Volume 57 - Number 4 - Winter 1991

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

57:40360 Aghajanian, Akbar. Women's roles and recent marriage trends in Iran. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1991. 17-28 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines recent marriage trends in Iran. The available data suggest a significant up-trend in the number and rate of marriage since 1979. This trend is consistent with the social philosophy of Islam, advocated in the Islamic Republic. The factors behind this up-trend in marriage are analyzed in the context of this philosophy and in relation to social and legal changes which have been introduced in Iranian society. In addition to religious promotion of marriage and procreation, the long continued war with Iraq, younger age structure, slowdown in increasing pattern of age of marriage for women and significant decline in age of marriage for men, remarriage and polygyny seem to be contributing to this up-trend in marriage."
Correspondence: A. Aghajanian, Fayetteville State University, 1200 Murchison Road, Fayetteville, NC 28301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40361 Antoine, Philippe; Nanitelamio, Jeanne. Changes in women's status and urbanization in Africa. [Nouveaux statuts feminins et urbanisation en Afrique.] Genus, Vol. 46, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1990. 17-30 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita.
The authors examine the effects of urbanization in Africa on women's status, with a focus on Western Africa. Consideration is given to demographic and social trends and how they affect marriage patterns. Particular attention is paid to analyzing the increase in female celibacy.
Correspondence: P. Antoine, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, BP 1386, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40362 Boozer, Michael A.; Guinnane, Timothy W. The use of own-child checks to determine remarriage status. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 4, Nov 1991. 609-17 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The 1900 Federal Census of the United States did not ask currently-married women whether they had been married previously. This note uses the direct report on remarriage in the 1910 census to evaluate the performance of the 'own-child checks' that several researchers have used with the 1900 census to substitute for direct information on remarriage. Accurate information on remarriage status is important for fertility and mortality estimation methods that rely on marital duration. The checks detect fewer than two-thirds of wives who report they are remarried. The use of these checks, however, does not introduce large amounts of error in an analysis of either fertility or mortality. The checks work better for white women than for black women."
Correspondence: T. W. Guinnane, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Princeton, NJ 08544. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40363 Bozon, Michel. Marriage and social mobility in France. [Mariage et mobilite sociale en France.] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jun 1991. 171-90 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes the effects of marriage on the social positions of the two partners. Data are from a 1983-1984 survey of 2,957 persons aged 18 to 45 years, who were living in France in consensual unions or marriages. Consideration is given to the social statuses of the partners and their families, and to partners' occupational status.
Correspondence: M. Bozon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40364 Bumpass, Larry L.; Sweet, James A.; Cherlin, Andrew. The role of cohabitation in declining rates of marriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 53, No. 4, Nov 1991. 913-27 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We compare trends in marriage and remarriage to trends in these variables when cohabitation is included, and examine education differences in the rise of cohabitation [in the United States]. We then document the characteristics of cohabiting couples in terms of the duration of the union, presence of children, perceived stability, marriage plans, and opinions about cohabitation. Finally, we analyze several marriage-related attitude items among all unmarried persons under age 35....Attitudes concerning cohabitation and marriage suggest that while most expect to marry, normative pressures toward marriage are not very high....The picture that is emerging is that cohabitation is very much a family status, but one in which levels of certainty about the relationship are lower than in marriage." Data are from the National Survey of Families and Households conducted in 1987-1988.
Correspondence: L. L. Bumpass, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40365 Burkhauser, Richard V.; Duncan, Greg J.; Hauser, Richard; Berntsen, Roland. Wife or frau, women do worse: a comparison of men and women in the United States and Germany after marital dissolution. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3, Aug 1991. 353-60 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors use official data for the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany to analyze and compare the economic effects of marital dissolution on men and women. They find that "first, men are more likely than women to work and to earn more in the labor market, both before and after a marital split. Second, mothers are more likely than fathers to care for children after divorce or separation. Unless social policy offsets these realities with a substantial increase in private and social transfers, marital breakups will continue to pose a greater economic threat to women and children than to men. In both countries, government tax and transfers tend to mitigate this disparate economic outcome, but in neither country do they come close to offsetting it. In spite of its more elaborate system of public transfers, Germany appears less able than the United States to protect divorcing women from reductions in relative economic status."
Correspondence: R. V. Burkhauser, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40366 Caldwell, John C.; Orubuloye, I. O.; Caldwell, Pat. The destabilization of the traditional Yoruba sexual system. Population and Development Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1991. 229-62, 373-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Ekiti Yoruba society, in Nigeria, is characterized, like many African societies, by high levels of polygyny, necessitating a late age of male marriage, and by a long duration of postpartum female sexual abstinence. Thus about three-quarters of postpubertal males have no current access to a wife for sexual activity in a society that does not enforce male continence. The contemporary solution is a high level of male premarital and extramarital sexuality, which is partly dependent on the availability of commercial sex in urban areas, later female marriage, and significant numbers of divorced, separated, or widowed women who have not remarried. It has been claimed that traditional society was more restricted in each of these regards. Yet it appears probable that there was an even more constrained access to marital sexuality and no greater enforcement of male continence in the past. This investigation employs surveys, anthropological study, and historical reports to describe the traditional sexual system and to show when and why it changed."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, Health Transition Centre, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40367 de Graaf, A. The impact of divorced parents on women's demographic behavior. [De invloed van echtscheiding van de ouders op demografisch gedrag van de vrouw.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 39, No. 8, Aug 1991. 30-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article examines whether women who experienced parental divorce behave differently with respect to leaving the parental home, cohabitation, marriage and birth than women who grew up in families with both natural parents....Data are used from the Netherlands Fertility Survey conducted in February 1988....[Results show that] women who [lived] with one of the natural parents were more likely to have left home than women who [lived] with both natural parents. Women from one-parent families also cohabited more than women from two-parent families....For the divorce-rates no significant difference between the two categories of women was found....Married women aged 18-37 who grew up in one-parent families have fewer children than other women."
An English-language version of this article is available from the publisher.
Correspondence: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Department of Population Statistics, P.O. Box 959, 2270 AZ Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40368 Desrosiers, Helene; Le Bourdais, Celine. The impact of age at marriage and timing of first birth on marriage dissolution in Canada. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1991. 29-51 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors examine the relationships among female marriage age, childbearing patterns, and marital dissolution. "Using proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates on recent Canadian data, this research reveals that the timing of marriage still exerts a strong net influence on the propensity of women to experience marital breakdown. Taking into account age at marriage, women who conceive their first child within marriage appear significantly less likely to experience a separation regardless of timing of birth."
Correspondence: H. Desrosiers, Universite du Quebec, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Urbanisation, 3465 Rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40369 Ermisch, John F.; Wright, Robert E. The duration of lone parenthood in Great Britain. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jun 1991. 129-58 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines whether the duration of [female] lone parenthood in Great Britain is dependent on demographic and economic factors that also affect the living standards of lone parents and their families....These durations are modelled with hazard regression techniques and data from the marital, demographic and employment histories of the 1980 Women and Employment Survey." Results indicate that age, occupation, and timing of employment are strongly associated with the duration of single parenthood. The age and number of children (except for women with four or more) do not appear to affect chances of remarriage; but women in poorer economic circumstances tend to remain lone parents longer.
Correspondence: J. F. Ermisch, University of Glasgow, Department of Political Economy, Adam Smith Building, Glasgow GI2 8QQ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40370 Faron, Olivier. Toward a model of urban nuptiality: an analysis of marriages celebrated in the Milan church of San Marco during the first half of the nineteenth century (1815-1865). [Pour un modele de nuptialite citadine: analyse des mariages celebres dans l'eglise milanaise de San Marco pendant la premiere moitie du XIXe siecle (1815-1865).] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1990. 239-57 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in nuptiality in the Italian city of Milan in the nineteenth century are analyzed using church records. Consideration is given to seasonal variations in marriage, and to age at marriage, and social class, as well as to the existence of a significant level of permanent celibacy.
Correspondence: O. Faron, Ecole Francaise de Rome, Piazza Farnese 67, Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40371 Ferraro, Gary P. Marriage and conjugal roles in Swaziland: persistence and change. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 21, No. 2, Autumn 1991. 89-128 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines one set of relationships central to the Swazi household--marriage and conjugal roles--and how those relationships have changed over the last half century. Information has been analyzed on such topics as types of marriages contracted, the age at marriage, choice of spouse, attitudes towards and participation in polygyny, the nature of conjugal roles, and the question of divorce. This study has drawn upon a wide range of sources including (1) an analysis of civil records from the office of the District Commissioner in Manzini, Swaziland; (2) data collected previously by other social scientists; and (3) survey data gathered especially for this study. The study concludes that while changes have occurred, many traditional patterns of marriage and family continue to be important in contemporary Swazi society."
Correspondence: G. P. Ferraro, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC 28223. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40372 Fialova, Ludmila. The Czechoslovak population by age and family status after 1945. [Obyvatelstvo podle veku a rodinneho stavu v Ceskoslovensku po roce 1945.] Demografie, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1991. 114-20 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Three distinct stages in the development of family structure in Czechoslovakia since 1945 are identified. Between 1945 and 1965, significant changes were evidenced by a decline in marriage age for both sexes and an increase in the ratio of married persons under the age of 30, along with increases in the numbers of widows and divorced persons. From 1966 to 1979, the population structure remained fairly stable. The numbers of single persons and widows increased slightly in the 1980s, while divorces increased dramatically. According to the author, however, the most significant trend of the latter period is the growth in the numbers of persons living together outside of marriage.
Correspondence: L. Fialova, 250 66 Zdiby 16, Prague Vychod, Czechoslovakia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40373 Gu, Jiangtang. Marital status of the aged population in Beijing. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1989. 439-48 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Results are presented from a survey on the marital status of 2,003 men and women aged over 60 years living in Beijing, China, in 1987. Consideration is given to the number of unmarried, widowhood, divorce, number of marriages, and the survival of both spouses, as well as education and income.
Correspondence: J. Gu, Beijing College of Economics, Institute of Economy, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40374 Hirosima, Kiyosi; Yamamoto, Michiko. Nuptiality trends in Japan: 1988-1989. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 4, Jan 1991. 74-85 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Nuptiality rates for Japan during 1988 and 1989 are analyzed and compared with trends in earlier years. The authors note that the total number of marriages is increasing, the rate for first marriages is declining while that for second or subsequent marriages is increasing, and the average age at marriage is rising.
Correspondence: K. Hirosima, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40375 Hoem, Jan M. To marry, just in case...: the Swedish widow's-pension reform and the peak in marriages in December 1989. Acta Sociologica, No. 34, 1991. 127-35 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"On 1 January 1990, new regulations were introduced for the Swedish National Widow's Pension Scheme. The transitional provisions of the reform made it advantageous for many people to marry before the end of 1989 rather than later. The result was an abnormally large number of weddings in December 1989. This highlights the lack of firm norms that govern whether Swedish couples choose to marry or to live in consensual union. It also raises questions concerning how economic rationality works in practice."
Correspondence: J. M. Hoem, University of Stockholm, Demography Unit, Stockholm S-106 91, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40376 Korenman, Sanders; Neumark, David. Marriage, motherhood, and wages. NBER Working Paper, No. 3473, Oct 1990. 15, [11] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors explore "the consequences of a number of potential problems with drawing causal inferences from cross-sectional relationships between marriage, motherhood, and wages. These problems include: endogeneity of marriage and motherhood, and experience and tenure; heterogeneity; and selectivity into employment. [They] have three main findings to report. First, introducing experience and tenure into wage equations...attenuates but does not eliminate the large negative relationship between children and wages....Second, first-difference specifications suggest that fixed unobservables bias cross-sectional estimates of the effects of children on wages. Short first-differences (estimated over a two-year period) indicate no negative effects of motherhood on wages. Finally, standard sample selection corrections, as well as selectivity tests that do not depend upon specifying an employment equation, provide no evidence of selectivity bias from using a sample of recent changers (women who are employed despite recent changes of marital or fertility states)." Data are from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women and cover those aged 26-36 in 1980.
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40377 Landale, Nancy S.; Tolnay, Stewart E. Group differences in economic opportunity and the timing of marriage: blacks and whites in the rural South, 1910. American Sociological Review, Vol. 56, No. 1, 1991. 33-45 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Because access to economic opportunities is typically distributed unevenly in society, economic conditions will not affect the marriage behavior of all groups in the same way. An examination of the timing of marriage among white and black residents of the rural [U.S.] South in 1910 strongly supports our hypotheses. Whites delayed marriage in areas where farmland was expensive and manufacturing employment was available. Farm tenancy clearly facilitated early marriage among blacks, while the price of land and availability of manufacturing opportunities had no effect on the timing of marriage. These findings are interpreted in light of the class and caste distinctions characteristic of the Southern stratification system in the early twentieth century."
Correspondence: N. S. Landale, Pennsylvania State University, Population Issues Research Center, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:40378 Landale, Nancy S.; Forste, Renata. Patterns of entry into cohabitation and marriage among mainland Puerto Rican women. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 4, Nov 1991. 587-607 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper adds to our limited knowledge of racial and ethnic variation in union formation by describing and analyzing the first unions of mainland Puerto Rican women [in the United States]. Retrospective history data show that Puerto Ricans have shared in the post-1970 shift toward cohabitation. Puerto Rican women, however, are much more likely to enter informal first unions than the general population, and have a low propensity to transform informal unions into legal marriages. The paper examines the influence of family background and current activities on union timing and type. The relationship between partner attributes and the choice between formal and informal coupling is also considered."
Correspondence: N. S. Landale, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, Population Issues Research Center, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40379 Liefbroer, Aart C. The choice between a married or unmarried first union by young adults: a competing risk analysis. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1991. 273-98 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper the choice between marriage and unmarried cohabitation as a first union by young adults is studied. A hazard analysis is performed on a sample of 590 26-year-old men and women from the Netherlands. Students are much less likely to start a union in general, and marriage in particular, than are other categories of young adults. Young adults living at home are less likely to enter a consensual union than those living on their own. Religious young adults are much less likely to enter a consensual union and much more likely to marry than are non-religious ones. Educational attainments at age 16 do not influence union formation."
Correspondence: A. C. Liefbroer, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40380 Lutz, Wolfgang; Wils, Anne B.; Nieminen, Mauri. The demographic dimensions of divorce: the case of Finland. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 3, Nov 1991. 437-53 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to disentangle simultaneous demographic effects on divorce probabilities by means of age-period-cohort-type models. A multi-dimensional analysis of divorce probabilities in Finland between 1948 and 1984 is presented by period, marriage cohort, and duration, and for the year 1984 by age, age at marriage, and duration. Effects of order of marriage, number of children, and age of youngest child are also studied....For the changes between 1948 and 1984, period effects turn out to be much more important for the increase in divorce than cohort effects. As regards period analysis for 1984, a quite surprising pattern appears: neither a specific duration of marriage (usually risk is highest at durations of between four and six years), nor a young age at marriage present the major risk factors, but young age itself."
Correspondence: W. Lutz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40381 Malhotra, Anju. Gender and changing generational relations: spouse choice in Indonesia. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 4, Nov 1991. 549-70 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Many Asian societies are undergoing a nuptiality transition that is not only tied integrally to other aspects of family organization, but is also often more complex than standard studies of female age at marriage can reveal....We focus on the patterns of spouse choice for both men and women in central Java [Indonesia]. The extent of parental control over mate selection is examined for change over time, gender differences, and likely determinants, including family class, education, premarital work, and residence. It is argued that the current marriage transition in Indonesia reflects both gender and generational hierarchies in the Javanese family system....A multinomial logit model...yields results strongly supportive of the argument that the determinants of spouse selection differ by gender. The results also show that although there is a dramatic shift towards self-choice marriages, it is occurring within the context of historical and institutional factors specific to Javanese society."
Correspondence: A. Malhotra, University of Maryland, Department of Sociology, Center on Population, Gender and Social Inequality, College Park, MD 20742-1315. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40382 Manniche, Erik. Marriage and non-marital cohabitation in Denmark. Familjerapporter, No. 20, 1991. 35 pp. Uppsala Universitet: Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng.
This is a description of the emergence and development of nonmarital cohabitation in Denmark from the late 1950s to the present. The author also examines age factors, marriage tables, and indicators of consensual unions.
Correspondence: Uppsala University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 513, S-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40383 Manting, Dorien. First union formation in the Netherlands. PDOD Paper, No. 5, Aug 1991. 13, [3] pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper, it is stressed that the varying ways in which cohabitation and marriage may be viewed will lead to different kinds of modelling. Several models are shown that are linked with the different theoretical notions about the dependency between cohabitation and marriage. If the differences between cohabitation and marriage are viewed as a non-issue, a process of first union formation is analysed. When one assumes that there [exists] a process leading to a union formation and a process leading to the choice between cohabitation and marriage, a sequential process is formulated. A competing risk model is linked with cohabitation as an alternative to marriage. And next, a staging model is associated with viewing cohabitation as a prelude to marriage or as an alternative to singlehood." Data are for the Netherlands.
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Jodenbreestraat 23, 1011 NH Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40384 Meyer, Dagmar. Divorce in the former German Democratic Republic. [Ehescheidung in der ehemaligen DDR.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1991. 33-47 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Divorce rates in the German Democratic Republic are analyzed. The author notes that divorce rates increased from 1960 to 1987, when a leveling occurred. Consideration is given to the number of divorced persons by age and sex, age at first marriage, age at first birth, marriage duration, maternal age, and number of children. The political and economic instability of the 1980s is discussed in terms of its effect on the family and on marital relationships.
Correspondence: D. Meyer, Institut fur Soziologie und Sozialpolitik, Forschungsgruppe Familie, Otto-Nuschke-Strasse 10/11, O-1086 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40385 Miller, Brent C.; Heaton, Tim B. Age at first sexual intercourse and the timing of marriage and childbirth. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 53, No. 3, Aug 1991. 719-32 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"In this analysis, age at first intercourse is viewed as a life course transition that can influence marriage and childbearing. Analysis is based on the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III. Early initiation of sexual activity is associated with a relatively slow pace of family formation, but early initiators do catch up with late initiators. Teenagers who begin sexual activity early are more likely to form a family through giving birth than through marriage. These patterns are not greatly altered by the introduction of several control variables. Finally, blacks and non-Hispanic whites have quite different trajectories of marriage and childbirth following first intercourse."
Correspondence: B. C. Miller, Utah State University, Department of Family and Human Development, Logan, UT 84322-2905. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40386 Otani, Kenji. Time distributions in the process to marriage and pregnancy in Japan. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 3, Nov 1991. 473-87 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In order to clarify factors affecting the timing of marriage and pregnancy of Japanese women, this paper examines the timing of marriage, the age at which women first met the men they eventually married, the time that elapsed between first meeting and engagement, between engagement and marriage, and between engagement and first conception for the 1937-1955 birth cohorts. Women resorting to an arranged marriage showed a large increase in the age at first meeting as well as marriage age, while women marrying on a love-match basis did not. Supporting the hypothesis that there are three stages of Japanese women's attitude towards marriage, which affect the pattern of time schedule to marriage, it is found that women with a larger probability of career-seeking are likely to have a higher age at first meeting and a longer time between engagement and marriage even in love-match cases. This study suggests that a large proportion of women preferred their marriage to be a love match, but only a minority were career-oriented in Japan."
Correspondence: K. Otani, Kansai University, Faculty of Economics, 3-35 Yamate-cho 3-chome, Suita-shi, Osaka 564, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40387 Otite, Onigu. Marriage and family systems in Nigeria. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 21, No. 2, Autumn 1991. 15-54 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The study focuses on traditional marriage and family patterns in Nigeria and consequences of change for Nigeria. The study identifies directions of change, rate of change, and the causes of change in marriage and the family. An attempt is made to point out that recent changes in the [status] of Nigerian women may recast marriage and the family in new and different molds. It appears the Nigerian family is moving slowly towards the western nuclear family model."
Correspondence: O. Otite, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40388 Quinteiro, Maria da C. Married but not married: consensual unions in the middle and working classes. [Casados nao casados: unioes consensuais nas camadas medias e populares.] Textos NEPO, No. 19, Dec 1990. 70 pp. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao [NEPO]: Campinas, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of changing marriage patterns in Brazil is presented, using data from a survey carried out in the city of Sao Paulo in 1987. The focus is on the growing popularity of consensual unions among the middle and working classes.
Correspondence: Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Caixa Postal 6166, CEP 13081, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40389 Reddy, P. H. Family structure and age at marriage: evidence from a South Indian village. Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3-4, Jul-Oct 1991. 253-66 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author uses data from a village in South India to question the assumption that age at marriage of males is lower in joint than in nuclear families, because males in joint families are not directly responsible for supporting their wives and children. "Available evidence shows that age at marriage of males is lower in nuclear than in joint families and that wives and children far from being a liability are an asset and the need for female labour is more acute in nuclear than in joint families. There is no clear relationship between age at marriage of females and family structure."
Correspondence: P. H. Reddy, Government of Karnataka, Population Centre, Malleswaram, Bangalore 560 003, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:40390 Richard, Madeline A. Ethnic groups and marital choices: ethnic history and marital assimilation in Canada, 1871 and 1971. ISBN 0-7748-0380-0. 1991. xi, 189 pp. UBC Press: Vancouver, Canada. In Eng.
This study is concerned with rates of intermarriage between members of different European ethnic and cultural groups in Canada. Using data from the 1871 and 1971 censuses, the author examines the extent of intermarriage, variations in intermarriage by ethnic group, the correlates of intermarriage, and changes between the two time periods. "In addition to delineating general patterns of intermarriage, as well as trends for the English, Irish, Scottish, French, and Germans, this study determines the effects of a husband's level of literacy, nativity, age, and place of residence on the odds of marrying outside his ethno-religious origin, and the effect of an ethnic group's sociodemographic characteristics on the propensity to marry exogamously. [The author's] findings confirm that marital assimilation was occurring in Canada to some extent as early as 1871 and that the rate of intermarriage has doubled since then."
Correspondence: UBC Press, 6344 Memorial Road, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2, Canada. Location: New York Public Library.

57:40391 Singarimbun, Masri. Changes in marriage patterns in Java. [Perkawinan pada masyarakat Jawa.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 18, No. 35, Jun 1991. 27-41 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper reviews the changes that have taken place in the marriage pattern among rural Javanese. Low age at marriage and decision regarding marriage made by the parents were the norms in the past. Consummation of marriage was frequently delayed. Although marriage has been highly valued in the society, [the] divorce rate was high. With the advance of education and social progress in general, changes have taken place. Age at marriage has gone up, parental role in marital decision making has declined and the divorce rate has dropped significantly."
Correspondence: M. Singarimbun, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Pusat Penelitian Kependudukan, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40392 Smith, Ken R.; Zick, Cathleen D.; Duncan, Greg J. Remarriage patterns among recent widows and widowers. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3, Aug 1991. 361-74 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The goal of this study is to estimate how hazard rates for remarriage vary among widows and widowers [in the United States] on the basis of both observable and unobservable characteristics. The remarriage estimates rely on nationally representative samples of widows and widowers from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics....Among middle-aged widows, blacks and those with dependent children in the home have lower rates of remarriage. For middle-aged widowers, living in urbanized areas limits the prospects of remarriage. For older widowers, education and...economic status appear to have positive effects on the remarriage rates. Overall, age and time since widowhood have the strongest and most consistent effects on remarriage rates for different widowed groups."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 463).
Correspondence: K. R. Smith, University of Utah, Department of Family and Consumer Studies, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40393 South, Scott J. Sociodemographic differentials in mate selection preferences. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 53, No. 4, Nov 1991. 928-40 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Data from over 2,000 respondents in the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households are used to examine sociodemographic differentials in the stated willingness of individuals to marry persons with various social, economic, and demographic characteristics....While largely exploratory, it draws on exchange and marriage market theories to develop hypotheses relating age, race, sex, and socioeconomic resources to respondents' stated willingness to marry persons outside the normative age range; who have been previously married; who already have children; who are of a different religion and race; who have relatively high or low earnings and education; and who are not physically attractive....Although the analysis should not be considered a critical test of these theories, the hypotheses drawn from exchange theory generally fare better than those drawn from theories of the marriage market."
Correspondence: S. J. South, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40394 Teachman, Jay D.; Thomas, Jeffrey; Paasch, Kathleen. Legal status and the stability of coresidential unions. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 4, Nov 1991. 571-86 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, we examine the effect of the legal status of coresidential unions on the likelihood of dissolution. We find that legal unions are much more stable than nonlegal unions. In addition, current legal status is more important for predicting stability of union than is legal status at the initiation of the union. We also find that the effect of current legal status remains constant over various durations of unions and that legalizing a nonlegal union has little effect beyond that expected on the basis of occupying a particular legal status."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 410).
Correspondence: J. D. Teachman, University of Maryland, Department of Sociology, Center on Population, Gender and Social Inequality, College Park, MD 20742-1315. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40395 Wilson, Barbara F. The marry-go-round. American Demographics, Vol. 13, No. 10, Oct 1991. 52-4 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes patterns of marriage, divorce, remarriage, and widowhood by age and sex in the United States for the year 1987.
Correspondence: B. F. Wilson, National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40396 Wolf, Diane L. Factory daughters, the family, and nuptiality in Java. Genus, Vol. 46, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1990. 45-54 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper, based upon primary data collected by the author, examines the effects of female employment in rural-based modern, large factories upon marriage patterns in Java [Indonesia]. The increased economic autonomy gained through factory employment and wages has contributed to increased female autonomy in important life decisions such as the timing of marriage and choice of spouse, and in time, will also be manifest in family formation and fertility as well. A framework of gender stratification guides this inquiry into female labour, industrialization, and marriage in rural Java."
Correspondence: D. L. Wolf, University of California, Department of Sociology, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

57:40397 Aquilino, William S. Family structure and home-leaving: a further specification of the relationship. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 53, No. 4, Nov 1991. 999-1,010 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This article investigates the impact of childhood family structure on the timing of home-leaving [in the United States]....This research builds on previous work by examining the influence of a wider array of childhood living arrangements on home-leaving, and by exploring the differential impact of family structure on the transitions to semiautonomy, marriage, and residential independence....The results...show that childhood family structure has a substantial impact on both the timing of first home-leaving and the pathway out of the parental home. For both men and women, exposure to most forms of nonintact family structure increases the probability of an early transition to residential independence and decreases the likelihood of leaving to attend school. Among the nonintact family types, adoption and nonparental living arrangements exert the strongest influence on home-leaving." Data are from the 1987-1988 National Survey of Families and Households.
Correspondence: W. S. Aquilino, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40398 Birdsall, Nancy. Birth order effects and time allocation. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 7, 1991. 191-213 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, a model is developed in which the explanation for birth-order effects does not rely on absence of capital markets, but follows from optimal allocation of parental time and goods among children over the childrearing years. The model yields two key results, which are then tested using 1967-1968 household survey data from urban Colombia....It is shown that first and last-born children of mothers who do not work have an advantage over middle-borns....At the same time, as predicted, there are no differences by birth order among children of working mothers. The persistence of birth-order effects even in high-income families indicates that such effects are at least in part due to the time constraint modelled; this is a strong result given the possibility of better substitutes for mother's time than allowed for in the model, and the likelihood that high-income families are able to purchase better substitutes."
Correspondence: N. Birdsall, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40399 Borrel, Catherine; Thave, Suzanne. Twenty-two percent of families, forty percent of children. [22% des familles, 40% des enfants.] Economie et Statistique, No. 224, Sep 1989. 51-5 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors note the decline in the number and changes in characteristics of large families in France, with consideration given to socioeconomic factors. "In 1982, 22% of all families had three children or more, and 3% at least five. Nearly two thirds of the latter could be found among the working classes, and more than a third were families of immigrants. The standard of living of a large family is half that of a family with one child. The modest income of large families is due to the social environment, but also to the fact that the mothers of these families very seldom work. A new type of large family is developing: a family reconstituted by the union of two persons who had children from a previous union."
Correspondence: S. Thave, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, Direction des Statistiques Demographiques, Division Etudes Sociales, 18 Boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 12, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:40400 Bumpass, Larry. Emerging issues in demographic research in the United States. In: Population research in Britain, edited by Michael Murphy and John Hobcraft. 1991. 177-88 pp. London School of Economics and Political Science, Population Investigation Committee: London, England. In Eng.
The author "speculates about the processes underlying recent trends in U.S. families. The discussion then briefly overviews emerging data and research styles relating to family transitions, and then concludes by describing the design and scope of [the] National Survey of Families and Households."
Correspondence: L. Bumpass, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40401 Carlin, Paul S. Intra-family bargaining and time allocation. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 7, 1991. 215-43 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates a new empirical implication of the cooperative bargaining model of family decision-making: the effect of threat point variations on time allocation decisions of the husband and wife....The bargaining model examined in this paper utilizes the cooperative game theory approach which assumes, among other things, that both players (spouses) know each other's utility function. With many family decisions such as marital dissolution, timing and spacing of children, labor market entry or reentry for the wife, it is not necessarily true that the preferences of each spouse are accurately known by the other....In the context of the two-period model sketched out in this paper, bargaining between husband and wife over the extent of human capital investment for the wife, and the time allocation tradeoffs necessary to attain such an investment might be fruitfully modelled in a noncooperative framework." Data are from a variety of sources, including a University of Michigan study of couples' time-allocation patterns in 37 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.
Correspondence: P. S. Carlin, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN 46202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40402 Crommentuijn, Leon; Hooimeijer, Pieter. Leaving the parental home. PDOD Paper, No. 4, Sep 1991. 15 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors analyze the process of leaving the parental home using data for the Netherlands. "First, several covariates that influence the timing of leaving the parental home, will be discussed. Second, an evaluation will be given of various models and methods to analyze the process of nestleaving. Third, using log-linear analysis, it will be shown that a non-proportional hazard model...generates results that can be interpreted consistently. Finally, the model will be used to see whether regional differences in the timing of nestleaving can be attributed to variation in the regional population structures with respect to the covariates in the model."
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Jodenbreestraat 23, 1011 NH Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40403 De Vos, Susan. Change in household composition in Brazil: a preliminary view. CDE Working Paper, No. 90-27, [1990?]. 15 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"A preliminary examination of census figures from Brazil for 1960, 1970 and 1980 suggests that there was a rise in the proportion of solitary households [in this period], but that changes in the proportion of nuclear family households and extended family households differed in the 1960s and 1970s. Existing theories would not have predicted this change, leading one to conclude that there is need for a theoretical formulation that could explain these findings."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40404 Deven, Freddy. Living arrangements in Flanders in the eighties. Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1991. 39-51 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"This contribution provides an overall picture of the kind of living arrangements characterizing Flanders [Belgium] during the 1980s. Three main types of living arrangements--singles, couples, families--are further distinguished (e.g. couples on the basis of their marital status and families according to the number and type of parents available to the child(ren) in the household)." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: F. Deven, CBGS, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40405 Duben, Alan; Behar, Cem. Istanbul households: marriage, family and fertility, 1880-1940. Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time, No. 15, ISBN 0-521-38375-7. LC 90-33133. 1991. xviii, 276 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The authors combine the methods and approaches of social anthropology, historical demography, and social history to examine changes in marriage, the family, and fertility in Istanbul, Turkey, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. "Istanbul was the first Muslim city to experience a systematic decline in fertility and major changes in family life, and, as such, set the tone for many social and cultural changes in Turkey and the Muslim world. Istanbul was the major focal point for the forces of westernization of Turkish society, processes which not only transformed political and economic institutions in that country, but also had a profound and lasting impact on domestic life." A chapter is included on fertility and family planning.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40406 Dubert Garcia, Isidro. Family structure and behavior in Galicia near the end of the ancien regime. [Estructura y comportamientos familiares en la Galicia de fines del Antiguo Regimen.] Teses en Microficha, No. 130, ISBN 84-7191-700-9. 1991. [1,387] pp. Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Servicio de Publicacions e Intercambio Cientifico: Santiago de Compostela, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Family structure in Galicia, Spain, toward the end of the ancien regime is studied using data from the 1752 Ensenada Census. Royal and aristocratic court records are then analyzed to assess levels of family and marital conflict and dissolution of marriage. The entire thesis is included on microfiche.
Correspondence: ETD, SA, Aragon 123, 08015 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40407 Ermisch, John F. Lone parenthood: an economic analysis. National Institute of Economic and Social Research Occasional Paper, No. 44, ISBN 0-521-41243-9. LC 91-8135. 1991. xv, 194 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This book analyses...the flows into and out of lone parenthood [in Great Britain], using demographic and employment histories from a nationally representative survey carried out in 1980. It studies how various socio-economic characteristics of women and their economic environment, such as welfare benefits, affect these flows, and how these interact to determine the attributes of the population of one-parent families, particularly their economic circumstances. The book also studies the lone parents' movements into and out of paid employment, and the effect of welfare benefits on their employment. The analyses are used to gauge the effects of alternative policies on one-parent families, their paid employment, and their living standards."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40408 Haskey, John. Estimated numbers and demographic characteristics of one-parent families in Great Britain. Population Trends, No. 65, Autumn 1991. 35-47 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines some of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of one-parent families and compares them with those of married couple families. The article also evaluates the most recent evidence from a variety of statistical sources in order to make the best practical estimates of the numbers of one-parent families and their children in Great Britain in 1987, 1988, and 1989."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40409 Hirosima, Kiyosi. A basic demographic condition for living arrangements: formal demography of parent-child co-residentiality. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 6, Nov 1990. 27 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"In this paper, we explain a method to compose the availability of parents or children, and a method to analyze the prevalence of co-residence of parents and children using the concept of availability of parents or children, which we call [the] formal demography of parent-child co-residentiality. The situation in Japan will be utilized as a numerical example."
Correspondence: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40410 Hirosima, Kiyosi. Does very low fertility accelerate nuclearization? Kin availability of low fertility societies. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, Dec 1990. 18 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"We studied the influence of lowering fertility upon availability of children for parents and availability of parents for children simultaneously to know the potential effects upon household composition choice behaviour [in Japan. It is found that]....with...fertility below replacement level, the availability rate for the total of parents and children increases if the percentage of parity zero and one does not increase above a certain degree, which accelerates the increase of extended family households rather than nuclearization."
Correspondence: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40411 Hirosima, Kiyosi. Family matrix: its theory and application. Institute of Population Problems Working Paper Series, No. 7, Nov 1990. 21 pp. Institute of Population Problems: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The aim of this paper is to propose a method to describe family transition. Family transition is caused by...demographic events such as birth, death, marriage, divorce and migration of a member in a family. These demographic events change not only the life course of a person to whom the events occurred but also that of other members of the family. I call this phenomenon reflection of demographic events. Family matrix is proposed to describe [this] reflection." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40412 Horwitz, Sarah M.; Klerman, Lorraine V.; Kuo, H. Sung; Jekel, James F. Intergenerational transmission of school-age parenthood. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1991. 162-72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A long-term follow-up of a group of black New Haven [United States] women who were young mothers in the late 1960s revealed that the majority of their offspring had not become parents by age 19. The offspring who experienced early parenthood were most likely to be female and to report significant depressive symptoms. Of those children--both male and female--who did become young parents, many were the offspring of women who had moved out of their mothers' homes within 26 months of the child's birth, and of women who reported suffering from lifetime depression. The data indicate that emotional deprivation, particularly at an early age, may predispose adolescents to seek emotional closeness through sexual activity and early parenthood."
Correspondence: S. M. Horwitz, Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40413 Ikenoue, Masako; Shimizu, Hiroaki. Changes in household composition and structure in Kagoshima village, 1955-1987. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 47, No. 1, Apr 1991. 58-65 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The authors explore household and family characteristics in traditional Japan. Data from a village in southwestern Japan for the period 1955-1987 indicate that the predominant household structure in the past was the nuclear rather than the extended family.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40414 Lee, Yean-Ju. Changes in family structure among elderly women in Korea. Pub. Order No. DA9108283. 1990. 227 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study concerns South Korea and was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(11).

57:40415 Link, Kshishtof. The role of socioeconomic factors in the household formation process. [Rolyata na sotsialno-ikonomicheskite faktori v protsesa na sazdavane na domakinstva.] Naselenie, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1990. 77-83 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines "studies aimed at assessing the impact of [selected] demographic and non-demographic factors on...household creation in Poland. Attention is focused on the second group of factors accepted as resulting from the different socio-economic development of the studied territorial groups of the population. The evaluation of 150 demometric models yielded interesting...results concerning the relation between the factors studied and the frequency of household creation."
Correspondence: K. Link, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40416 Mason, Andrew; Racelis, Rachel. Using census data for household projections: an overview of results from the HOMES Project. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 5, No. 1, Spring 1991. 13-20, 33-40 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This article provides an overview of the household projection model HOMES [a computer model developed to forecast the number and characteristics of households] and presents new household projections for six countries--China, Indonesia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines. The household projections are based on recently released population projections from The World Bank and on rules governing living arrangements quantified with the latest available census or demographic survey for each country. Growth in the number of households to the year 2030 is projected along with changes in household membership and the dependency burden."
Correspondence: A. Mason, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40417 Molnar, Edit S. Public opinion poll concerning population issues, 1989. [Kozvelemeny-kutatas nepesedesi kerdesekrol--1989.] Demografia, Vol. 33, No. 1-2, 1991. 38-57 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
The results of a 1989 public opinion poll on population issues in Hungary are presented. Respondents were from a nationally representative sample of persons 18 years and older. Attitudes toward large families and ideal family size are described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40418 Moors, Hein; van Nimwegen, Nico. Young Europeans and changing living arrangements: some social and demographic effects. Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1991. 17-38 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"This contribution describes changes in the household structure of the European population and the social and demographic consequences for children and young people in the member states of the Council of Europe. Particular attention is paid to an analysis of the effects of instability and changes in couples, and to the effects of changing living arrangements on economic, social, and psychological aspects of young people, especially young women." Consideration is also given to consensual unions and one-parent families.
Correspondence: H. Moors, NIDI, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40419 Murphy, Michael. Modelling households: a synthesis. In: Population research in Britain, edited by Michael Murphy and John Hobcraft. 1991. 157-76 pp. London School of Economics and Political Science, Population Investigation Committee: London, England. In Eng.
The author defines "an analogue to the average household size/headship rate concept for population subgroups. [He then shows]...the sorts of uses to which this model can be put and, in particular,...that many of the models used to analyze households are special cases of this framework, and how they are related to each other. The first section starts with a description of the model." The model is illustrated using data from a variety of sources, particularly the 1981 United Kingdom Labour Force Survey and the Pakistan Fertility Survey of 1976.
Correspondence: M. Murphy, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40420 Omari, C. K. The family in Tanzania. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 21, No. 2, Autumn 1991. 55-71 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The article starts by defining the terms and basic characteristics of the family institution. Then it moves to explain and analyze the changing roles and relationships in the Tanzania context. The article stresses...the impact of the foreign cultures and ideologies. Specifically, the role of family in [the] socialization process has been minimized due to the introduction of formal education. With regard to the demographic variables, it is noted that while death rates might be reduced due to the general improvement of health facilities, birth rates will increase....Polygamy...is [likely] to decrease due to socio-economic reasons like the level of education among the women and the economic difficulties in running large families." A trend toward smaller families is noted. The study is based on the author's recent research in Tanzania.
Correspondence: C. K. Omari, University of Dar es Salaam, POB 35091, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40421 Pennington, Renee. Child fostering as a reproductive strategy among southern African pastoralists. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 12, No. 2, Mar 1991. 83-104 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The use of child fostering as a reproductive strategy in rural areas of Botswana is examined. "Information on child fosterage was obtained on 1,902 individuals in the course of collecting 611 reproductive histories from Herero and Mbanderu pastoralists in northwestern Botswana in southern Africa. The hypothesis that women foster out their children as a strategy for increasing the number of children they produce is tested. Analysis of these data indicate that sex and birth year of children and parents' marital status significantly influence a child's risk of being fostered, but the relationship of fostering to fertility is unclear. More recently born individuals, females, and children born to parents who were not married to each other are more likely to be fostered than older individuals, males, and children born to parents who were married to each other."
Correspondence: R. Pennington, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:40422 Peterson, Jean T. Returns to parental investment in children in Benguet Province, Philippines. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 22, No. 3, Autumn 1991. 313-28 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Household survey data and family histories from three highland Philippine communities are analyzed in terms of the contributions adult children living apart from parents make to parents. Differentials among the contributions of adult children are related to developmental variation within sibling sets and to occupational diversity promoted by differential educational attainment. This diversity within the sibling set is treated as a reflection of family and household strategies to reduce economic risk. These household and family strategies can be expected to vary among communities and may run counter to the aims of national educational and family planning policies."
Correspondence: J. T. Peterson, University of Illinois, Department of Women's Studies, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SSA).

57:40423 Rowland, D. T. Low fertility and the Australian dream: the family background of Australian children. Australian Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 26, No. 1, Feb 1991. 3-23 pp. Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
The author examines the family circumstances of children in contemporary Australia. It is concluded that despite the changes in family settings caused by low fertility and the deformalization of marriage, the majority of children still come from conventional family backgrounds. Because of economic and other constraints, however, only a minority of children spend their first 15 years in the kind of environment considered to be the Australian ideal (i.e., in a nuclear family that owns its own home).
Correspondence: D. T. Rowland, Australian National University, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Arts, GPO 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: New York Public Library.

57:40424 USSR. Goskomstat SSSR. Informatsionno-Izdatel'skii Tsentr. Byuro Sotsiologicheskikh Obsledovanii (Moscow, USSR). Family structure, income, and housing conditions of families of industrial, professional, and collective farm workers. [Sostav sem'i, dokhody i zhilishchnye usloviya semei rabochikh, sluzhashchikh i kolkhoznikov.] 1990. 514 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The results of a March 1989 survey of a nationally representative sample of 310,000 families in the USSR are presented. This is the seventh in a series of surveys, the previous ones being carried out in 1957, 1972, 1974, 1979, 1981, and 1984. The survey includes information on family composition by sex, age, occupation, and education; income by social group and source; private plots by size and type, crops cultivated, and availability of livestock; housing conditions, including number of rooms, size, and comfort; availability of durable household items; and other information.
Correspondence: Goskomstat SSSR, Informatsionno-Izdatel'skii Tsentr, Byuro Sotsiologicheskikh Obsledovanii, Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40425 Valero Lobo, Angeles. Trends in households and family characteristics in Madrid, 1970-1990. [Evolucion del hogar y de la estructura familiar en Madrid, 1970-1990.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1991. 89-121 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
An analysis of recent changes in families and households in Madrid, Spain, is presented. Data are from the national censuses of 1970 and 1981 and the municipal register of 1986. The author also analyzes the characteristics of the population of Madrid by sex, age, and marital status.
Correspondence: A. Valero Lobo, Duque de Rivas 5, 28012 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40426 Zeng, Yi. Family dynamics in China: a life table analysis. Life Course Studies, No. 7, ISBN 0-299-12630-7. LC 90-50102. 1991. xxi, 197 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin/London, England. In Eng.
This is a review of current trends in population dynamics and family structure in China. The author develops a mathematical model for extending family status life table models to the three-generational family that is still common in China. The model is used to compare the dynamics of family structure in China before and after the dramatic drop in fertility that has occurred since the adoption of stringent limits on family size in 1979. Data are from a variety of official sources, including the 1982 census and a number of surveys conducted in the 1980s.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin Press, 114 North Murray Street, Madison, WI 53715. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:40427 Zuravin, Susan J. Unplanned childbearing and family size: their relationship to child neglect and abuse. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1991. 155-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Mothers from 198 low-income, female-headed families [in the United States] enrolled in child protective services because of child abuse or neglect were compared with an equal number of age-matched controls, to determine if unplanned childbearing and family size increase the risk of child neglect or abuse. Logistic regression analyses suggest that unplanned childbearing increases the risk of child abuse but not of child neglect. Large family size significantly raises the risk of both types of maltreatment, although this factor had a greater effect on the risk of abuse than on the risk of neglect. Finally, unplanned childbearing appears to be indirectly related to abuse through its effect on family size."
Correspondence: S. J. Zuravin, University of Maryland, School of Social Work and Community Planning, Baltimore, MD 21201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1991-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.