Volume 57 - Number 2 - Summer 1991

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

57:20717 Boland, Reed; Stepan, Jan. Annual review of population law, 1987: international resolutions and agreements, constitutional provisions, legislation, regulations, judicial decisions, legal pronouncements. Vol. 14, 1990. xlvi, 608 pp. United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Harvard Law School Library: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This report describes worldwide developments in population law in 1987. It is organized by subject, with separate entries for international agencies and individual countries. Complete texts or summaries of the relevant changes are provided. Subjects covered include general population policy; fertility regulation, including family planning, contraception, sterilization, induced abortion, and assisted reproduction; marriage regulation, including termination of marriage; the family; children; women; the aged; migration and population distribution; health care; education; land tenure and the environment; and census and vital registration.
For volume 13, concerning 1986, see 55:40630.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20718 Conly, Shanti R.; Speidel, J. Joseph; Camp, Sharon L. U.S. population assistance: issues for the 1990s. 1991. 52 pp. Population Crisis Committee: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report is a critique of the U.S. population assistance effort. "This report reflects PCC's [Population Crisis Committee] assessment of the major issues relating to AID's population/family planning effort; it includes recommendations to the Bush Administration, Congress and AID for policy, budgetary, organizational and programmatic changes that PCC believes to be necessary if AID is to respond effectively to the demographic challenge still ahead."
Correspondence: Population Crisis Committee, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20719 Gonzalez, Gerardo. Towards a comprehensive population strategy for Nepal. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep 1990. 3-28 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Nepal will have a democratically elected Government within a year's time and one of its first tasks will be to define a fresh development strategy to deal with population problems, among others. This article discusses the 1983 National Population Strategy and other policy documents in light of some conceptual and methodological considerations concerning the development of a strategy. It makes suggestions for revising the strategy in view of the country's current population problems."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20720 Martin, Linda G. Population aging policies in East Asia and the United States. Science, Vol. 251, No. 4993, Feb 1, 1991. 527-31 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"As a result of successful efforts to reduce fertility and mortality, East Asian populations are beginning to age, in some cases rapidly. Policies in response to population aging range from attempts in Singapore to reverse it by encouraging more births to efforts in Japan to accommodate it by increasing employment opportunities for older workers. The population of the United States, which had a longer postwar baby boom, is aging more slowly than these two countries and may be able to learn from the East Asian experience with aging policies."
Correspondence: L. G. Martin, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Committee on Population, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

57:20721 New Zealand. Inter-departmental Committee on Population Policy Guidelines (Wellington, New Zealand). The human face of New Zealand: a context for population policy into the twenty-first century. Pub. Order No. 01.014. ISBN 0-477-06475-2. Apr 1990. 64 pp. Department of Statistics: Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
This report examines population trends in New Zealand and their policy implications. It "starts from a synthesis of what is known about the complex interrelationships between the three population mechanisms--birth, death and migration--and their demographic outcomes: population size, age-sex and ethnic composition and population distribution....The population outcomes are examined firstly in the context of effects on particular sectors of economic and social activity, and in terms of the effects of population change on the environment. Secondly, the possible impact of sector policies on population processes and composition are reviewed briefly." Some population scenarios are projected for the period 1990-2050, and their policy implications are discussed.
For a previous report, published in 1975, see 42:3818.
Correspondence: Department of Statistics, PO Box 2922, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20722 Schleiermacher, Sabine. Racial hygiene and deliberate parenthood: two sides of demographer Hans Harmsen's population policy. Issues in Reproductive and Genetic Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1990. 201-10 pp. New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
The ideas of and programs developed by Hans Harmsen in Germany from the 1920s to the 1980s concerning population, family planning, and eugenics are described. The author suggests that these ideas and programs were consistent and involved "control of birth and reproduction, positive and negative; programs to strengthen and support the family; and social welfare policies." The central focus of Harmsen's work was Social Darwinism based on scientific research; he advocated measures designed to meet the needs of an economically oriented society, rather than policies based on the individual needs of men and women. This approach enabled him to play a leading role in both the international family planning movement and the racial, eugenic policies developed during the Nazi regime in Germany.
Correspondence: S. Schleiermacher, Universitatskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Institut fur Medizinsoziologie, Martinistrasse 52, 2000 Hamburg 20, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:20723 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). International transmission of population policy experience: proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on the International Transmission of Population Policy Experience, New York City, 27-30 June 1988. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/108, 1990. x, 183 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This publication contains the report and recommendations of an expert group meeting on the international transfer of experience on population policy, held in June 1988, which was organized jointly by the U.N. Population Division and the IUSSP's Committee on Population Policy. The report also provides papers in English or French prepared for the meeting. Topics covered include the evolution of U.S. AID and other forms of U.S. donor assistance for population policy, the relationship between research and policy, IUSSP's work on population policy, the impact of economic development on fertility, population information beyond elites, UNFPA support for population policy, and the politics on international population policy, as well as descriptions of the international transmission of population policy experience at the regional level.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

57:20724 Atanasov, Atanas. Children in the contemporary Bulgarian family: few, enough, many. [Detsata v savremennoto balgarsko semeistvo: malko, dostatachno, mnogo.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1989. 69-73 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author analyzes social change and its impact on reproductive behavior in Bulgaria. The goal of the current population policy is to increase the birth rate through the use of financial incentives. The author notes that it is important for pronatalist policies to be sensitive to women's priorities other than reproductive.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20725 Berelson, Bernard; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J.; Kelley, Allen C.; McNicoll, Geoffrey. The great debate on population policy: an instructive entertainment. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 4, Dec 1990. 126-48, 150 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This issue reprints a 1975 article on population policy by Bernard Berelson, together with three current articles in which the authors attempt to bring up to date Berelson's references to three prototypes of views of public policy on population, namely, supporters of family planning programs, proponents of development, and academic critics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20726 Caron, Simone M. Race, class, and reproduction: the evolution of reproductive policy in the United States, 1800-1989. Pub. Order No. DA9013188. 1989. 333 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation analyzes the evolution of reproductive policy in the United States. It traces the emergence of birth control and abortion as social and legal issues in the nineteenth century and contends that nativism was the strongest motivation in the movement to criminalize means of fertility control." Changes in population policy based first on eugenic concerns and subsequently on mounting welfare expenditures are traced through the period 1800-1989.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Clark University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(12).

57:20727 Delooz, Pierre. Pronatalist policies: the reflections of a demographer. [Les politiques en faveur de la natalite: reflexions d'un demographe.] Etudes, Vol. 374, No. 1, Jan 1991. 29-40 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The impact of pronatalist policies on fertility is reviewed. The author first describes the measures designed to support the family and encourage the births of additional children in Europe from the 1930s to the present. He notes that although some positive impact on fertility from such measures can be identified, no modern society to date has been able to raise its fertility to replacement level by such means. However, he concludes that such measures are desirable as a matter of social justice, even though their demographic impact may be slight.
Correspondence: P. Delooz, Ferme de la Chapelle, 4910 La Reid, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20728 Goldstein, Melvyn C.; Beall, Cynthia M. China's birth control policy in the Tibet Autonomous Region: myths and realities. Asian Survey, Vol. 31, No. 3, Mar 1991. 285-303 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"The nature of China's population policy in contemporary Tibet (the Tibet Autonomous Region [TAR]) is a controversial issue. A series of published reports claim that China was and is compelling Tibetans to adhere to a strict birth control program that includes forced abortions, sterilizations, and even infanticide. This article addresses this issue by presenting new data independently collected by the authors during field research in Tibet from 1985 to 1988....These data suggest that the Tibet Autonomous Region is actually experiencing high population growth rates rather than suffering a policy of coercive and restrictive birth control that is causing population decline and threatening the continued existence of Tibetans."
Correspondence: M. C. Goldstein, Case Western Reserve University, Department of Anthropology, 2040 Adelbert, Cleveland, OH 44106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

57:20729 Ilieva, Nikolina. Reproductive behavior and classification of factors from the standpoint of possibilities for regulation of the birth rate. [Reproduktivno povedenie i klasifikatsiya na faktorite ot gledna tochka na vazmozhnostite za regulirane na razhdaemostta.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1989. 23-30 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author proposes the development of a population policy for Bulgaria that takes into consideration the social, economic, and cultural factors that influence reproductive behavior.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20730 Lewis, Norah L. Implementing social change: China and the one child policy. International Review of Modern Sociology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Fall 1987. 237-56 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author describes the development of the one-child policy in China. The focus of the study is on the efforts made by the government to persuade people to conform to this policy in the light of traditional Chinese values concerning children, and the consequent stresses that have occurred within society. The educational needs of parents in this context are described.
Correspondence: N. L. Lewis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1W5, Canada. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20731 Sollom, Terry. State legislation on reproductive health in 1990: what was proposed and enacted. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1991. 82-5, 94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In 1990, state legislatures across the United States considered more than 1,500 measures related to abortion, family planning, sterilization, teenage pregnancy, infertility, new reproductive technologies, maternal and child health care, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. Legislation carried over from 1989 comprised one-quarter of all bills up for consideration in 1990. Despite the large number of measures relating to reproductive health that were introduced, there was a general lack of action in the state legislatures in 1990, primarily a result of election-year distractions coupled with budgetary constraints. Only 120 bills actually were approved, and 20 of these were later vetoed. [This article] is a summary of state legislative activity--and inactivity--in 1990."
Correspondence: T. Sollom, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 2010 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20732 Steshenko, V. S. Some trends in population policy concerning the birth rate. [O nekotorykh napravleniyakh demograficheskoi politiki v sfere rozhdaemosti.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 14, 1990. 56-66 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng; Ukr.
"Demographic results of higher state assistance to families with children [in the Ukrainian SSR] are analyzed. Basic trends for improving conditions for reproduction are determined."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20733 Terzieva, Vanya. The development of the demographic culture and possibilities for controlling reproductive behavior. [Formirane na demografska kultura i vazmozhnosti za upravlenie na reproduktivnoto povedenie.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1989. 82-7 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author suggests that educational programs aimed at developing class consciousness concerning reproductive behavior hold the greatest promise for influencing the birth rate in Bulgaria, within the context of formulating a comprehensive population policy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

57:20734 Crane, Keith; Asch, Beth J.; Heilbrunn, Joanna Z.; Cullinane, Danielle C. The effect of employer sanctions on the flow of undocumented immigrants to the United States. ISBN 0-87766-525-7. LC 90-12511. Apr 1990. xvii, 85 pp. Rand Corporation: Santa Monica, California; Urban Institute Press: Washington, D.C. Distributed by University Press of America. In Eng.
This report "assesses whether the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 succeeded in significantly reducing the flow of undocumented immigrants to the United States by the end of fiscal year 1989. Data include entry indicators (apprehensions, visas, and applications) and economic indicators (including a survey of U.S. labor markets in immigrant-dependent industries, and estimates of the change in employer demand for legal foreign workers). None of the data sets provides conclusive evidence but, taken together, the preponderance of the evidence points to some decline in the flow."
Correspondence: University Press of America, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20735 Morozova, G. F. Approaches to migration policy under conditions of perestroika. [Podkhody k migratsionnoi politike v usloviyakh perestroiki.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 12, 1990. 82-7 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The author suggests that the current environment of perestroika in the USSR has made existing migration policies obsolete. New alternatives and directions for such policies are discussed, taking into account conflicts between ethnic groups, unemployment, ecological devastation, and international migration pressures. The need to develop policies to resolve problems concerning geographical imbalances in labor resources is also noted, particularly as they concern continuing high fertility in the Central Asian republics.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20736 Safran, William. Immigration and immigrants in the USA and France: some comparisons. Revue Francaise d'Etudes Americaines, No. 41, Jul 1989. 303-13 pp. Nancy, France. In Eng.
The author provides a comparative analysis of the immigration policies of France and the United States. Consideration is given to both the similarities and differences of the two policies.
Correspondence: W. Safran, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20737 Vernez, Georges. Immigration and international relations: proceedings of a conference on the international effects of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA). ISBN 0-87766-526-5. LC 90-12730. May 1990. x, 193 pp. Rand Corporation: Santa Monica, California; Urban Institute Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng; Spa.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Guadalajara, Mexico, in May 1989 on the international effects of the U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986. "The conference had several objectives. First, it provided an opportunity to discuss ongoing research on the implementation of IRCA and to review early information on IRCA's actual and potential international effects. Second, it gave participants from Mexico and the United States a unique opportunity to begin what is hoped will be a continuing dialogue and exchange of information on IRCA and its effects and, more generally, on immigration issues. The third objective was to explore the growing links between immigration and other important policy arenas, including foreign investment, national security, and other foreign policy issues." Consideration was given to the effects of IRCA on "illegal immigration, U.S.-Mexico relations, Mexico, and the West Indies and inter-American relations."
Correspondence: Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1991-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.