Volume 57 - Number 2 - Summer 1991

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

57:20685 Anson, J. Demographic indices as social indicators. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 23, No. 3, Mar 1991. 433-46 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A social indicator is derived from readily available demographic data: population age structures, mortality rates, sex ratios, and children-women ratios (fertility). It is suggested that an indicator based on just two of these variables can be as reliable a measure of the physical quality of life in a population as a multivariable indicator based directly on socioeconomic data. Unlike multivariable indicators, which are expensive to collect, the demographic data are readily available. Their use as social indicators would thus offer a simple, cheap, and effective means of monitoring the standard of living in small, geographically defined populations and in evaluating the effects of policy interventions. The analysis is based on Israeli towns, with use of data from the census of 1983."
Correspondence: J. Anson, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Social Work, B4105 Beersheba, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:20686 Burke, Mary A. Implications of an aging society. Canadian Social Trends, No. 20, Spring 1991. 6-8 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The impact of population aging on the Canadian society, particularly in reference to social expenditures, is examined. Expenditures by major program and age are projected to the year 2040. Data are from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Correspondence: M. A. Burke, Canadian Social Trends, 7th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20687 Cai, Wenmei; Qiu, Peiling; Zhao, Zhongwei. Problems of old women in the process of population aging in China. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 330-40 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The authors analyze the socioeconomic status of elderly women in China and assess factors affecting their standard of living.
Correspondence: W. Cai, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20688 Cheung, Fernando Chiu-hung. Implications of the one-child family policy on the development of the welfare state in the People's Republic of China. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1988. 5-25 pp. Kalamazoo, Michigan. In Eng.
The implications of a successful implementation of the one-child policy for the development of social welfare programs in China are considered. These will include a rapid increase in the proportion of the elderly population. However, the labor force will continue to grow in size for some forty years as it absorbs the birth cohorts from the baby boom years of the 1960s. "While the shrinkage of the young will offset part of the increasing burden of the elderly, the government must develop [a] universal social security system and improve occupational welfare, child care, and higher education in the near future in order to achieve the goals of the four modernizations as well as population control."
Correspondence: F. C. Cheung, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:20689 Cheung, Paul P. L. Micro-consequences of low fertility in Singapore. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4, Dec 1990. 35-46 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article is an attempt to describe and discuss some of the changes that have occurred in both the family and the occupational structure [in Singapore from 1969 to 1989]. Its premise is that the immediate impact of fertility decline on the socio-economic structure is largely mediated through major changes in the roles of women and the restructuring of their life course. The effects of such changes on the family and the occupational structure are discussed....[The] article points to the need for the Government to give special consideration to the needs of the unmarried in a family-oriented society. It also highlights the importance of the female work-force in Singapore's economy. Programmes for skill training and career development should adjust their male-dominated focus to take into consideration the special needs of the female work-force."
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 434).
Correspondence: P. P. L. Cheung, National University of Singapore, Department of Social Work and Psychology, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20690 Ivanova, T. D. Population and social development. [Naselenie i obshchestvennoe razvitie.] LC 89-137363. 1988. 95 pp. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Institut Sotsiologii: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This is a collection of five articles by Soviet authors on aspects of population and social development. Topics covered include marriage, divorce, life expectancy, demographic aging, social mobility, and problems associated with perestroika. The articles are based on papers presented by the authors at the Third Soviet-French Demographic Seminar held in France in 1988 and the Third Finnish-Soviet Demographic Seminar held in Finland in 1986.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:20691 Kim, Yun; Byun, Yong Chan. Social services needs of the elderly and living arrangements. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 388-412 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
"This study...[assesses] various social services provided to the elderly who reside in northern Utah [United States]. Particularly, the attitudes of the elderly were analyzed with respect to the various services provided by private and public sectors, such as transportation, legal, recreation, employment, home maker, meals program, escort, education, income tax, [visitation], adult care, and health care services."
Correspondence: Y. Kim, Utah State University, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, Logan, UT 84322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20692 McDonald, P. Lynn; Wanner, Richard A. Retirement in Canada. Perspectives on Individual and Population Aging, No. 9, ISBN 0-409-80518-1. 1990. xviii, 173 pp. Butterworths: Toronto, Canada. In Eng.
This study is about the impact of retirement in Canada on both the individual and society. The authors assess the effects on retirement of recent developments at the provincial level concerning human rights legislation, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and federal public pension policy. They also review the history of retirement in the country and explore possible future retirement scenarios.
Correspondence: Butterworths Canada, 75 Clegg Road, Markham, Ontario L6G 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20693 Minkov, Minko. Main conclusions and practical tasks in the socio-demographic sphere. [Osnovni izvodi i prakticheski zadachi v sotsialno-demografskata oblast.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1989. 3-53 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Demographic considerations are explored in relation to developing a social policy for Bulgaria. "Special attention is devoted to those areas of the social sphere, which are connected with the reproduction and realization of human resources, with raising the potential and abilities of the nation, and attaining a high degree of readiness for labour and social activities."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20694 Suri, Kul B. Overpopulation in India and the educational imperative. Social Service Review, Vol. 65, No. 1, Mar 1991. 22-42 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author maintains that overpopulation is the major obstacle to socioeconomic development in India and that the national family planning program has been unsuccessful in resolving this problem. The factors associated with socioeconomic development are reviewed, and the author concludes that not only must fertility control be construed more broadly, but educational opportunities for women have to be expanded.
Correspondence: K. B. Suri, Delaware State College, Dupont Highway, Dover, DE 19901. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20695 Tatimov, M. B. Social development and demographic processes. [Sotsial'naya obuslovlennost' demograficheskikh protsessov.] ISBN 5-628-00145-7. LC 89-156320. 1989. 125 pp. Izdatel'stvo Nauka Kazakhskoi SSR: Alma-Ata, USSR. In Rus.
The relation between demographic processes and social development in the USSR is explored. The social factors associated with the rapid growth of population that occurred at the beginning of the demographic transition are identified. The author concludes that the process of demographic transition is an inevitable stage in a population's socioeconomic development. Regional demographic differences in the USSR, particularly in fertility, are seen as indicators of regional differences in the rate of successful socioeconomic development. Differences in demographic characteristics and dynamics among ethnic groups are discussed.
Correspondence: Nauka Kazakhskoi SSR, ul. Puskina 111/113, 480 100 Alma-Ata, USSR. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:20696 Thomson, David. Population aging: a test of fairness. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 309-29 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author discusses the general aging of the world's populations, with an emphasis on China. From a global perspective, he addresses the problems inherent in an aging population, such as an increase in the dependency burden, generational conflict, migration, and similar social problems requiring public policy interventions.
Correspondence: D. Thomson, Massey University, Department of History, PO Palmerston North, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20697 Van Horn, Susan H. Women, work, and fertility, 1900-1986. American Social Experience Series, No. 9, ISBN 0-8147-8759-2. LC 87-24018. 1988. xiv, 232 pp. New York University Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author describes the revolution in U.S. women's lives that has occurred over the course of the twentieth century. The book is divided into three periods. "During the first era, from 1900 to 1940, fertility rates were in decline and work rates for married women were on the rise. An analysis of the baby-boom era, the second distinct period, illustrates that both work and fertility rates rose together with increased levels of productivity for women in both of their major activities. This era is the central focus of this book because it varies most profoundly from the earlier and later periods. The final period, including the years after 1960, reveals a contemporary concern with work somewhat at the expense of motherhood." The study is based on published sources.
Correspondence: New York University Press, Washington Square, New York, NY 10003. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

57:20698 Villarreal, Marcela. Status of women, education, and attitudes toward fertility and female labor force participation among Costa Rican adolescents. Pub. Order No. DA9001316. 1989. 268 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study uses data from the NIH-NSF funded Education and Family Life longitudinal national survey of 4,800 Costa Rican high school students, in-depth interview materials from 286 parents and 180 students, and projective tests carried out with 345 students from three schools to explore the relationship between the status of women, education, and attitudes toward fertility and female labor force participation. It concludes that restricting the measure of the status of women to female education and labor force participation ignores essential aspects of status that are central to understanding its relation with fertility. It proposes an attitudinal measure of gender inequality and shows its importance in the determination of desired family size and attitudes toward female employment."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Cornell University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(11).

57:20699 Yuan, Fang. Support for the elderly: the Chinese way. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 341-58 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author outlines the history of and problems related to traditional family support of the elderly, as well as prospects for the future. The conclusion is that a shared responsibility of the government, society, and the family is appropriate for China today.
Correspondence: F. Yuan, Peking University, Sociology Department, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

57:20700 Blum, Alain. Break and continuity. Soviet demography. [Rupture et continuite. La demographie sovietique.] Annales: Economies, Societes, Civilisations, Vol. 46, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1991. 169-87, 234-5 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between political and demographic history in Russia and the Soviet Union over the course of the twentieth century is explored. The author notes that although the political history seems to consist of a series of dramatic changes, the social history of the country as indicated by demographic indicators has more continuity. "A dissociation then appears between a political world subject to brutal changes and a social world which seems to develop in almost complete independence from it. A temporal perspective allows [us] to separate the often violent short-term effects. A geographical perspective allows us to see the Soviet Union not as a country closed in upon itself, but rather as a country that can only be understood by opening the doors to much broader cultural domains. The demographic approach thus allows for the formulation of a hypothesis: social evolution is independent of political evolution."
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20701 Boja, Ioana. The demographic situation in Romania. Where to? [Situatia demografica a Romaniei. Incotro?] Sociologie Romaneasca, No. 1-2, 1990. 171-9 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
This is the text of an interview with Vasile Ghetau on the demographic situation of Romania at the end of the Ceausescu era. Dr. Ghetau points out the high levels of infant mortality, declines in life expectancy for both sexes, and continued low levels of fertility despite vigorous pronatalist measures such as the banning of induced abortion. He suggests that these negative trends are directly linked to the fact that the regime's population policy violated individual human rights; the deteriorating economic condition of the country; and shortages of many essentials, including food, heat, medicines, and health services generally.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20702 Hosli, Madeleine; Spillmann, Kurt R. Demography and security policy: national aspects. Report and evaluation of the ETH conference of December 5, 1988. [Demographie und Sicherheitspolitik: nationale Aspekte. Bericht und Auswertung der ETH-Arbeitstagung vom 5. Dezember 1988.] Zurcher Beitrage zur Sicherheitspolitik und Konfliktforschung, No. 9, LC 90-131296. 1989. 71 pp. Forschungsstelle fur Sicherheitspolitik und Konfliktanalyse, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule [ETH]: Zurich, Switzerland. In Ger.
This publication contains papers and discussions from a conference on demography and national security policy in Switzerland, held on December 5, 1988. Topics covered include demography and security policy from a military viewpoint, effects of demographic trends on the civil sector, optimal population size, fertility decline and demographic aging, and internal migration.
Correspondence: Forschungsstelle fur Sicherheitspolitik und Konfliktanalyse, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:20703 White, Tyrene. Postrevolutionary mobilization in China: the one-child policy reconsidered. World Politics, Vol. 43, No. 1, Oct 1990. 53-76 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The author uses the post-Mao Chinese experience and a case study of China's one-child policy to argue that variant forms of mobilization have remained an integral part of the postrevolutionary Chinese political process, as the Deng regime attempts to rearrange the institutions and routines characteristic of Maoist China rapidly and fundamentally, while preserving a Leninist political order."
Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

57:20704 Egidi, Viviana; Golini, Antonio; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Verdecchia, Arduino. Assessing morbidity levels from mortality measurement: the case of cancer in Italy, 1955-1979. In: Measurement and analysis of mortality: new approaches, edited by Jacques Vallin, Stan D'Souza, and Alberto Palloni. 1990. 388-405 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter attempts to assess the morbidity levels (incidence and prevalence) of tumours in the Italian population, and the changes that have taken place in these levels over the period 1955-79, using the data on tumour deaths in Italy and, where these do not exist, using tumour survival curves based on appropriately adapted U.S. data. For this purpose, we have used a statistical model designed and tested on real data with satisfactory results....An attempt is made to interpret mortality trends for all tumours in the light of (a) the estimated tumour occurrence variation, (b) the lethality rate variation, and (c) the variation of the average survival period after onset."
Correspondence: V. Egidi, Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 0016 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20705 Elfindri. The physical quality of children in West Sumatra: case studies of two rural areas. [Kualitas fisik balita di Sumatera Barat: studi kasus di dua kecamatan.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 17, No. 34, Dec 1990. 35-50 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
The nutritional status of children up to age five is analyzed for two rural areas in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Differentials are attributed to mother's educational level and knowledge of nutrition, as well as medical and governmental interventions.
Correspondence: Elfindri, Universitas Andalas, Pusat Studi Kependudukan, Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan 77, Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20706 Harvey, Philip D. In poor countries, "self-sufficiency" can be dangerous to your health. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1991. 52-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author argues against the belief that developing countries can or should be made to pay for the cost of their own health care, particularly preventive health care. He states that "when it comes to social services like health programs and family planning, self-sufficiency simply does not apply."
Correspondence: P. D. Harvey, Population Services International, Africa Programs, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20707 John, A. Meredith. A model of HIV-1 transmission for urban areas of Africa. Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 39, No. 2, Apr 1991. 148-69 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"A model of the transmission dynamics of HIV-1, appropriate to urban areas of Africa, is presented and its behaviour explored through numerical studies. The model is a two-sex model with age-dependent demographic and behavioural parameters. Adults are classified by age, sex, risk group, and epidemiologic status. HIV-1 is transmitted to adults heterosexually, and to infants and children vertically and parenterally. Numerical studies show that, while AIDS will slow population growth, growth rates do not become negative for reasonable parameter values. The sex and age patterns of infection are explored, as is the potential economic impact of changes in the sex and age composition of the population."
Correspondence: A. M. John, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20708 Miller, Jane E.; Goldman, Noreen; Moreno, Lorenzo. An evaluation of retrospective data on birthweight and prematurity status. OPR Working Paper Series, No. 91-3, Jan 1991. 24, [1] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This study analyses data on birthweight and prematurity status from a recent survey in the Dominican Republic. The principal objective is to assess whether retrospectively collected data on these variables are accurate indicators of what they are intended to measure. We evaluate the data by examining distributions of birthweight and prematurity status and patterns of mortality by these two variables, and by comparing the resulting estimates with available data from other sources. In addition, we examine the covariates of low birthweight and prematurity status."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, Working Paper Series, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20709 Miller, Jane E. Birth intervals and perinatal health: an investigation of three hypotheses. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1991. 62-70 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This analysis uses data from Hungary, Sweden and the United States to investigate the factors contributing to the high health risks observed among infants born within 12 months of the preceding birth. Three hypotheses for poor perinatal health are explored: confounding by prematurity, selection of high-risk mothers into short birth intervals and maternal depletion. Results show that prematurity accounts for the greatest share of the excess risks associated with closely spaced births, and for virtually all of the excess risk of late fetal death. After the confounding effects of prematurity are controlled for, the study finds that infants conceived within a few months of the preceding birth remain at higher-than-average risk of low birth weight, preterm birth and neonatal death. The results suggest that avoidance of birth intervals of less than two years could be expected to effect a 5-10 percent decreased risk of low birth weight and neonatal death."
Correspondence: J. E. Miller, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

57:20710 Bertranpetit, J.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. A genetic reconstruction of the history of the population of the Iberian Peninsula. Annals of Human Genetics, Vol. 55, No. 1, Jan 1991. 51-67 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The genetic patterns detectable in human populations of the Iberian Peninsula are shown by means of 'synthetic genetic maps', i.e. geographic maps of the highest principal components (PC) of gene frequencies. This method of analysis separates independent patterns of the genetic landscape, which hopefully represents different, major evolutionary events of the past. Among these are clines established by ancient important migrations, and local differentiations of populations due to barriers responsible for relative isolation. Only events of some magnitude from a demographic point of view, involving populations having initially definite genetic differences are detectable by the method."
Correspondence: J. Bertranpetit, Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Biologia, Laboratori d'Antropologia, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

57:20711 Chaventre, Andre; Roberts, Derek F. Multidisciplinary approach of human isolates. [Approche pluri-disciplinaire des isolats humains.] Congres et Colloques, No. 3, ISBN 2-7332-4003-X. 1990. vii, 459, 22 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Human Genetics: Newcastle upon Tyne, England. In Eng; Fre.
These are the proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, held in Zagreb, Yugoslavia, July 24-31, 1988. The papers are grouped under four themes: anthropology and molecular genetics, anthropology and population genetics, anthropology and human sciences, and anthropology and techniques. The papers are in either English or French.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20712 Danubio, Maria E.; Coppa, Alfredo. Marital mobility in the municipal area of Civitella del Tronto (Teramo, Abruzzo) from the XVII century to 1979. Genus, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1990. 57-70 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
Geographic distance between gene pools is studied by analyzing marital mobility in Civitella del Tronto, Italy, from the early 1600s to 1979. The purpose is to examine changes in kinship and consanguinity in the population.
Correspondence: M. E. Danubio, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Citta Universitaria, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20713 Danubio, Maria E.; Coppa, Alfredo. Use of isonymous marriages in the study of consanguinity. Genus, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1990. 39-56 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"In a previous investigation the distribution of isonymous marriages was traced for the last 160 years in Civitella del Tronto [Italy]. In this report the authors test the reliability of the method, by verifying if isonymous mates actually descend from a common ancestor. The family menages of the three families with the highest rate of isonymous marriages [during the period 1810-1969] were reconstructed over 10-11 generations."
Correspondence: M. E. Danubio, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Citta Universitaria, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20714 Laing, Lory M. Population dynamics of a Canadian religious isolate, the Hutterites. 1989. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"In this study the [Canadian] Hutterite population dynamics are examined from the perspective of the demographic transition model. From this perspective, changes in the Hutterite fertility and mortality systems are studied in relation to changes in the Hutterite cultural system, and the broader economic, political, technological, and social systems. The data used in this study come from a geneological data base...and from the Census of Canada."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Alberta (Canada).
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(11).

57:20715 Medkov, Viktor. Quality of the population: essence, content, criteria (an attempt at methodological analysis). [Kachestvo na naselenieto: sastnost, sadarzhanie, kriterii (opit za metodologicheski analiz).] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1989. 31-9 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author discusses population quality in Bulgaria and considers the need for the development of a research methodology concerning population genetics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20716 Roberts, D. F. The biological effects of human intervention. Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1990. 83-96 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The author discusses human intervention in the environment, the resulting biological changes, and their impact on population trends. "Several types of intervention are distinguished: Primary or deliberate--measures taken to achieve a desired aim; [and] secondary or incidental--arising in the course of other actions. Both interventions may be quantitative or qualitative. An example of the primary type is recent control of fertility in China. A secondary intervention is illustrated by the demographic situation in England during the last century. The third example, measles control in the Gambia, shows the difficulties of implementing a deliberate programme and the need to include additional measures to influence...other factors." These three examples illustrate both the impact of such interventions on the human gene pool and the difficulty of measuring such changes.
Correspondence: D. F. Roberts, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 19 Claremont Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1991-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.