Volume 57 - Number 3 - Fall 1991

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

57:30705 Catasus Cervera, Sonia. The integration of demographic variables in the socioeconomic planning process: the case of Cuba. [Integracion de las variables poblacionales en el proceso de planificacion socioeconomica: el caso de Cuba.] CEDEM Serie Monografica, No. 20, 1988. 20 pp. Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demograficos [CEDEM]: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
The author proposes Cuba as an example of a society in which the needs of the population have been considered as an integral part of post-Revolutionary development. Thus, a specific separate population policy has not been necessary.
If requesting this document from CELADE, specify DOCPAL No. 14199.00.
Correspondence: Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demograficos, Avenida 41, Numero 2003 entre 20 y 22, Playa, Havana, Cuba. Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

57:30706 Dany, Dezso; Monigl, Istvan. Main national characteristics of Hungarian population policy. [A magyar nepesedespolitika fobb nemzeti jellemzoi.] Demografia, Vol. 31, No. 2-4, 1988. 193-225 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors summarize and analyze the characteristics of Hungarian population policy from 1700 to the present. Emphasis is on a critical analysis of the population policies since World War II. The article concludes with proposals for new population policy directions for the 1990s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30707 Gouws, N. B. The 1987 document on the Population Development Programme. Southern African Journal of Demography/Suidelike Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Demografie, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jul 1988. 42-7 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
The author describes the evolution of South Africa's Population Development Programme since its conception in 1984. The objectives, principles, and scope of the program as well as an overview of the monitoring procedures are explained.
Correspondence: N. B. Gouws, Department of National Health and Population Development, Pretoria, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30708 Kossivi Ayassou, M. V. The experiences of Cameroon in population planning, and in economic and social development. [Experiences du Cameroun en planification de la population, et du developpement economique et social.] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1987. 93-124 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
The author reviews the development plans that have been adopted in Cameroon since 1961 and the role that demographic factors have played in them. The focus is on how or whether demographic data have been used in the planning process.
Correspondence: M. V. Kossivi Ayassou, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30709 Mfoulou, Raphael. Population policy and state intervention: concepts, definitions, objectives, fields of responsibility, and means of intervention. [Politiques de population et intervention de l'etat: concepts, definitions, objectifs, domaines et moyens d'intervention.] Annales de l'IFORD, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1987. 53-92 pp. Yaounde, Cameroon. In Fre.
The author outlines an appropriate population policy for African countries, examining both the possible objectives of such a policy and the means by which they might be reached. The focus is on population policies that are an integral part of overall development planning.
Correspondence: R. Mfoulou, Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30710 Monigl, Istvan. Values reflected in Hungarian population policy after World War II. [A masodik vilaghaboru utani magyar nepesedespolitikakban tukrozodo ertekek.] Demografia, Vol. 32, No. 1-2, 1989. 11-48 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Trends in Hungarian population policy since World War II are examined, with a focus on ideological and political values characteristic of the policies implemented in 1953, 1973, and 1984. The author comments on the continual changes and instability of these policies, noting that they were a reflection of rapidly changing values in the political sphere.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30711 Rushwan, Hamid. Population policy in the Sudan. Population Sciences, Vol. 9, Jul 1990. 5-17 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author reviews the population policy of the Sudan. The focus of the policy, which was formulated in 1988, is on population redistribution to rural areas and the settlement of nomads. Lack of demographic data and the absence of goals are cited as the reasons for the Sudan's delay in establishing a policy.
Correspondence: H. Rushwan, Khartoum University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Khartoum, Sudan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30712 Sadik, Nafis. Population policies and programmes: lessons learned from two decades of experience. ISBN 0-8147-8553-0. LC 91-2388. 1991. xxiv, 464 pp. New York University Press: New York, New York/London, England; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This volume is a summary of the operations of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) during its first twenty years, 1969-1989. Part 1 reviews programming and policy concerns, including policy development, maternal and child health and family planning programs, and population information, education, and communication. Part 2 assesses regional issues, polices, and programs for Sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab States, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America. The final section addresses the agenda for the future, with a focus on international cooperation and program implications.
Correspondence: New York University Press, Elmer Holms Bobst Library, 70 Washington Square South, New York, NY 10012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30713 Torrado, Susana. Politics and population in Argentina: the keys to a debate. [Politica y poblacion en la Argentina: claves para el debate.] ISBN 950-515-361-9. 1991. 311 pp. Ediciones de la Flor: Buenos Aires, Argentina; Honorable Senado de la Nacion, Comision de Familia y Minoridad: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
This book is the product of a seminar on constitutional and legislative reform in matters of population in Argentina, held in Buenos Aires, May 29-June 1, 1990. It consists of 12 papers by various authors, together with comments by others, on a number of topics including the social and individual aspects of the relationship between population and development; law and population, both at the international level and in Argentina; the demographic consequences of social policy; international migration and its policy aspects; reproductive rights in Argentina and Brazil; administrative aspects of implementing population policy; the right to privacy; access to data; and information systems.
Correspondence: Ediciones de la Flor, Anchoris 27, 1280 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30714 Tu, Edward J.-c.; Ting, Tin-yu. Consequences of alternative population policies on aging in Mainland China. Issues and Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1988. 33-48 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
"In this paper, we present population trends over the past thirty-five years and population projections by age and sex for the years 1982-2052 in order to examine issues related to the population age structure, especially population aging on the Chinese mainland. Finally, we discuss a few policy options that could be adopted to deal with problems of population aging under the current socialist system." The authors conclude that the implementation of the one-child policy could have serious political and social consequences, particularly if the social security system is not well instituted or if the promised economic rewards of successful development do not materialize."
Correspondence: E. J.-c. Tu, State University of New York, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

57:30715 Widyantoro, Ninuk. Enhancing the quality of women's reproductive health care. Development, No. 1, 1990. 35-9 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
The author discusses how Indonesian population policy is implemented at the grassroots level. Emphasis is placed on women's access to reproductive health and family planning choices and on the role of the nongovernmental sector in the national program.
This paper was originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 395).
Correspondence: N. Widyantoro, Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association, Djakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

57:30716 Andorka, Rudolf. Pro-natalist population policies and their impact in Hungary. [Politiques demographiques natalistes et leur impact en Hongrie.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 4, No. 3, Apr 1991. 87-125 pp. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The impact on fertility of pro-natalist measures adopted in Hungary since the 1950s is assessed. The author states that although measures prohibiting or restricting induced abortion in 1953 and 1974 had no measurable effect on completed fertility, the pro-natalist measures providing social benefits to families with children that were introduced in the mid-1960s resulted in modest increases in fertility. However, these increases were canceled out by the effect of social changes, such as higher levels of female education, which tended to lower fertility.
Correspondence: R. Andorka, Budapest University of Economic Sciences, Department of Sociology, Dimitrov-ter 8, 1093 Budapest IX, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30717 Hyatt, Douglas E.; Milne, William J. Can public policy affect fertility? Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1991. 77-85 pp. Guelph, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the relationship between a number of government programs and the total fertility rate [in Canada]. Using a simple time series model, which explicitly considers the labour market behaviour of women, we find that government programs which implicitly alter the costs of having a child have a small, but positive, impact on fertility. The results suggest that during the 1980s, a one per cent increase in the real value of Unemployment Insurance maternity benefits would result in an increase in the total fertility rate of between 0.09 and 0.26 per cent. The paper is timely in view of the recent pro-natalist policies introduced by the Quebec government."
Correspondence: D. E. Hyatt, University of Toronto, Institute for Policy Analysis, 215 Huron Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:30718 Kaufmann, Franz-Xaver. Causes of the fertility decline in the Federal Republic of Germany and possible counteracting measures of the government. [Ursachen des Geburtenruckgangs in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Moglichkeiten staatlicher Gegenmassnahmen.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 16, No. 3-4, 1990. 383-96 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The focus of this article is on family policy in the Federal Republic of Germany and how it can be designed to encourage fertility. The author emphasizes the need to consider women's desires to work outside the home, the influence of society on fertility desires, and the problems and life situations of potential parents.
Correspondence: F.-X. Kaufmann, Universitat Bielefeld, Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik, Universitatsstrasse 25, 4800 Bielefeld 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30719 Khor, Geok Lin. Fertility preferences among Malaysian women: an analysis of responses to the new population policy. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1990. 465-76 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author investigates changes in the fertility preferences of Malaysian women as a result of a population policy change implemented in 1983. The policy was "based on the view that a large population constitutes an important human resource to create a larger consumer base with increasing purchasing power to generate and support industrial growth through productive exploitation of national resources....This study analyses the fertility preferences of married women who responded to questions regarding the new population policy...and identifies the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of women who are likely to increase their fertility demands as a result of the population policy. The responses will be discussed in the light of current fertility trends, with emphasis on the Malays who constitute 55.3% of the population of Peninsular Malaysia...."
Correspondence: G. L. Khor, Harvard School of Public Health, Takemi Program in International Health, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30720 Kojima, Hiroshi. Relationship between pronatalist policy and immigration policy. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 3, Oct 1990. 49-55 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The role of pronatalist and immigration policies in dealing with decreasing fertility and aging populations in developed countries is examined. The examples of France and Germany are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30721 Lee, Sharon M.; Alvarez, Gabriel; Palen, J. John. Fertility decline and pronatalist policy in Singapore. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1991. 65-9, 73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In Singapore, a newly industrialized country, there has been a unique response to low fertility and projected population decline. This country moved from high fertility in the 1960s to below-replacement fertility in the 1980s, leading to a shift by the Singaporean government toward pronatalism. This article discusses the new pronatalist policy--the factors behind it, the primary initiatives and the prospects for success."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 421).
Correspondence: S. M. Lee, University of Richmond, Department of Sociology, Richmond, VA 23173. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30722 Lolo, Abdalla M. Sociocultural dimensions of population policies in the third world: the Egyptian case. Pub. Order No. DA9023941. 1990. 514 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This work, which is in two volumes, was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the State University of New York at Binghamton.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(5).

57:30723 Peng, Xizhe. China's population control and the reform in the 1980s. Population Research, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1990. 1-17 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"In this paper, we try to document China's birth control programme in the 1980s. [The] government's population policy in this period is reviewed, along with the examination of the relationship between the reform and population trends. We also look into the future prospective of China's population growth."
Correspondence: X. Peng, Fudan University, Institute of Population Research, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30724 Speigner, Wulfram. Population trends and fertility policy over the past two decades in the German Democratic Republic. [Bevolkerungsentwicklung und Geburtenpolitik in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten der DDR.] Wirtschaftswissenschaft, Vol. 38, No. 12, Dec 1990. 1,601-19 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger.
Fertility trends and policies in East Germany during the 1970s and 1980s are reviewed, and some comparisons are made with trends in West Germany. Reasons why the official pronatalist policy proved unworkable are discussed.
Correspondence: W. Speigner, Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Institut fur Soziologie und Sozialpolitik, Otto-Nuschke-Strasse 22/23, 1086 Berlin, Germany. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:30725 Stycos, J. Mayone. The second great wall of China: evolution of a successful policy of population control. Population and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 4, Summer 1991. 389-406 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of population control policies in China. "Since the 1949 revolution, Chinese population policy has undergone many shifts that have alternated with general political trends. However, in the past two decades the policy has grown increasingly antinatalist as a response to slower-than-desired economic development and rapid population growth. The remarkable declines of fertility during this period have been made possible by effective contraceptive technology, efficient administration, tight political organization down to grass-roots levels, and by linking national goals of population control to patriotism. Recent minor reverses in policy and in fertility [suggest] that there are practical limits to such policies, but other countries have much to learn from the Chinese experience."
Correspondence: J. M. Stycos, Cornell University, Population and Development Program, Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30726 Zou, Ping. The mechanism of Chinese birth policy in controlling parity ratio. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1989. 67-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In an effort to control the dramatic growth of its population, China has adopted a family planning policy that is characterized by its dynamic control over fertility rates through the regulation of parity ratios. Owing to such practices, coupled with dramatic economic growth, family planning efforts in China have made universally acknowledged achievements within a relatively brief period of time. The present article concerns only quantitative analysis of the regulatory mechanisms of China's family planning policy in controlling parity ratios in China, as a tentative appraisal of the effects of government policies on the control of population growth."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

57:30727 Collet, Beate. The new German law on foreigners' residency: change and continuity. [La nouvelle loi allemande sur le sejour des etrangers: changements et continuite.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1991. 9-29 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger.
"This article about the new German law on foreigners which came [into] force on 1-1-91, emphasizes the changes made to the 1965 law and the differences between the situations of foreigners in France and Germany. Two changes of attitude are to be noted: the introduction of a right of residence and of an 'earlier' naturalisation. This naturalisation which is limited to young foreigners and foreigners who have been living in Germany for a long time, finally gets away from the principles of racial...tendencies [i.e.] the belonging to the socio-cultural German Community."
Correspondence: B. Collet, Maison Heinrich Heine, 27 bd Jourdan, 75690 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30728 Donato, Katharine M.; Durand, Jorge; Massey, Douglas S. Stemming the tide? Assessing the deterrent effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. OSC 91-1, Feb 1991. 35, [12] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This study uses a new source of data to assess the degree to which the Immigration Reform and Control Act deterred undocumented migration from Mexico to the United States. Data were collected from migrants interviewed in seven Mexican communities during the winters of 1987 through 1989. We conduct time series experiments that examine changes in migrant behavior before and after IRCA's passage in 1986. We estimate trends in the probability of taking a first illegal trip, the probability of repeat migration, the probability of apprehension by the Border Patrol, the probability of using a border smuggler, the length of U.S. trips, and the costs of illegal border-crossing. In none of these analyses could we detect any evidence that IRCA has significantly deterred undocumented migration from Mexico."
Correspondence: NORC Librarian, NORC/University of Chicago, 6030 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30729 Fix, Michael; Passel, Jeffrey S. The door remains open: recent immigration to the United States and a preliminary analysis of the Immigration Act of 1990. Program for Research on Immigration Policy Discussion Paper, No. PRIP-UI-14, Jan 1991. 22, [11] pp. Urban Institute, Program for Research on Immigration Policy: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Trends in immigration to the United States from 1821 to 1990 are first reviewed, with consideration given to countries of origin, illegal immigration, and the geographical differences in the location of immigrants among the states. Next, the authors examine the Immigration Act of 1990, including the historical background, its major provisions, and their possible future impact on immigration.
Correspondence: Urban Institute, Program for Research on Immigration Policy, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30730 Graham, Otis L. Re-thinking the purposes of immigration policy. CIS Paper, No. 6, May 1991. 36 pp. Center for Immigration Studies: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author critically analyzes the immigration policy of the United States and calls for the establishment of clear demographic goals as a part of policy formation. Separate attention is given to U.S. immigration policy objectives as they are revealed by policy results, including the admission of refugees, migrant family reunification, labor force needs, and the demographic transformation of America. He advocates a migration policy that considers many different aspects of labor force needs.
Correspondence: Center for Immigration Studies, 1424 16th Street NW, Suite 603, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30731 Marta, Claudio. From assimilation to multiculturalism. Twenty years of policy and social research on immigration in Sweden (1966-1985). [Dall'assimilazionismo al multiculturalismo. Vent'anni di politica e di ricerca sociale sull'immigrazione in Svezia (1966-1985).] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 28, No. 101, Mar 1991. 59-81 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The essay analyzes the immigration policy pursued by Sweden from 1966, the year in which the first commission was established for this particular area, till 1985, the year in which an important reform was passed regarding the reception of refugees. The focal point of this immigration policy is singled out halfway in the 70's when the assimilation model is repudiated in favor of multiculturalism. One of the main features of this policy is the priority role accorded to research. The author examines the main fields of interest pursued by researchers, in particular the more recent studies on the ethnic-cultural dimension of the immigration phenomenon."
Correspondence: C. Marta, Istituto Universitario Orientale, Piazza San Giovanni Maggiore 30, 80134 Naples, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:30732 Taguieff, Pierre-Andre; Weil, Patrick. Immigration, a national presence, and citizenship. ["Immigration", fait national et "citoyennete"] Esprit, No. 161, May 1990. 87-102 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Four aspects of current French policies concerning immigration are reviewed, namely, assimilation, integration, insertion, and citizenship. The authors condemn the current trend toward politicization of immigration issues in France. They suggest changes in the vocabulary used in the debate that might help to defuse it and lead to the resolution rather than the exacerbation of the problems associated with immigration.
Correspondence: P.-A. Taguieff, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 26 rue Boyer, 75971 Paris Cedex, France. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:30733 Tapinos, Georges P. The unstoppable immigrant. European Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1990. 108-20 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
The author examines the effects of the restrictive immigration policies instituted by the European countries in the mid-1970s. "This article considers the following questions. Should one expect significant migrant supply pressure from the countries that formerly sent workers, as a result of their demographic, economic and labour market prospects? Have the European countries devised any development-assistance policy with the explicit intent of cutting down emigration from these countries? And would such a policy, if it existed, be efficient enough to decrease the incentives to migrate?"
Correspondence: G. P. Tapinos, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

57:30734 Zang, Qingwu. Comments on China's domiciliary transformation policy. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1989. 101-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The writer summarizes the current status and the background of China's internal migration policies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1991-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.