Volume 57 - Number 4 - Winter 1991

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

No citations in this issue.

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

57:40616 Academia Sinica. Institute of Economics (Taipei, Taiwan). Conference on Demographic Transition and Socioeconomic Development. [Renkou Bian Qian Yu Jing Ji She Hui Fa Zhan Yan Tao Hui.] May 1990. 609 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi.
These are the proceedings of the Conference on Demographic Transition and Socioeconomic Development held in Taipei, Taiwan, May 8-9, 1990. There are 15 papers which discuss population trends in Taiwan and their interactions with the labor force, labor productivity, and social welfare. The papers are in Chinese, with some references given in English.
Correspondence: Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40617 Chesneau, Jean. Demography and underdevelopment. [Demographie et sous-developpement.] Defense Nationale, Vol. 46, Feb 1990. 85-92 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The relationships among underdevelopment and population factors in developing countries is examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:40618 Haiti. Institut Haitien de Statistique et d'Informatique. Division d'Analyse et de Recherche Demographique (Port-au-Prince, Haiti). A study of the relationship between population and regional development in Haiti. [Etude des relations entre la population et le developpement regional en Haiti.] Jan 1989. 64 pp. Port-au-Prince, Haiti. In Fre.
The study is concerned with spatial aspects of population trends in Haiti. The first chapter examines theoretical aspects of spatial distribution. The second chapter analyzes the relationship between regional development and the spatial distribution of the population. The third chapter outlines a regional development policy that considers demographic factors.
Correspondence: Institut Haitien de Statistique et d'Informatique, Division d'Analyse et de Recherche Demographique, Boulevard Harry Truman, Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40619 Hutaserani, Suganya; Roumasset, James. Institutional change and the demographic transition in rural Thailand. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 40, No. 1, Oct 1991. 75-100 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Economic development involves a transformation of production from reliance on a variety of traditional institutions, including the family, to reliance on markets. The demographic transition is characterized by a transformation of reproductive behavior from high to low levels of fertility. This article explains the linkages between these two related processes, using Thailand as a case study." In order to examine these connections, the authors develop a fertility decision-making model of farm households within the New Household Economics framework developed by Becker and others.
Correspondence: J. Roumasset, University of Hawaii, 2444 Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

57:40620 James, Valentine. Urban and rural development in third world countries: problems of population in developing nations. ISBN 0-89950-584-8. LC 90-53499. 1991. xiii, 350 pp. McFarland: Jefferson, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This collection of papers from scholars, educators and practitioners concerned with Third World development addresses the sociological, economic, demographic, political, cultural, technological and agricultural issues of developing nations. Some of the papers seek to explain the reasons why things seem to be the way they are in the Third World, while others describe past and present historical trends and offer suggestions on possible solutions to the problems these countries are facing." The 23 papers are divided into four parts, which are concerned with population and agriculture, appropriate technology and technology transfer, the sociological implications of urban and rural development, and economic issues of development.
Correspondence: McFarland and Company, Box 611, Jefferson, NC 28640. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40621 Kelodjoue, Samuel. Population dynamics, the development of agricultural systems, and agricultural production in the densely populated rural areas of Cameroon. [Dynamique demographique, evolution des systemes agraires et productions agricoles dans les zones a fortes densites rurales du Cameroun.] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 13, No. 1, Jun 1989. 81-111 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
The author examines changes in the agricultural systems in the most densely populated rural areas in Cameroon. He concludes that the solution to problems in these areas lies in the elimination of poverty and the development of social justice.
Correspondence: S. Kelodjoue, Ministere du Plan et de l'Amenagement du Territoire, Direction de la Statistique, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40622 Lewis, John P. Some consequences of giantism: the case of India. World Politics, Vol. 43, No. 3, Apr 1991. 367-89 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The author examines the proposition that giantism, defined as total population size, creates problems in socioeconomic development by adding more layers to official hierarchies. He identifies two solutions to problems of size. The first is decentralization, or downward delegation; the second is "sideways delegation", for example to the market sector. Positive aspects of a large population are also noted, including market size and the existence of a critical mass of skilled labor.
Correspondence: J. P. Lewis, Princeton University, 226 Bendheim Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

57:40623 Lutz, W.; Toth, F. L. Population, economy, and environment in Mauritius. IIASA Collaborative Paper, No. CP-91-001, Jan 1991. vii, 331 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a task force meeting held in Laxenburg, Austria, September 3-5, 1990, under a UNFPA-sponsored project entitled Population and Sustainable Development: Mauritius. "The objective of this project is...to study the complex interactions between population change, socioeconomic development, and the physical environment for the island of Mauritius with the help of a computer information system that allows the quick and user-friendly evaluation of different development scenarios and options for political intervention." The papers are divided into two main sections, dealing with labor force aspects and with economic development and environmental aspects.
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40624 Moreno, Lorenzo. The linkage between population and economic growth in Mexico: a new policy proposal? Latin American Research Review, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1991. 159-70 pp. Albuquerque, New Mexico. In Eng.
The author examines the implications of growing concern in the Mexican government about the need to adopt policies that link economic development to the rate of population growth. "This research note has three objectives. The first is to review the demographic parameters that will shape the dynamics of the Mexican population until the end of the century....Second, given the population dynamics of Mexico and the policy proposal mentioned earlier, I will estimate what may be the minimum expected rates of economic growth in the country. Finally, given the large differentials in the components of population growth among subpopulations in Mexico, I will suggest that if regional imbalances in fertility, mortality, and interregional migration can be reduced, the country's future development plans may accommodate the diversity of the Mexican population more readily."
Correspondence: L. Moreno, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:40625 Okpala, Amon O. Nigerian population growth and its implications for economic development. Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 1990. 63-77 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The author argues that the small or nonexistent growth in per capita income in Nigeria is largely due to the negative effects of rapid population growth. He states that the government must adopt measures designed to lower fertility. The first section "reexamines the demographic transition theory to determine its relevance to less developed countries, followed by facts about Nigerian population trends. Next, a section discusses the consequences of population growth on resources and environment. The final section summarizes and concludes the paper with an examination of what role, if any, government should play in helping reduce population growth in Nigeria."
Correspondence: A. O. Okpala, Winston-Salem State University, Department of Business and Economics, Winston-Salem, NC 27110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

57:40626 Apps, Patricia. Tax reform, population ageing and the changing labour supply behaviour of married women. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1991. 201-16 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The burden of financing retirement incomes in an ageing population is predicted to rise sharply in future decades. This paper investigates the effects of reforms to the Australian tax-benefit system involving a greater reliance on proportional taxation for raising revenue and a more targeted welfare system for cutting government expenditure, in order to reduce expected budget deficits. Estimates of changes in net incomes and hours of work suggest that reforms of this kind shift the tax burden to lower and middle income households with a second earner and that they can have counter-productive labour supply effects. The study explores the impact of projected increases in female work force participation and illustrates the importance of shifts in the labour supply of married women in predicting the fiscal effects of demographic change."
Correspondence: P. Apps, University of Sydney, Faculty of Law, 173-175 Phillip Street, Sydney NSW 2000, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40627 Fair, Ray C.; Dominguez, Kathryn M. Effects of the changing U.S. age distribution on macroeconomic equations. American Economic Review, Vol. 81, No. 5, Dec 1991. 1,276-94 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"The effects of the changing U.S. age distribution on various macroeconomic equations are examined in this paper. The equations include consumption, housing-investment, money-demand, and labor-force-participation equations. There seems to be enough variance in the age-distribution data to allow reasonably precise estimates of the effects of the age distribution on the macro variables."
Correspondence: R. C. Fair, Yale University, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:40628 Lapkoff, Shelley F. A research note on Keyfitz's "The demographics of unfunded pensions" European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jun 1991. 159-69 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author critically analyzes Nathan Keyfitz's theories concerning strategies for pension funding. "[In his] 'The demographics of unfunded pensions', [Keyfitz] discusses the performance of pay-as-you-go old age insurance plans under different financial structures....In considering the U.S. population in 1980, Keyfitz shows that disparities in cohort rates of return are less under a fixed contribution scheme than under a fixed pension scheme. This research note points out that Keyfitz's finding is limited to the specific situation in 1980. When analyzing in a broader framework the mechanics of unfunded pensions and their interaction with nonstable populations, the reverse is true: fixing the pension yields less disparity in cohort rates of return than fixing the contribution."
For the article by Keyfitz, published in 1985, see 51:10686.
Correspondence: S. F. Lapkoff, Lapkoff Demographic Research, 414 Santa Clara Avenue, Oakland, CA 94610. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40629 von Weizsacker, Robert K. Population aging and social security: a politico-economic model of state pension financing. Public Finance/Finances Publiques, Vol. 45, No. 3, 1990. 491-509 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The present paper attempts to provide a positive, politico-economic explanation of actual social security policies [in developed countries]. A theoretical framework is devised which integrates individual utility maximization and governmental maximization of expected political support. Individual support depends on how net economic benefit from a pay-as-you-go financed state pension scheme is translated into a probability of voting for the government. The relation between net economic positions, public policy parameters, and voting probabilities is made explicit by referring to the logit model of qualitative choice. The analysis is set in an overlapping generations framework. Optimal state pension policies are characterized, relating such diverse factors as population aging, political power distribution, social solidarity, and income taxation."
Correspondence: R. K. von Weizsacker, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat, Institut fur Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Finanzwissenschaftliche Abteilung, D-5300 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40630 von Weizsacker, Robert K. Population trends, social security, and government finances: political-economic aspects of pension financing. [Bevolkerungsentwicklung, soziale Sicherung und Staatsfinanzen: politisch-okonomische Aspekte der Rentenfinanzierung.] Sonderforschungsbereich 303, "Information und die Koordination Wirtschaftlicher Aktivitaten", Diskussionspapier, No. A-226, Apr 1989. 20, vi pp. Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn, Institut fur Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Finanzwissenschaftliche Abteilung: Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The impact of demographic aging on the financing of government-sponsored old-age pension systems in developed countries is discussed. A mathematical model based on the political economy of old-age insurance is presented, and results of the model are analyzed.
Correspondence: Universitat Bonn, Institut fur Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Finanzwissenschaftliche Abteilung, Adenauerallee 24-42, D-5300 Bonn 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

57:40631 Asian Population and Development Association (Tokyo, Japan). Population, development and environment in Japan: Asian experience. Population and Development Series, No. 13, Feb 1991. 94 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This report consists of six individual papers by Japanese authors on aspects of the relationships among population factors, economic development, and the environment. The focus is on the experience of Japan in this area. Consideration is given to changes in spatial distribution and urbanization.
Correspondence: Asian Population and Development Association, Nagatacho TBR Building, Room 710, 10-2 Nagatacho 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40632 Mwalyosi, Raphael B. B. Population growth, carrying capacity and sustainable development in south-west Masailand. Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 33, No. 2, Sep 1991. 175-87 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the consequences of national policies and increases in human population in south-west Masailand, Tanzania. Adoption of the Tanzanian village agricultural production system is transforming traditional pastoral societies into agro-pastoral ones. The conflicting requirements of sedentary agriculture and mobile pastoralism impose mutual limitations upon each other, leading to resource degradation and decline in both forms of production. To achieve sustainable development, the paper recommends improvement in land tenure rules, control of population growth, destocking and raising crop and livestock productivity."
Correspondence: R. B. B. Mwalyosi, Agricultural University of Norway, Norwegian Institute of Nature Research, Box 64, N-1432 As-NLH, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (ST).

57:40633 Rapaport, Moshe. Population pressure on coral atolls: trends and approaching limits. Atoll Research Bulletin, No. 340, Sep 1990. 1-33 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The carrying capacity of coral atolls in the Pacific Ocean is analyzed. The author "first considers the indigenous resources, production systems, and resource distribution. This is followed by a review of demographic trends including population growth, migration, urbanization, and political dependency....The proposed approach assumes a dynamic carrying capacity based on perceived needs and overseas linkages; explains regional disparities in population distribution; and provides a continuing model for population movement from outer islands to district centers and mainland areas."
Correspondence: M. Rapaport, East-West Center, Box 1696, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

57:40634 Rossi, Georges. Population growth, land development, and stabilization of the slopes: what future for Rwanda? [Croissance de la population, mise en valeur et equilibre des versants: quel avenir pour le Rwanda?] Cahiers d'Outre-Mer, Vol. 44, No. 173, Jan-Mar 1991. 29-47 pp. Talence, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Current estimates of population growth over the next 25 years in Rwanda predict rural population densities of between 1,000 and 1,500 inhabitants per square kilometer and farms of less than one hectare, which will have to support 8 to 12 people. These demographic pressures will involve a breakdown of traditional systems of production and land utilization that will inevitably lead to the destruction of the land's productive capacity. Apart from a rapid control of fertility, the only viable solution appears to be the agricultural development of the catchment zones in order to lessen the demographic pressures on the slopes.
Correspondence: G. Rossi, Universite Michel de Montaigne de Bordeaux III, Departement de Geographie, Espl. Michel-Montaigne, Domaine Universitaire, 33405 Talence Cedex, France. Location: New York Public Library.

57:40635 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Population and the environment: the challenges ahead. ISBN 0-89714-097-4. 1991. 44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The impact of worldwide population growth on the environment is assessed. The effects of land degradation, the loss of animal and plant life, tropical deforestation, and reduced water supplies are evaluated. Consideration is given to the effects on quality of life and on women's status, with a focus on developing countries. International and national aspects relating to population policy, health care, family planning, education, population distribution, employment, poverty, income distribution, pollution, and the management of natural resources are discussed.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40636 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Population, resources and the environment: the critical challenges. ISBN 0-89714-101-6. 1991. vi, 154 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"It is the aim of this study...to identify, define, clarify and evaluate the linkages among population, resources and environment. In doing so, it assesses prospects for remedying population impacts through incisive interventions, and puts forth ideas about the kinds of policies needed to bring about more comprehensive solutions to sustainable development." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

57:40637 Alderman, Harold; Chishti, Salim. Simultaneous determination of household and market-oriented activities of women in rural Pakistan. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 7, 1991. 245-65 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"We begin this discussion with a brief description of the time allocation of rural women in Pakistan. We then discuss the estimation technique used to explain the determinants of female time allocation as well as expectations from related studies. Particular attention is paid to the role of education in time allocation. The presentation of the results is followed with a discussion of the implications for research and programs focused on female productivity in Pakistan."
Correspondence: H. Alderman, International Food Policy Research Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40638 Blau, David M.; Robins, Philip K. Child care demand and labor supply of young mothers over time. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3, Aug 1991. 333-51 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper uses panel data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to analyze jointly fertility, employment, and child care decisions of young women over time. As these young women age (from 21 to 25 years on average) they become increasingly likely to have young children, to be employed, and to use nonrelative forms of child care. A multivariate analysis reveals that rising wage rates and changes in household structure are important determinants of these upward trends....Overall the young women in the NLSY can be characterized as being in a volatile stage of their lives, when many economic and demographic factors are changing. They appear to respond to these changes by altering their labor supply and child care behavior."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 429).
Correspondence: D. M. Blau, University of North Carolina, Department of Economics, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40639 Daliyo. Change in employment structure and educational levels in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 18, No. 35, Jun 1991. 1-26 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
"This paper will examine changes in employment structure and educational levels of the labour force in Yogyakarta Special Region [Indonesia] during the period 1976-1985. The employment structure to be examined covers industrial sector, type of occupation, and employment status." Data are from the Intercensal Population Surveys of 1976 and 1985.
Correspondence: Daliyo, Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kependudukan dan Ketenagakerjaan, PPPT-LIPI, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40640 Desai, Sonalde; Waite, Linda J. Women's employment during pregnancy and after the first birth: occupational characteristics and work commitment. American Sociological Review, Vol. 56, No. 4, Aug 1991. 551-66 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine the argument that predominantly female occupations attract women because they are relatively easy to combine with family responsibilities. "Using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the analysis focuses on the period from the year prior to the first birth through the two years following the birth as the time of maximum conflict between employment and child rearing. We find no effect of occupational sex composition on the likelihood that prospective or recent mothers are employed. Occupational characteristics that raise the cost of labor force withdrawal (high education, wages, and job-specific training) tend to decrease the probability of women's withdrawal from work, as do nonmonetary occupational characteristics. All women respond to the cost of labor force withdrawal, but women with low work commitment also respond to financial pressures and convenience of the work setting."
This paper was originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 391).
Correspondence: L. J. Waite, NORC/University of Chicago, Population Research Center, Ogburn/Stouffer Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40641 Gnanasekaran, Kottai S.; Fujikawa, Kiyoshi. Labour force and changing age structure in selected developed countries: a comparative study. Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1990. 231-9 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors examine the effects of demographic aging and the changing age structure on the labor force in the United States, Canada, and Japan over the period from 1950 to 1980. They find that "the changing age structure and population aging have generally had a favorable effect on the proportion of labour force or crude labour force rate....The remarkable feature was the rate effect of the female labour force, which was positive and often substantially reinforced the positive age effect....The proportion of the female labour force soared during the 1960s and 1970s in these countries, and a dramatic convergence of male and female labour force participation rates took place."
Correspondence: K. S. Gnanasekaran, U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Statistical Office, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40642 Henkens, Kene; Siegers, Jacques. Labour force status of older men and women in the Netherlands. Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1991. 77-94 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"In the Netherlands, the labour force participation of the elderly is low in comparison with other EC countries....This contribution presents the results of an analysis of the labour force status of 50 to 64 year old men and women. First the results are presented of bivariate and trivariate analyses of the labour force status of men and women. A distinction is made here between four types of status for men: employed, disabled for work, unemployed, and retired. For women a separate category of housewife is also included. In the bivariate and trivariate analyses, these types of status are related to age and education. The results of the multivariate analysis are then represented, using a multinomial logit model."
Correspondence: K. Henkens, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40643 Henkens, Kene; Siegers, Jacques. The decision to retire: the case of Dutch men aged 50-64. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1991. 231-49 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The main aim of this paper is to determine the extent to which people respond to economic incentives with respect to the decision to retire from the labour force. The data used are for Dutch men aged 50-64. First, a brief description is given of the labour force status of the elderly in the Netherlands. Then an attempt is made to estimate the impact on the retirement decision of the replacement rate and the income of the spouse by estimating a five-equation model. It is concluded that these economic factors play a significant role."
Correspondence: K. Henkens, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40644 Kposowa, Augustine J. The effects of immigration on the United States labor market, 1940 to 1980: earnings depression, native displacement, and economic dependence. Pub. Order No. DA9105147. 1990. 262 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Ohio State University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(10).

57:40645 Meusburger, Peter; Schmude, Jurgen. The relationship between community size, female employment rates and the educational level of the female labour force. IGU/UGI Working Paper, No. 12, [1991?]. 22 pp. International Geographical Union, Study Group on Gender and Geography: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to show that the rank of a city in the urban system (the size of a city)...strongly influences both the age-specific female employment rates and the educational level of the female labour force at the place of work. Also the feminization process of many occupations closely corresponds to the size of the city where the jobs are located. The paper also shows that the specific patterns of female employment rates reflect changing ideologies, state policies and attitudes of the society." The focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: Janet Momsen, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, International Geographical Union, Study Group on Gender and Geography, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40646 Park, Ju-Moon; Sohn, Ae-Ree. Individual effects on married women's labor force participation in Korea. Journal of Population, Health and Social Welfare, Vol. 10, No. 2, Dec 1990. 136-51 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
The authors analyze the factors influencing the participation of married women in the labor force in the Republic of Korea. Data are from the 1988 Korean National Fertility and Family Health Survey and cover 8,229 married women aged 15-49 years, who are living with their husbands. Reasons for the significant increase in female labor force participation that has occurred are discussed.
Correspondence: J.-M. Park, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40647 Shakhatreh, Hussein I. A. The determinants of female labor force participation in Jordan. Pub. Order No. DA9034511. 1990. 167 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(7).

57:40648 Smith, James P. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 7, 1991. 131-56 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper studies life-cycle career wage and employment histories of male workers in Malaysia....These labor market histories were investigated with an eye towards identifying the main consequences of economic development for the earnings and employment patterns that we observe within labor markets. Particular attention was directed at isolating how the benefits of this growth were distributed between the young and the old, the more and less educated, rural and urban areas of the country, and among Malaysia's three main ethnic groups. An equally important aim was to identify...those factors that appear to be the likely contributors to Malaysia's success....[The results indicate that] investments made in improving the skills of its people through formal schooling and job training programs, and the emphasis placed on technical advances in its most important commodities, seem the most cogent explanations for Malaysia's growth."
Correspondence: J. P. Smith, RAND Corporation, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40649 Sullivan, Oriel; Falkingham, Jane. Unemployment: family circumstances and childhood correlates among young people in Britain. In: Population research in Britain, edited by Michael Murphy and John Hobcraft. 1991. 115-32 pp. London School of Economics and Political Science, Population Investigation Committee: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper identifies some of the early correlates of unemployment among young people in Britain, and investigates how the experience of unemployment interacts with early childbearing behaviour." Data are primarily from the Labour Force Survey of 1981. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between family size and unemployment. The results suggest that the unemployed marry earlier and have children sooner than those who are employed.
Correspondence: O. Sullivan, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40650 Wright, Robert E.; Hinde, P. R. Andrew. The dynamics of full-time and part-time female labour force participation in Great Britain. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1991. 201-30 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper, the dynamics of female labour force participation in Great Britain have been examined, stressing the distinction between full-time and part-time employment. We have found that certain socio-economic factors have differential effects on the transitions associated with these two types of employment. The analysis indicates that marital status, the number and age of dependent children and age are important factors in explaining transitions to and from full-time and part-time employment." Data are from the 1980 Women and Employment Survey.
Correspondence: R. E. Wright, Institute for Research on Public Policy, 275 Slater Street, 5th Floor, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5H9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40651 Yamamoto, Chizuko. A note on the length of working life for household heads. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jan 1991. 61-5 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Two methods for the calculation of length of working life are examined with regard to their applicability to women's labor force participation in Japan. The author concludes that the method developed by John D. Durand is more adapted to this purpose than the Wolfbein-Wool model.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40652 Zimmermann, Klaus F. Ageing and the labor market: age structure, cohort size and unemployment. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1991. 177-200 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The paper studies the effects of relative cohort size and relative cohort age on unemployment [in Germany]. The time-series analysis employs cointegration techniques to discriminate between short-run and long-run developments. The econometric investigations suggest that in the long-run, there is no sufficient evidence that young cohorts experience higher unemployment rates if their cohort size is relatively high. In the short-run, there is in general a positive impact on relative cohort size and relative cohort age on unemployment."
Correspondence: K. F. Zimmermann, University of Munich, Seminar of Labor and Population Economics, Ludwigstrasse 28 RG, W-8000 Munich 22, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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