Volume 57 - Number 2 - Summer 1991

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

57:20626 Boserup, Ester. Economic and demographic relationships in development: essays selected and introduced by T. Paul Schultz. Johns Hopkins Studies in Development, ISBN 0-8018-3929-7. LC 89-35239. 1990. vi, 307 pp. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This is a selection of 25 previously published essays by Ester Boserup that explore the connections between economic growth and demographic trends, particularly those relating to the status of women and the changing family. "Specific topics include the interplay of agriculture and population, varying constraints on food supply and agricultural productivity, and the economic activities of women and the environmental determinants of desired fertility in low-income countries. A series of chapters on Africa provides a concrete context for the theoretical concerns of earlier chapters."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University Press, 701 W. 40th Street, Suite 275, Baltimore, MD 21211. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

57:20627 Cohen, Suleiman I. The interface between population and development models, plans and policies. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 28, No. 4, Winter 1989. 385-411 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
Problems associated with including population economics variables in development planning are explored. The author examines conceptual issues involved in defining population economics variables, how the relation between population and economic factors can be modeled, and how to develop a framework for decision making in this area. Some examples concerning policy issues are considered, including policies designed to affect fertility. Comments on the paper by Zafar Mahmood (pp. 405-7) and Dennis de Tray (pp. 408-11) are included.
Correspondence: S. I. Cohen, Erasmus University, Postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20628 Lee, Ronald. The demographic response to economic crisis in historical and contemporary populations. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 29, 1990. 1-15 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In the past decade, many developing economies have experienced severe fluctuations. What have been the demographic consequences? Rather than address the question directly, I shall place it in perspective by discussing the influence of economic fluctuations on vital rates in earlier periods, in both developed and developing countries....I conclude that the experience of European populations before the twentieth century is highly consistent with the experience of the poorer third-world countries up to the present, or at least of those few that have so far been examined. However, for the wealthier third-world countries, patterns might be expected to conform more closely to those of the populations of the developed countries, and those patterns are entirely obscure and provide no reliable guidance."
Correspondence: R. Lee, University of California, Department of Economics, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

57:20629 Baldi, Stefano. Population trends in the Mediterranean region: socioeconomic problems associated with the situation in the countries of North Africa. [Lo sviluppo demografico nel Mediterraneo: problemi economico-sociali legati alla situazione dei paesi del Nord Africa.] Affari Sociali Internazionali, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1990. 49-63 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita.
The impact of current rates of population growth on the economies of the countries of North Africa is assessed. The author notes that the countries of the region had agreed in January 1990 to implement as soon as possible a policy of free circulation of migrants among Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania, and Libya in order to reduce levels of emigration from the region and to help resolve labor-supply problems within the region.
Location: New York Public Library.

57:20630 Banister, Judith. Implications of the aging of China's population. In: Changing family structure and population aging in China: a comparative approach, edited by Zeng Yi, Zhang Chunyuan, and Peng Songjian. 1990. 268-308 pp. Peking University Press: Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author examines the demographic aging of China's population and projects the age structure to the year 2050. Governmental policies and critical problem areas concerning the aged are discussed. The higher level of the dependency burden associated with the lack of social security in rural areas is stressed.
Correspondence: J. Banister, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20631 Corbridge, Stuart. Population growth and economic development. Geography Review, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1989. 14-6 pp. Deddington, England. In Eng.
The Malthusian and neo-Malthusian approaches to the role of population growth in economic development and resource depletion are briefly outlined. Three arguments are then presented that emphasize demographic determinism, empirical evidence, and cause and effect. The author concludes that non-coercive family planning programs may have a role to play in countries that are unable to reduce inequalities, particularly for the poor and for women.
Correspondence: S. Corbridge, University of Cambridge, Department of Geography, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Indiana University Library, Bloomington, IN.

57:20632 Faissol, Speridiao. Population problems in Latin America. [Problemas da populacao na America Latina.] Revista Geografica, No. 112, Jul-Dec 1990. 91-8 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Por.
The author summarizes the findings of a working group set up by the Pan American Institute of Geography and History's Commission on Geography concerning population problems in Latin America. The socioeconomic conditions affecting population growth are first outlined. Questions of migration and urbanization are then reviewed. The author points out the close links between population and development and the slow rate of progress in resolving population problems in contrast to people's rising expectations.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20633 Hayes, Adrian C. Population quality and sustainable development in Indonesia: notes on a framework for the discussion of policy issues. Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 17, No. 34, Dec 1990. 1-20 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
"The purpose of the present paper is to propose a simple yet broad conceptual framework for identifying some of the important interconnections among various aspects of population, environment, society, and development, which need to be taken into account by policy makers when they address issues of population quality and sustainable development [in Indonesia]."
Correspondence: A. C. Hayes, Tribhuvan University, Central Department of Population Studies, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20634 Mugo Gachuhi, J. Kenya's population growth, education, employment and socio-economic development. Bureau of Educational Research Seminar Paper, No. 200201, Jan 30, 1990. 23 pp. Kenyatta University, Bureau of Educational Research: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
This paper attempts to highlight some of the basic factors affecting economic growth in Kenya, emphasizing the importance of rapid population growth. Recent population trends are first reviewed. Sections are then included on land supply, education, health, the economy, income, and employment. The author concludes that the continuation of rapid population growth at current rates precludes the solution of problems in these areas.
Correspondence: Kenyatta University, Bureau of Educational Research, P.O. Box 43844, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20635 Nag, Prithvish. Population, settlement and development in Zambia. ISBN 81-7022-268-0. 1990. xvii, 232 pp. Concept Publishing: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development in Zambia is analyzed. "Its modest economic and considerable demographic growth has provoked changes in the spatial patterns of population and settlement, especially rapid urbanization with all its numerous attendant problems, such as those of housing, employment and the provisions of facilities and amenities."
Correspondence: Concept Publishing Company, A/15-16 Commercial Block, Mohan Garden, New Delhi 110 059, India. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20636 Oteiza, Enrique. Human resources in Latin America: a historical focus on the relations among population, education, and employment. [Los recursos humanos en la America Latina: enfoque historico de las relaciones entre poblacion, educacion y empleo.] Trimestre Economico, Vol. 56, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1989. 799-830 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author traces the increased consideration of human resources in the analysis of the relations among population, education, and employment in Latin America. The focus is on the importance of human resources for the long-term economic development of the region, particularly the role of education in development.
Correspondence: E. Oteiza, Fundaccion Bariloche, Bariloche, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20637 Pasay, N. Haidy A. Structural change and higher educated labour in Indonesia. Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 17, No. 34, Dec 1990. 67-92 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
Trends in population change, economic growth, and educational levels in Indonesia during the period 1961-1985 are examined. The author focuses on the country's economic development and the human resources and labor force necessary to achieve development goals.
Correspondence: N. H. A. Pasay, Universitas Indonesia, Fakultas Ekonomi, Lembaga Demografi, Salemba Raya 4, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20638 Ukaegbu, Chikwendu C. The human factor in national development: some reflections on population and development in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, Vol. 30, No. 1, Mar 1988. 27-42 pp. Ibadan, Nigeria. In Eng.
The relationship between the effective utilization of human resources and successful socioeconomic development in Nigeria is examined. The author argues that Nigeria's current socioeconomic difficulties cannot be blamed on population growth alone, and maintains that "underutilization of human resources; lopsided production and distribution mechanisms; economic depression; and under-developed science and technology system; erratic climatic and agronomic conditions; the illegal exportation of food; [and] corruption and mismanagement of revenue, all constitute forces that simultaneously limit the national capacity to produce more resources for the growing population."
Correspondence: C. C. Ukaegbu, University of Nigeria, Department of Sociology, Nsukka, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:20639 Zanamwe, Lazarus. Population change and socio-economic development in Zimbabwe. Pub. Order No. BRD-88890. 1989. 451 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"It is a commonly held theory that population is related to levels of social and economic development within a given country or society....The thesis attempts to apply this theory in relation to the demographic development of Zimbabwe. The thesis postulates that socio-economic differentials within Zimbabwe are sufficiently pronounced as to begin to affect the demographic structure of the country. It is with this in mind that three objectives are set for the thesis: (a) the exploration of the demographic structure of the population of Zimbabwe, as a means of furthering the understanding of the nature of the demographic development of the country; (b) the development and utilization of data estimation techniques as a means of overcoming the deficiencies in the data collected from official sources; and, (c) the investigation of the link between population change, on the one hand, with social and economic development on the other."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Leeds.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(2).

57:20640 Zuo, Xuejin. Population paradoxes in China--population viewed as producers and consumers. Pub. Order No. DA9019447. 1989. 165 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study investigates the relationship between China's population growth and its economic development. It first uses both time-series and cross-section data to examine the possible negative association between the changing size and the growth rate of the country's population and economic performance. No evidence is found to support a decisive negative relationship between the variables in a simple two-variable model....Some features of China's population-economic system, which distinguish China from many other developing countries, such as the one-child birth-control policy, the strictly controlled rural-urban migration, the rapid development of rural manufacturing and other nonagricultural sectors, and the rural-urban segmented capital markets, are incorporated into the model."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pittsburgh.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(2).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

57:20641 Alessie, R. J. M.; Boorsma, P. B.; van den Bosch, F. A. J.; von Dewall, F. A.; Frijns, J.; de Groot, H.; Heijke, J. A. M.; Kapteyn, A.; Koster, E. R.; Kronjee, G. J.; Kuhry, B; Nieuwenhuis, A.; van Opstal, R.; Petersen, C.; Ritzen, J. M. M.; Siegers, J. J.; Tenhaeff, C. R. Demographic changes and economic development: Royal Association of Economics preliminary reports, 1987. [Demografische veranderingen en economische ontwikkelingen: Koninklijke Vereniging voor de Staathuishoudkunde Preadviezen 1987.] ISBN 90-207-1606-9. LC 88-122236. 1987. xii, 303 pp. H. E. Stenfert Kroese: Leiden, Netherlands; Wetenschappelijke en Educatieve Uitgevers: Antwerp, Belgium. In Dut.
This is a collection of papers by various authors presented at the 125th annual meeting of the Dutch Royal Association of Economics on aspects of demographic aging in the Netherlands. Some attention is also given to demographic trends around the world.
Correspondence: H. E. Stenfert Kroese, Postbus 33, 2300AA Leiden, Netherlands. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:20642 Bucher, Hansjorg. Population development in the Federal Republic of Germany: effects in selected life situations. [Bevolkerungsentwicklung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Auswirkungen auf ausgewahlte Lebensbereiche.] Geographische Rundschau, Vol. 38, No. 9, Sep 1986. 448-54 pp. Brunswick, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The effects of demographic aging and declining fertility in West Germany are discussed. Population projections to 2030 are reviewed, and consequences for the labor force, pension schemes, economic growth, housing, and the military are examined.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:20643 Draus, Renate H. The third age in the German Federal Republic. [Le troisieme age en Republique Federale Allemande.] Observations et Diagnostics Economiques, No. 22, Jan 1988. 205-25 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
In this analysis, the author notes that the process of demographic aging in West Germany is more advanced than in any other country in the world. The majority of the aged population is female. Both the income and assets of the elderly are higher than those of the population as a whole, and their standard of living continues to improve. Because the elderly spend rather than save, they exert a positive impact on the economy. The links between the elderly and the younger generations remain strong, as the elderly contribute much in the way of financial support, although, as in other countries, the family links between generations are weakening.
Correspondence: R. H. Draus, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques, 69 Quai d'Orsay, 75007 Paris, France. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20644 Gonnot, J.-P. Demographic, social and economic aspects of the pension problem: evidence from twelve countries. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-90-15, Mar 1990. ix, 47 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This paper gives an overview of the results of [an] international comparative study....[which] consists of simulations of national state pension systems under a common set of demographic scenarios up to the year 2050. It includes 12 countries: Austria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and Poland....The demographic setting and the results of demographic projections are presented in the first part of this paper with emphasis on aging and changes in the marital composition of the population. Part two deals with pensions. It includes a comparison of state pension systems as well as labor and retirement patterns, a description of the pension model, and a discussion of the results of pension projections. It also pays special attention to the inequalities among women according to marital history. The third part is devoted to assessing the possible impact of pension reforms."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20645 Gonnot, Jean-Pierre. Socio-demographic changes and the pension problem in Austria. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-90-022, May 1990. ix, 39 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"The aging of the Austrian population will reach, in the first half of the next century, a level which implies a dramatic deterioration of the performance of the State pension system. Parallel to aging, substantial changes in the marital composition of the elderly population and strong improvements in benefit entitlements for women will be observed. Different solutions to the pension problem are tested and compared."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20646 Klaassen, L. H.; Van Der Vlist, J. A. Senior citizens: a burden? Economist, Vol. 138, No. 3, 1990. 302-20 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Some people have serious worries about the effects of an aging population in The Netherlands. In this article, attention is directed towards a number of positive effects, like their rather high purchasing power, their low criminality rate, low rate of traffic accidents, etc. If one takes account of the expected rise in incomes of the elderly, the influence of aging on a country's economy will generally be positive. Income expenditure will be focussed on travel and housing. Promoting the immigration of elderly people may bring about a reinforcement of a regional economy."
Correspondence: L. H. Klaassen, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20647 McLoughlin, Jane. The demographic revolution. ISBN 0-571-16114-6. 1990. 159 pp. Faber and Faber: London, England. In Eng.
The implications for Britain of current demographic trends are explored, with emphasis on the consequences of a shortfall of nearly a million young people available to work by the early 1990s. "Drawing on interviews with Government ministers, industrial bosses and union leaders, [the author] examines the practical challenges we must all face; the crisis in the National Health Service as it copes with the demands of an additional one million pensioners; the transformation of family life as women become a majority in the workforce; [and] the upheaval in education as today's syllabus is made redundant."
Correspondence: Faber and Faber, 3 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AU, England. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20648 Rakov, A. A. The demographic principles of economic planning. [Demograficheskie osnovy narodno khozyaistvennogo planirovaniya.] ISBN 5-343-00509-8. 1990. 268 pp. Navuka i Tekhnika: Minsk, USSR. In Rus.
This study is concerned with the role of demographic factors in socioeconomic development planning. The first chapter deals with methodological and theoretical aspects of the relationship between population and development. The next chapter looks at population policy and how it should be developed in the framework of social policy. The demographic factor is then considered in relation to employment, education, public health, agricultural production, construction, and natural resources and the environment. The author then looks at the different needs of families, young people, women, and the elderly. Demographic forecasting in the planning process is described. Finally, population models as planning tools are introduced. The primary geographical focus is on the USSR.
Correspondence: Navuka i Tekhnika, Zhodinskaya 18, 220600 Minsk, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20649 Scherbov, Sergei; Keyfitz, Nathan; Lutz, Wolfgang; Prinz, Christopher; Wils, Anne. Demographic aspects of changes in the Soviet pension system. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-90-003, Apr 1990. vii, 28 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"The paper discusses the consequences of possible demographic changes in the USSR as a whole and at the regional level upon the pension system under different assumptions about retirement ages. Some general recommendations on changes in the pension system based on international experience are presented."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20650 Schulz, James H.; Borowski, Allan; Crown, William H.; Hoshino, Shinya; Kumashiro, Akihiko; Leavitt, Thomas; Takada, Kazuo. Economics of population aging: the "graying" of Australia, Japan, and the United States. ISBN 0-86569-008-1. LC 90-437. 1991. xiv, 364 pp. Auburn House: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This book examines the argument that demographic aging will cause serious economic problems, particularly in developed countries, using the examples of Australia, Japan, and the United States. "After a brief review of the phenomenon of demographic aging, the authors give a summary of the major economic programs offered to the aged. Extensive research is used to evaluate the concept of dependency ratios and to predict the impact on younger and older persons of future economic and demographic growth. This discussion then provides the basis for a review of evolving retirement policies in the three countries. Special attention is given to the way pension plans have been designed, especially early and mandatory retirement policies. An assessment of the adequacy of retirement income follows. The final three chapters are devoted to policy options for the future, given trends in demographic aging."
Correspondence: Auburn House Publishing, 14 Dedham Street, Dover, MA 02030-0658. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

57:20651 Taylor, Lowell J. The dynamic analysis of demographic change in a life cycle savings model. Pub. Order No. DA9014026. 1989. 155 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The research presented in this dissertation is motivated by the observation that life-cycle considerations influence the economic behavior of households, and thus the age composition of the population can be an important determinant of aggregate economic activity. As a consequence, demographic change can affect economic outcomes. To explore the implications of this observation, we study demographic change in a decentralized economic growth model composed of overlapping cohorts of utility-maximizing households." The geographical focus is on the United States.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 51(1).

57:20652 Weber, Ernst J. Qualifying Ricardian equivalence: immigration. Department of Economics Discussion Paper, No. 89.19, ISBN 0-86422-772-8. Jul 1989. 12 pp. University of Western Australia, Department of Economics: Nedlands, Australia. In Eng.
The impact of immigration on fiscal policy in selected developed countries is examined using the examples of Australia, Canada, and the United States. "It will be shown that in countries experiencing immigration the wealth effect of a deficit-financed tax cut amounts to up to one quarter of that in static macroeconomic models. This implies that fiscal policy is more effective in immigration countries than it is usually assumed in modern macroeconomic models."
Correspondence: University of Western Australia, Department of Economics, Nedlands WA 6009, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20653 Weir, David R. An historical perspective on the economic consequences of rapid population growth. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 600, Aug 1989. 42 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
The author discusses the economic consequences of population growth "by using single-country time-series of land rents instead of wages, and by estimating wage responses from a newly-constructed panel data set of the six largest European economies from 1500 to 1800. The new results show less dramatic negative consequences of population growth for real wages than did earlier studies, but the magnitude of the effect remains larger than expected from simple diminishing returns in a production function with reasonable factor substitution possibilities....The panel data results also confirm the superiority of English and Dutch economic performance in this period, as these countries were capable of absorbing more rapid population growth at constant real wages."
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, Box 1987, Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20654 Zdrojewski, Eugeniusz Z. Demographic factors affecting socioeconomic development in West Pomorze. [Przemiany demograficzne a rozwoj spoleczno-gospodarczy Pomorza Zachodniego.] Monografie i Opracowania, No. 320, 1990. 331 pp. Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The relationship between socioeconomic development and demographic factors in the Polish region of West Pomorze is explored, with emphasis on the period 1975-1985. The population dynamics of the region are first examined, with separate consideration given to both natural increase and migration. Chapters are included on employment, production, and the social infrastructure. The study concludes by looking at likely trends in both development and population up to the year 2000.
Correspondence: Szkola Glowna Planowania i Statystyki, Instytut Statystyki i Demografii, Al. Niepodlegosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

57:20655 Agrasot, Paloma; Tabutin, Dominique; Thiltges, Evelyne. The relation between population and environment in the countries of the south: facts and theories. [Les relations entre population et environnement dans les pays du sud: faits et theories.] Institut de Demographie Working Paper, No. 153, ISBN 2-87209-100-9. Jan 1991. 32 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The authors examine the relations among the environment, natural resources, and population growth in the developing world. They first review the available facts concerning population growth and the condition of the environment. They then summarize the results of the studies done on these relationships and the theories developed to explain them. They conclude by identifying some unresolved issues, primarily in the area of methodology.
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, Place Montesquieu 1, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20656 Dahlman, Carl J. The tragedy of the commons that wasn't: on technical solutions to the institutions game. Population and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 3, Spring 1991. 285-96 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author uses Garrett Hardin's thesis concerning population growth and land ownership and their effects on natural resources as a basis for discussing the sociopolitical background determining resource use and conservation. The need for institutions and governments to enact policies that address population and energy problems is stressed.
Correspondence: C. J. Dahlman, 3616 Thornapple Street, Chevy Chase, MD 20815. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20657 Dyson, Tim. On the demography of South Asian famines. Part I. Population Studies, Vol. 45, No. 1, Mar 1991. 5-25 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The present paper provides a comparative demographic analysis of the five largest South Asian famines for which detailed data exist; these are the famines of 1876-78, 1896-97, 1899-1900, the Bengal famine of 1943-44 and the Bangladesh famine of 1974-75. These crises raise many interesting issues, such as the scale of excess mortality and the socio-economic distribution of famine deaths. But we will focus upon certain specific short-term aspects of these disasters, namely (i) the evolution through time of the mortality and fertility responses to famine, (ii) the interaction of famine conditions and epidemics and (iii) the age and sex composition of famine deaths."
Correspondence: T. Dyson, London School of Economics, Department of Population Studies, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20658 Ehrlich, Anne H. People and food. Population and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 3, Spring 1991. 221-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the effects of population growth, global warming, and agricultural production on the world's food supply. She describes a model that tests the impact of global climatic change on world food security, and stresses the need to reduce the number of births as a means of preventing deaths from hunger and poverty.
Correspondence: A. H. Ehrlich, Stanford University, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20659 Fletcher, Joseph. Chronic famine and the immorality of food aid: a bow to Garrett Hardin. Population and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 3, Spring 1991. 331-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses Garrett Hardin's analysis of the ethics of providing food aid as a means of coping with famine. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: J. Fletcher, Westminster-Canterbury, Apartment C-229, 250 Pantops, Mountain Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20660 Hardin, Garrett. From shortage to longage: forty years in the population vineyards. Population and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 3, Spring 1991. 339-49 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is an essay on the cultural and social aspects of population control and carrying capacity throughout the world.
Correspondence: G. Hardin, 399 Arboleda Road, Santa Barbara, CA 93110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20661 Heilig, Gerhard. Hunger in Africa: problems of population growth and agricultural productivity. Popnet, No. 19, Spring 1991. 7-12 pp. Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The problem of hunger in Africa is examined using data from the U.N. Food and Agricultural Organization for the period 1960-1988. The author discusses the relationship between the continent's population growth, agricultural productivity, and environmental damage that have combined to decrease the average daily food intake per capita. He states that "in Africa...the population not only faces problems of uneven food distribution and suffers from the lack of purchasing power; the continent also is confronted by a widening gap between the capacity of its agriculture and the growth of its population. Put very bluntly, Africa is rapidly losing its ability to feed itself."
Correspondence: G. Heilig, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20662 Holdren, John P. Population and the energy problem. Population and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 3, Spring 1991. 231-55 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The effect of world population growth on the energy supply and the impact of increased energy consumption on the environment are described. Particular attention is given to sources of gas emissions that contribute to global warming, the sociopolitical backgrounds of international and national energy policies, and the implications of proposed efficiency measures for developing countries.
Correspondence: J. P. Holdren, University of California, Energy and Resource Group, Building T-4, Room 100, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20663 Kisovi, Leonard M. Population pressure in Kitui District, Kenya. 1990. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study sets out to investigate the magnitude of population pressure, in Kitui District [Kenya]. Kitui District is one of Kenya's marginal regions; while overall population density is low, population pressure has reached crisis proportions. Whereas in many of the arid and semi-arid regions of Kenya research has been undertaken on the issue of population pressure, Kitui District has so far been neglected. This study attempts to fill this apparent gap." Aspects considered include "land fragmentation and subdivision, declining crop yields and malnutrition, deforestation and increased soil erosion, and a swelling flow of urban-bound migrants...."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Manitoba.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(12).

57:20664 Luten, Daniel B. Population and resources. Population and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 3, Spring 1991. 311-29 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in population growth and industrialization and their impact on food production and natural resources are examined. The geographical scope is worldwide, with special emphasis on the United States.
Correspondence: D. B. Luten, 1097 Creston Road, Berkeley, CA 94708-1545. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20665 Lutz, W.; Toth, F. L. Population, economy, and environment in Mauritius. IIASA Collaborative Paper, No. CP-91-001, Jan 1991. vii, 331 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a meeting conducted as part of a UNFPA-sponsored project concerning population and sustainable development in Mauritius, held in Laxenburg, Austria, September 3-5, 1990. The 21 papers are grouped under two main headings. Part 2, on population and the labor force, includes papers on population policy, the family planning program, and fertility change. Part 3, on economic development and environmental impacts, contains papers on energy demands, agriculture, water supply, tourism, climate change, and the spatial distribution of the population.
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20666 Lutz, Wolfgang. Population and sustainable development. Popnet, No. 18, Fall 1990. 1-4 pp. Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The author previews an interdisciplinary research project on Mauritius on population and sustainable development. The project will focus on the interrelationships among population, development, and the environment. "The expected result of the project will be a computerized information system based on a dynamic simulation model that will allow the user to run alternative scenarios, test various policy options, and show possible paths to specified goals."
Correspondence: W. Lutz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20667 Mishra, R. P. Population and food supply in Madhya Pradesh. ISBN 81-85119-73-2. 1989. xiv, 120 pp. Northern Book Centre: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The relationship between population dynamics and food supply in developing countries is examined through a case study of Madhya Pradesh, India. The author also examines "the nature of spatio-temporal changes in the demographic characteristics and food production with a view to [identifying] the kind and direction of change in the population food resource relationships in the state." Information is included on population growth, spatial distribution and regional differentials, occupational structure, and agricultural resources. Data are from the 1951 and 1981 Indian censuses.
Correspondence: Northern Book Centre, 4221/1 Ansari Road, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20668 Simon, J. L.; Steinmann, Gunter. Population growth, farmland, and the long-run standard of living. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1991. 37-51 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper studies the natural-resources element in the theory of population growth over the very long run. In the context of the stock of land and Malthusian crises in earlier times, the model shows how resources have become more available rather than more scarce, even as population and income have increased. The paper sketches a mechanism which added to the Malthusian system, leads to entirely different conclusions than does the Malthusian system....That is, population growth creates new problems which in the short run constitute additional burdens which, in the longer run, lead to new developments that leave people better off than if the problems had never arisen."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 382).
Correspondence: J. L. Simon, University of Maryland, Department of Business Administration, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20669 Stroup, Richard L. Controlling earth's resources: markets or socialism? Population and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 3, Spring 1991. 265-84 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The important message contained in Garrett Hardin's...'The Tragedy of the Commons,' is that in making resource-use decisions individuals see their own narrow interests best and, if not constrained by institutions such as governmental rule or market incentives, will tend to follow those narrow interests....In this paper, the same insight is applied to the two types of control mechanism cited by Hardin: socialist management and private ownership." The author finds that private property ownership tends to ensure more efficient and considerate resource use. Comparisons are made between socialist and capitalist countries.
Correspondence: R. L. Stroup, Political Economy Research Center, 502 South 19th Avenue, Suite 211, Bozeman, MT 59715. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

57:20670 Abel, Marjorie; Folbre, Nancy. A methodology for revising estimates: female market participation in the U.S. before 1940. Historical Methods, Vol. 23, No. 4, Fall 1990. 167-76 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Problems concerning estimation of the extent of female participation in the U.S. labor force before 1940 are examined. "The first section of this paper briefly reviews the debate over underenumeration of women's marketwork, calling attention to problems of gender bias as well as chronological consistency. The second section critically analyzes three recent efforts to compensate for underenumeration of self-employed (or 'family-employed') women in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries on the national level, emphasizing additional sources of data required to develop firmer estimates. The third section illustrates a more disaggregated approach with a detailed analysis of the occupations of married women in the towns of Montague and Easthampton, Massachusetts, in 1880."
Correspondence: M. Abel, Keene State College, Division of Sciences (Anthropology), 229 Main Street, Keene, NH 03431. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20671 Bauer, John. Demographic change and Asian labor markets in the 1990s. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 4, Dec 1990. 615-45, 810, 812 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"I have projected the labor force for several Asian countries by applying projected labor force participation rates to projected populations. The population figures are the medium variant of the most recent projections from the United Nations....Diversity in Asia's demographic trends contributes to a wide range of labor market conditions. In Japan and the newly industrialized countries (NICs), labor force growth rates will continue to decline and labor costs will rise. The responses to greater tightening of labor markets will include additional restructuring into higher value-added production, additional movement of labor-intensive production abroad via direct foreign investment, and greater importation of labor. In the more labor-abundant countries of South and Southeast Asia, rapid labor force growth will ensure that labor absorption remains a crucial concern during the next two decades. The importance of rural nonfarm employment will grow, as will the burdens placed on the urban informal sectors of these countries."
Correspondence: J. Bauer, East-West Center, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20672 Bogdanov, Zdravko. Loss of labor resources as a result of disability. [Zaguba na trudovi resursi poradi invalidizirane.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1989. 102-8 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author discusses the effects of disabling disease and injury on the size of the work force in Bulgaria.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20673 Borjas, George J. Immigrants in the U.S. labor market: 1940-80. American Economic Review, Vol. 81, No. 2, May 1991. 287-91 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper...[explores] the extent and causes of the decline in immigrant skills [in the United States] during the postwar period. Prior to 1965, immigration to the United States was guided by the national-origins quota system. This visa allocation system awarded visas to countries based on the representation of the national origin group in the U.S. population as of 1920. The 1965 Amendments abolished the national-origins formula, thus redistributing visas across source countries, and established a system where visas are mainly given to relatives of U.S. citizens or residents. The empirical analysis shows that a single factor, the changing national origin mix of the immigrant flow, is mainly responsible for the decline in immigrant skills."
Correspondence: G. J. Borjas, University of California at San Diego, Department of Economics, La Jolla, CA 92093. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:20674 Carlin, Paul S. Home investment in husband's human capital and the wife's decision to work. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1991. 71-86 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper explores the importance of husbands' career demands and assortative mating patterns for market-specific human capital on the decision of married women to work or not....[It] has three goals: (1) to derive, within the framework of a standard model of home production, a testable hypothesis concerning the effect of home investment in husband's human capital on a wife's decision to work; (2) to reconcile the theory with the existing empirical evidence by noting that issues of joint husband and wife decision-making cannot be viewed without considering the role of the marriage sorting market; and (3) to provide new empirical evidence that isolates the home investment effect from the sorting effect." Data are from 281 married couples in the United States.
Correspondence: P. S. Carlin, Indiana University, Department of Economics, 425 University Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5140. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20675 Desplanques, Guy; Raton, Isabelle; Thave, Suzanne. Female labor force participation. [L'activite feminine.] INSEE Resultats: Demographie-Societe, No. 10, ISBN 2-11-065923-8. Jan 1991. 96 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends over time in female labor force participation in France are analyzed. Data are primarily from a family survey, surveys on employment, and the census and cover the period 1954-1989. Attention is paid to the relationship between employment and fertility.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 Boulevard Adolph-Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20676 Gauthier, Herve. The economically active population in Quebec: some demographic aspects. [La population active au Quebec: aspects demographiques.] Statistiques Demographiques, ISBN 2-551-14456-6. 1991. 141 pp. Bureau de la Statistique du Quebec: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
Demographic factors affecting developments in the economically active population of the province of Quebec are analyzed. Data are from Canadian censuses, labor force surveys, and surveys on consumers' financial status. Chapters are included on the development of the labor force from 1951 to 1986, the characteristics of the growth in the size of the labor force, migration, the effect of having children on female economic activity, professional qualifications by sex, and age distribution by profession.
Correspondence: Bureau de la Statistique du Quebec, 117 rue Saint-Andre, Quebec G1K 3Y3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20677 Kurzynowski, Adam. Changes in patterns of behavior toward work of mothers who gave birth to their children in the 1980s (results of a survey conducted in 1988 by the Institute of Social Economy). [Przemiany wzorow zachowan matek wobec pracy po urodzeniu dziecka w latach 80-tych (wyniki badania IGS z 1988 r.).] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1989. 7-23, 163, 168-9 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The results of a 1988 survey of 5,382 young Polish mothers concerning employment following the birth of a child are presented. They show that 83 percent of mothers return to work following maternity leave, that educational and salary levels are the primary factors affecting return to work, and that women are taking increasing lengths of time away from work to care for children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20678 LaLonde, Robert J.; Topel, Robert H. Immigrants in the American labor market: quality, assimilation, and distributional effects. American Economic Review, Vol. 81, No. 2, May 1991. 297-302 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper provides evidence on immigrants' performance and impact in the U.S. labor market. We document that new immigrants do bring fewer marketable skills to the United States than did earlier cohorts, and that changes in the source countries of recent immigrants account for all of this decline in immigrant 'quality.' We find no important evidence that quality has declined within immigrant ethnic groups. We also show that immigrants assimilate rapidly in the U.S. market (10 years of U.S. experience offsets most of the earnings disadvantage of new immigrants), and that assimilation is more rapid for groups who start with lower initial wages."
Correspondence: R. J. LaLonde, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:20679 Park, Young Jin. Korean patterns of women's labor force participation during the period, 1960-1980. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jul 1990. 71-90 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This article investigates how the patterns of Korean women's labor force participation have changed during the 1960s and the 1970s, [periods] of rapid economic development and social changes. The discussion focuses on the comparison of three sets of cross-sectional data derived from the 1960, 1970 and 1980 [Republic of Korea] censuses. Although not dramatic, the gross rates of women's labor force participation show an upward trend. A very high and rapidly increasing rate of rural women's labor force participation did not result in a big increase in the total rate because of the significant rise in the proportion of the population living in urban areas. However, the employment structure and patterns of women's labor force participation have changed significantly, especially in urban areas."
Correspondence: Y. J. Park, Seoul National University, Population and Development Studies Center, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20680 Pugliese, Enrico. Immigrants in the labor market. [Gli immigrati nel mercato del lavoro.] Polis, Vol. 4, No. 1, Apr 1990. 71-93 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
This is an analysis by occupation of foreigners working in Italy. "A relationship can frequently be observed between country of origin, religion, sex, and employment. Then, those who immigrate into Italy from Islamic countries are largely single males; most of them work as hawkers. At the opposite end, women, still prevalently employed in domestic service, come from Catholic countries, or from Catholic minorities within countries with different predominant religions. Besides these two categories, more traditional and majoritarian, there are the employed in agriculture, services, and, only recently, industry. The article points to the highly intense dynamics of immigration and to the ever-changing relative weight of different nationalities, main settlements, and prevalent activities themselves in the various regions."
Location: New York Public Library.

57:20681 Swasono, Yudo; Boediono. The prospects for the development of human resources in Indonesia. [Prospek sumber daya manusia pada pembangunan jangka panjang Indonesia.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 17, No. 34, Dec 1990. 21-34 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
Human resource development and associated policies are examined for Indonesia. The authors discuss the importance of education, health, women's status, population policy, and employment opportunities.
Correspondence: Y. Swasono, Departemen Tenaga Kerja RI, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20682 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Demographic and spacial aspects of labour force growth. Population Research Leads, No. 35, 1990. 10 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is a summary of demographic and spatial aspects of labor force growth in the ESCAP region since 1970, with projections made to the year 2000. Aspects considered include the size, growth rate, and age and sex structure of the labor force; changes in the urban labor force; and changes in industrial and occupational characteristics. Policy implications of labor force change are considered.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Population Division, Population Information Section, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20683 Winegarden, C. R.; Khor, Lay Boon. Undocumented immigration and unemployment of U.S. youth and minority workers: econometric evidence. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 73, No. 1, Feb 1991. 105-12 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"We use Census-based data on the state distribution of the undocumented-alien population in analyzing the relationship between that population and unemployment among youth and minority workers [in the United States]. Regression results from our two-equation models do not support commonly-expressed fears that undocumented immigration has caused any substantial increases in joblessness among these presumably vulnerable groups, although small amounts of displacement are indicated. A sizeable reverse effect is evident: undocumented immigrants tend to concentrate in states where labor markets for these marginal groups are most favorable."
Correspondence: C. R. Winegarden, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:20684 Young, Christabel. The impact of demographic change on Australia's labour force with reference to the special role of women. Working Papers in Demography, No. 19, 1990. 23 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper refers to the effect of the current age structure of Australia's population on the size of the future labour force, and dispels some of the fears about an ageing population and an ageing labour force. A major theme is the contribution of women to the growth of the labour force and to reducing the dependency ratio....The paper refers to the demographic benefits of maintaining near-replacement fertility, and to the economic benefits of enabling women to participate in the labour force, both with regard to the current advantages to women and to the economy, and also with regard to the future advantages of reducing women's dependency in old age."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, P.O. Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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