by various authors are divided into three sections: patterns of mortality, specific diseases and conditions, and longitudinal studies of small populations. The section on mortality includes chapters on infant and child mortality, adult mortality, and maternal mortality. The section on diseases includes chapters on diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, measles and other target immunization diseases, malaria, AIDS, and cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The section on longitudinal studies examines small populations in Kenya, Tanzania, the Gambia, Nigeria, and Ghana.
Correspondence: World Bank, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40669 Feinleib, Manning. Proceedings of 1988 International Symposium on Data on Aging. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 5: Comparative International Vital and Health Statistics Report, No. 6, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 91-1482. ISBN 0-8406-0450-5. LC 91-10087. Aug 1991. v, 269 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a symposium held December 7-9, 1988, in Bethesda, Maryland "to develop proposals for research in measuring the health and health care of the aging. The Proceedings include papers from the plenary sessions, where measurement issues were identified, and the workshops, where specific proposals for research were outlined. Speakers and participants were...from a dozen different countries and a variety of organizations. They were selected for their expertise in the six topics addressed by the International Symposium: common chronic diseases, health promotion, vitality, functioning, mortality statistics, and outcomes of nursing home care."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40670 Frenk, Julio; Bobadilla, Jose L.; Stern, Claudio; Frejka, Tomas; Lozano, Rafael. Elements for a theory of the health transition. Health Transition Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr 1991. 21-38 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This article presents the basic elements for developing a theory of the health transition. Such elements include the definition of concepts, the specification of a framework on the determinants of health status, the analysis of the mechanisms through which health change occurs in populations, the characterization of the attributes that allow us to identify different transition models, and the enumeration of the possible consequences of the transition. The propositions are presented with a sufficient level of generality as to make them applicable to different contexts; at the same time, an attempt is made to provide them with the necessary specificity to account for different national experiences, thus opening a space for future comparative research efforts." The geographic scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: J. Frenk, National Institute of Public Health, Avenida Universidad 655, 62508 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40671 Hern, Warren M. Effects of cultural change on health and fertility in Amazonian Indian societies: recent research and projections. Population and Environment, Vol. 13, No. 1, Fall 1991. 23-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the effects of modernization and its attendant cultural changes on the health and fertility of the Indians of the Amazon River regions of Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. Following a review of recent demographic research and an assessment of the current health status of the population, the author discusses the causes of high fertility among these tribes. He concludes that "by the year 2000, the Amazon Basin countries will add at least [48.5 million] to their populations....Population pressure from outside is likely to have an enormous destructive effect on the Amazon environment and its native inhabitants. Combined with accelerating deforestation and urbanization, it means that much of the Amazon will have been transformed within 100 years from a sparsely settled wilderness rainforest with tiny, isolated settlements of indigenous inhabitants to a scrub desert interrupted by rapidly growing cities."
Correspondence: W. M. Hern, University of Colorado, Department of Anthropology, Boulder, CO 80309-0233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40672 Hord, Charlotte; David, Henry P.; Donnay, France; Wolf, Merrill. Reproductive health in Romania: reversing the Ceausescu legacy. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1991. 231-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"As a result of the restrictive reproductive health policies enforced under the 25-year Ceausescu dictatorship, Romania ended the 1980s with the highest recorded maternal mortality of any country in Europe....An estimated 87 percent of these maternal deaths were caused by illegal and unsafe abortion....Immediately after the December 1989 revolution that overthrew Ceausescu, the new government removed restrictions on contraceptive use and legalized abortion. This legislative change has had beneficial effects on women's health, seen in the drop in maternal mortality in 1990 to...almost half the ratio in 1989. In addition, changes instituted since the revolution have led to the improved availability of reproductive health services and to the creation of new educational and training opportunities related to reproductive health."
Correspondence: C. Hord, International Projects Assistance Services, PO Box 100, Carrboro, NC 27510. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40673 Johansson, S. Ryan. The health transition: the cultural inflation of morbidity during the decline of mortality. Health Transition Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr 1991. 39-68 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the study of cultural influences on health and sickness interacts with the changing biology of disease, the institutionalized conventions which govern reporting, and the economics of being sick during the health transition in such a way as to produce a long-run, but not steady, inflation in morbidity. The article discusses the policy implications which flow from taking an historically and culturally integrated approach to the study of morbidity history during the health transition, as opposed to approaches with a narrowly biological or economic perspective on health and sickness in the relatively recent past." The geographic focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: S. R. Johansson, Stanford University, Ethics in Society, Stanford, CA 94303-2155. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40674 Julien, Pierre-Andre; Vermot-Desroches, Bernard. Quebec 2001: demographic aging and health costs. [Quebec 2001: vieillissement de la population et couts de la sante.] Futuribles, No. 143, May 1990. 17-29 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The consequences of demographic aging for health expenditures in the province of Quebec, Canada, are examined, with a focus on several proposed health policies and how they might respond to changing demographic conditions.
Correspondence: P.-A. Julien, Universite du Quebec, Departement d'Administration et d'Economique, 3351 Boulevard des Forges, CP 500, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:40675 Krasovec, Katherine; Anderson, Mary A. Maternal nutrition and pregnancy outcomes: anthropometric assessment. Scientific Publication, No. 529, ISBN 92-75-11529-X. 1991. ix, 214 pp. Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This publication is the product of a meeting entitled Maternal Anthropometry for Prediction of Pregnancy Outcomes, held April 23-25, 1990, in Washington, D.C. It consists of 17 chapters by various authors on aspects of anthropometric measurement of the health and nutritional status of pregnant women in developing countries.
Correspondence: Pan American Health Organization, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40676 Lunn, Peter G. Nutrition, immunity and infection. In: The decline of mortality in Europe, edited by R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau. 1991. 131-45 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between nutrition and infection is examined in the context of developing countries, in order to throw light on the possible causes of the decline in premature mortality that has occurred in today's developed countries over the past 200 years.
Correspondence: P. G. Lunn, MRC Dunn Nutritional Laboratory, Cambridge, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40677 Medina, Ernesto; Kaempffer, Ana M. Health damage caused by the smoking habit in Chile. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1991. 248-57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The authors review available literature on tobacco use in Chile, devoting particular attention to smoking prevalences, smoking-related health problems, risk factors that tend to encourage smoking, and appropriate control measures. Overall, the available data indicate that roughly 40% of Chile's adult population smokes, that smoking among women is on the rise, that some 11% of both infant and general mortality can be linked to tobacco use, that smoking during pregnancy poses serious health risks, and that the attitudes of physicians and other health workers can have a crucial impact upon the smoking behavior of their patients."
This is a translation of the Spanish article in Boletin de la Oficina Panamericana (Washington, D.C.), No. 2, 1991, pp. 112-21.
Correspondence: E. Medina, University of Chile, School of Public Health, Avenida Bernardo O'Higgins 1058, Casilla 10-D, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40678 Ortiz, Luis P. Health conditions for mothers and infants in Ceara. An assessment of the information system for mothers. [As condicoes de saude de maes e criancas do Ceara (Avaliacao atraves de um sistema de informacoes de maternidades).] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1990. 54-73 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
By surveying mothers who gave birth in maternity hospitals in the state of Ceara, Brazil, the author assesses health indicators in order to identify the risks pregnant women of different sub-populations undergo. "The conclusion was that a large proportion of the population lives in very unfavorable conditions, with poor access to education and without proper sanitation. Although exposed to greater risks, both overall and biological, the pregnant women in the study undergo fewer prenatal checks than those who have better social and sanitary conditions. This results in greater proportions of low weight stillborn children and in higher infant mortality rates."
Correspondence: L. P. Ortiz, Fundacao Sistema Estadual de Analise de Dados, Av. Casper Libero 464, 5o andar, Caixa Postal 8223, 01033 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40679 Potts, Malcolm; Anderson, Roy; Boily, Marie-Claude. Slowing the spread of human immunodeficiency virus in developing countries. Lancet, Vol. 338, No. 8767, Sep 7, 1991. 608-13 pp. Baltimore, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine factors affecting the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developing countries. The emphasis is on public health policies based on the natural history of the infection. Field experience of AIDS prevention programs and insights from mathematical modeling are also discussed. It is concluded that present knowledge is sufficient to develop programs to control the spread of HIV, given the necessary commitment of resources, but that those programs can only be effective if all countries concerned grant them priority.
Correspondence: M. Potts, International Family Health, First Floor, Margaret Pyke Centre, 15 Bateman's Buildings, London W1V 5TW, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:40680 Riley, James C. The prevalence of chronic diseases during mortality increase: Hungary in the 1980s. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 3, Nov 1991. 489-96 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In Hungary, mortality has increased since the mid-1960s. This experience, and results from the Hungarian health surveys of 1981 and 1986, make it possible to examine an inverse version of the hypothesis that sickness rates increase when death rates decline. Overall, and in most specific adult age groups, the prevalence of chronic disease in Hungary decreased. Hungarian experience in the 1980s suggests that population composition changed through the withdrawal of 'non-survivors', individuals who lived shorter lives under the 1986 mortality regime than they would have lived under that of 1981."
Correspondence: J. C. Riley, Indiana University, Department of History, Bloomington, IN 47805. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40681 Salzberg, Allan M.; Dolins, Stanley L.; Salzberg, Carol. A multiperiod compartmental model of the HIV pandemic in the United States. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1991. 167-78 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
A model of the HIV epidemic in the United States is developed. "Before 1981, the pandemic was driven by a spike of higher infectivity which occurs shortly after infection, resulting in an explosive growth phase. By 1981, partial saturation of the highest risk groups ended this phase, and the pandemic is now governed by a lower 'average' infectivity coupled with a 10-11 [year] incubation period. The model projects 830 thousand HIV carriers by the end of 1987 and 1.2 million at the end of 1989, consistent with Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates. In the late 1990s, the number of HIV carriers could stabilize near 2.7 million, with an increasing fraction being non-drug-using heterosexuals. Without widespread anti-retroviral therapy, the cumulative case load increases to one million by the turn of the century with over 140 thousand new AIDS cases in that year."
Correspondence: A. Salzberg, Department of Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Bath, NY 14810. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:40682 Swedlund, Alan C.; Armelagos, George J. Disease in populations in transition: anthropological and epidemiological perspectives. ISBN 0-89789-175-9. LC 89-18513. 1990. viii, 386 pp. Bergin and Garvey: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of 19 essays by various authors on the transitional response mechanisms of traditional societies exposed to new diseases. The approach is interdisciplinary and includes input from epidemiological, anthropological, and population genetics viewpoints. The focus is on the factors common to the various epidemiological transitions that have occurred over the course of human history.
Correspondence: Bergin and Garvey, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40683 van de Walle, Etienne; van de Walle, Francine. Breastfeeding and popular aetiology in the Sahel. Health Transition Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, Apr 1991. 69-81 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
Attitudes toward breast-feeding in the Sahel region of Africa are discussed. "Two views about breastfeeding and the resumption of intercourse after a birth are found to prevail in Bamako and Bobo-Dioulasso...: that sexual relations may spoil the milk; and that a child should be weaned when the woman is pregnant again. Both beliefs provide a rationale to abstain, but the postpartum taboo has been greatly reduced in the area, and the second belief is the most important. 'Bad milk' serves as an explanation for many of the diarrhoeas and diseases of nutritional origin that affect infants and children. Traditional medical treatments of diarrhoea and protein calorie malnutrition are consistent with the popular aetiology. The acceptance of modern techniques of infant care in this area may well be predicated on the diffusion of an alternative model of disease causation."
Correspondence: E. van de Walle, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

57:40684 Poulain, Michel; Debuisson, Marc. Ascending genealogies and the heritability of demographic behavior. [Les genealogies ascendantes et l'heritabilite des comportements demographiques.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1990. 357-64 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The heritability of demographic behavior is examined using data going back to the seventeenth century for a random sample of individuals in Belgium for whom the demographic data of both parents and children were available. "Calculating correlation coefficients between ages of wedding, death and birth of a child shows a non-heritability of demographic behaviors although small positive correlation is perceptible in [fertility]."
Correspondence: M. Poulain, Rue du Fayt 28, 5761 Soye (Floreffe), Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1991-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.