Volume 57 - Number 2 - Summer 1991

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

57:20054 Fielding, A. J. Population redistribution trends and the persistence of organized capitalism. Geographical Perspectives, No. 61, 1988. 74-6 pp. Cedar Falls, Iowa. In Eng.
The author examines factors affecting the marked changes in population distribution that have occurred in Western industrialized countries since the end of World War II. During this period, urban and regional differences in fertility and mortality have declined and the significance of migration has increased. The change from migration to urban areas in the 1950s to counterurbanization in the 1970s and back to urban growth in the 1980s is summarized. These changes are then analyzed in the context of the changing demands of an evolving capitalist economic system.
Correspondence: A. J. Fielding, University of Sussex, School of Social Sciences, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QN, England. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20055 Forstall, Richard L. The geographic component of U.S. nonmetropolitan population change. Geographical Perspectives, No. 61, 1988. 69-73 pp. Cedar Falls, Iowa. In Eng.
"The decade of the 1970s witnessed two new trends of major significance in U.S. population distribution, the concentration of 85 to 90 percent of the nation's population growth in the South and West, and the revival of growth in many nonmetropolitan parts of the country....However, the nonmetropolitan resurgence has relaxed somewhat in the 1980s. From 1980 to mid-1986, nonmetropolitan territory...had only a 4 percent growth in population compared with 6.4 percent for the nation as a whole and 7.2 percent for metropolitan territory. During the 1970s the same geographic areas had increases of 14.4, 11.4, and 10.5 percent respectively."
Correspondence: R. L. Forstall, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Population Distribution Branch, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: New York Public Library.

57:20056 Frallicciardi, Anna M. Aspects of demographic decentralization in some regions of Southern Italy. [Aspetti del decentramento demografico in alcune regioni del Mezzogiorno.] Rivista Geografica Italiana, Vol. 96, No. 1, Mar 1989. 27-60 pp. Pisa, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author analyzes spatial mobility in continental Southern Italy in order to establish the extent of urban decentralization in the region. She concludes that such decentralization is occurring throughout the region, but in different forms and with different effects for individual locations.
Correspondence: A. M. Frallicciardi, Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Facolta di Lettere e Filosofia, Istituto di Geografia, Corso Umberto 1, 80138 Naples, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20057 India. National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation [NATMO] (Calcutta, India). Cartography for development of outlying states and islands of India. NATMO Monograph, No. 10, 1990. xvi, 216; xvi, 219 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a NATMO seminar held in Calcutta, India, December 3-6, 1990. The seminar focused on the outlying states and islands of India, and in particular on how mapping can contribute to the development process of these areas. One of the six selected themes of the conference was population, and papers are included on such topics as migration, population density, urbanization, population growth, rural and urban population comparisons, population pressure, and spatial distribution.
Correspondence: National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation, 50A Gariahat Road, Calcutta 700 019, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20058 Klausing, Horst. Problems concerning the population geography of China. [Bevolkerungsgeographische Probleme der VR China.] Geographische Berichte, Vol. 34, No. 1, Jan 1989. 1-13, 69-70 pp. Gotha, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author analyzes recent population trends in China, based primarily on data from the 1982 census. "Starting from the historical population development the present distribution of the population is analyzed, which, owing to the country's nature, shows its highest density in the eastern part. The major part of all working people is still working in agriculture, but they increasingly migrate into other sectors of the economy. In order to reduce the increase in population since 1978...marriage with only one child has been propagandized as [a] strategic aim. Since that time several measures for family planning have been taken. An interesting geographical problem is the relation between urban and rural population, which is discussed in the article in view of the municipal classification of settlements."
Correspondence: H. Klausing, Karl-Marx-Universitat Leipzig, Sektion Afrika- und Nahostwissenschaften, Lehr- und Forschungsbereich Sud- und Ostasien, Karl-Marx-Platz 9, Leipzig 7010, Germany. Location: New York Public Library.

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

57:20059 Boukhemis, Kaddour; Zeghiche, Anissa. Spatial aspects of population growth and migration in Constantine, Algeria. Third World Planning Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, Aug 1990. 281-300 pp. Liverpool, England. In Eng.
"The objective of the paper is to depict the major changes brought about by demographic growth upon the internal structure of Constantine, the third largest Algerian city, and thus define the main types of settlement evolved, which in turn serves as background for the analysis of the spatial distribution of recent migrants within the different areas of Constantine. With regard to this distribution, the aim is to test whether there exist any spatial concentrations of migrants in particular areas according to their place of origin."
Correspondence: K. Boukhemis, Universite de Constantine, Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Route d'Ain El Bey, Constantine, Algeria. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:20060 Boukhemis, Kaddour; Raham, Djamel; Zeghiche, Anissa. Urban growth and socioeconomic change in eastern Algeria. [Croissance urbaine et mutations socio-economiques dans l'Est algerien.] Annales de Geographie, Vol. 99, No. 554, Aug 1990. 458-70 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Urbanization trends in Algeria since independence are analyzed. The authors note that current urban patterns are still influenced by trends that developed during the colonial era. Rapid urbanization associated with both rural-urban growth and natural increase has occurred. Development policies adopted during the 1980s designed to reduce regional inequalities and slow the rate of urbanization are described.
Correspondence: K. Boukhemis, Universite de Constantine, Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Route d'Ain El Bey, Constantine, Algeria. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:20061 Bryant, Coralie. The third world goes to town: will U.S. policy catch up? Cities, Vol. 7, No. 2, May 1990. 125-32 pp. Guildford, England. In Eng.
"Third World cities are growing so fast that in the 21st century over half the world's population will be urban. This shift will need to be recognized by all aid donors, and particularly by the USA. Sustainable development will be possible only if Third World governments--central and local--can be assisted to meet the challenge of this massive rural to urban transition."
Correspondence: C. Bryant, Overseas Development Council, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:20062 Ebanks, G. Edward; Cheng, Chaoze. China: a unique urbanization model. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 3, Sep 1990. 29-50 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines the salient features of the urbanization of population in China since the 1950s. The central thesis of this study focuses on the uniqueness of the urbanization model in China....It aims at gaining insights into a better understanding of how urbanization processes have been integrated with certain social, economic, political and natural factors. The authors suggest that elements of the Chinese urban population and urban growth planning approach may be transferable to third world countries if selected and modified to suit differing political, social, cultural, economic and administrative conditions of those countries....The data [are] mainly from the largest of China's demographic censuses of 1953, 1964 and 1982, and the One-per-Hundred Sample Survey of 1987."
Correspondence: G. E. Ebanks, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20063 Goldstein, Sidney. Urbanization in China, 1982-87: effects of migration and reclassification. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 4, Dec 1990. 673-701, 811, 813 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Despite strictures on urban growth and on migration to cities, statistics for China show a sharp increase in the level of urbanization in the late 1980s, a massive increase in the number of cities and towns and in the size of the population living in them, and large flows of migrants from rural to urban localities. Several developments help explain these striking deviations from what Chinese policy would lead one to expect: (1) While China has tried to control city growth, planners have also recognized the role that large cities can play in overall development. (2) The administrative/statistical criteria for qualifying as a city or town have changed; in consequence, many localities have been added to the roster of cities and towns, essentially by administrative fiat. (3) Under China's registration system the rural-to-urban flow of temporary migrants, often referred to as the 'floating population,' allows urban places to meet their special labor force and service needs, helps reduce the rural labor surplus, and avoids burdening cities with the reponsibility for absorbing vast numbers of migrants into their permanent population."
Correspondence: S. Goldstein, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20064 Heins, J. J. F.; Meijer, E. N. Population movements to a growth-pole: the case of Hosur, Tamil Nadu. Third World Planning Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, Aug 1990. 231-47 pp. Liverpool, England. In Eng.
This study examines the characteristics of population growth in Hosur, a small town in Tamil Nadu, India. "A special feature of the population in Hosur is the phenomenon of bachelors living together, mostly young men who have migrated from big cities. Commuting is not important in the mobility pattern of Hosur, less than ten per cent of employees in the industrial areas travelling daily from outside. Only one-third of the non-migrant labour force has access to the more attractive jobs in the modern factories, while short-term wage labour plays an important role in the labour structure of commuters. The demographic future of Hosur is not connected strongly with commuting patterns, but more with the spatial behaviour of the bachelors."
Correspondence: J. J. F. Heins, Vrije Universiteit, Institute for Geographical Studies, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:20065 Jiang, Meiqiu; Guan, Weihe. Urbanization and its ecological problems in China: prospects in the 21st century. Paper of the Center for Modern China, No. 3, Jan 1991. iii, 15 pp. Center for Modern China [CMC]: New York, New York. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"By analyzing the relationship among population, resources, and environment, the authors study urbanization and its ecological consequences that China may face in the 21st century....After discussing these problems, the authors present some policy recommendations that may mitigate China's ecological crisis in the 21st century, such as population control, migration, allocation of resources, and environmental protection....The authors conduct a comparative analysis on environmental quality of the Hunan-Hubei region in China with Japan....The results of the comparison show that the widely spreading ecological degradation in China is primarily caused by mistakes of state policies."
Correspondence: Center for Modern China, P.O. Box 894, New York, NY 10025. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20066 Kiradzhiev, Svetlin. Migration and problems related to population concentration in larger Bulgarian cities. [Migratsiite i problemite, svarzani s kontsentratsiyata na naselenieto v golemite gradove na Balgariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1989. 70-7 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines the growing concentration of population in the larger cities of Bulgaria. Various methods for achieving a more balanced population distribution are suggested, including placing limits on migration to cities, relocating some industry, reducing labor-intensive production through automation, and improving local transportation systems to permit development of satellite towns and villages.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20067 Koven, Steven G.; Shelley, Mack C. Public policy effects on net urban migration. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4, Summer 1989. 705-18 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to expand the understanding of net migration into and out of large [U.S.] cities during the decade of the 1970s. A mix of service, public policy, ecological, and economic variables was investigated, to determine which of these factors were most closely related to these recent patterns of urban migration." The results of multiple regression analysis suggest that "policy variables (such as per capita taxes, per capita fire expenditures, and per capita police expenditures) are indeed useful correlates of migration."
Correspondence: S. G. Koven, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:20068 Lappo, G. M.; Listenrugt, F. M. Problems in studies of urban agglomerations. [Problemy izucheniya gorodskikh aglomeratsii.] LC 89-200192. 1988. 210 pp. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Institut Geografii: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This is a collection of articles by various authors on aspects of urban areas in the USSR. It is a product of the session on urban systems at the Twenty-Sixth International Geographic Congress, held in Australia in 1988. The topics covered include ecology, infrastructure, economic and social aspects of agglomerations, urban structure, urban development, and urban spatial distribution.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:20069 Min, Mal-Soon. Growth of small and intermediate cities in Korea, 1975-1980. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jul 1990. 47-70 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper examines the urban growth of 33 small and intermediate Korean cities during 1975-1980 from the ecological perspective. Using the multiple regression analysis, population growth of a city is measured by variables such as industrial structure, distance from a metropolitan city, and educational level of residents in a corresponding city. At the present development stage in Korea, those cities whose industrial structure is more specialized in the transformative sector rather than other sectors have grown more rapidly. The closeness to a metropolitan city and the educational level of residents for each city strongly influence urban growth of small cities."
Correspondence: M.-S. Min, Seoul National University, Population and Development Studies Center, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20070 Ottensmann, John R.; Good, David H.; Gleeson, Michael E. The impact of net migration on neighbourhood racial composition. Urban Studies, Vol. 27, No. 5, Oct 1990. 705-17 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The authors challenge the assumption that racially mixed neighborhoods in U.S. cities will become increasingly black over time. "In a series of simulations it is shown that in urban areas with no black inmigration the proportion of the black population does not increase in racially mixed neighbourhoods, unlike the case where there is black inmigration to the urban area. With reductions in the rate of black inmigration to U.S. cities, this study suggests policy implications which could help reduce the level of racial segregation in residential areas."
Correspondence: J. R. Ottensmann, Indiana University, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indianapolis, IN 46202. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:20071 Penkov, Ignat; Dimitrov, Stefan. The distribution of cities and their populations in Bulgaria. [Razpredelenie na gradovete v Balgariya i naselenieto im po oblasti.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1989. 103-12 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The spatial distribution of cities and their populations in Bulgaria is examined. The authors analyze economic development and its impact on urban growth from 1946 to 1987.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20072 Perlman, Janice E.; Blueweiss, Lori R. Urban innovation for the 21st century. Cities, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb 1990. 88 pp. Butterworth Scientific: Guildford, England. In Eng.
This special issue is devoted to prospects for global urbanization during the twenty-first century and to the Megacities Project, a collaborative effort to improve urban management and conditions of life in the world's largest cities.
Correspondence: Butterworth Scientific, P.O. Box 63, Bury Street, Guildford GU2 5BH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

57:20073 Rao, K. Vaninadha. Functional specialisation of metropolises in Canada. Demography India, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1988. 310-28 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper categorises and identifies the functional specialisation of Canadian metropolises in 1971 and 1981 drawing data from censuses....Two types of criteria have been adopted for identifying the functional specialisation of various CMAs [Census Metropolitan Areas], namely location quotients, and the other based on minimum percentage of workers in a given category....Manufacturing, mining, finance, transport and public administration are some of the specialisations found among CMAs....Some of the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of different CMAs were discussed in relation to their functional specialisation." Demographic characteristics analyzed include age distribution, sex ratio, population density, educational status, family income, and labor force participation.
Correspondence: K. V. Rao, Bowling Green State University, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20074 Schwartz, Joe; Exter, Thomas. This world is flat. American Demographics, Vol. 13, No. 4, Apr 1991. 34-9 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
A summary of 1990 U.S. census results concerning changes in the population of metropolitan areas is presented. "Fewer than one-quarter of U.S. metropolitan areas grew faster than 2 percent a year during the 1980s, according to the 1990 census. But Binghamton, New York, and other cities show that slow-growing markets can thrive."
Correspondence: J. Schwartz, American Demographics, 127 West State Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20075 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Population growth and policies in mega-cities: Mexico City. Population Policy Paper, No. 32; ST/ESA/SER.R/105, ISBN 92-1-151222-0. 1991. vi, 34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This study, concerning Mexico City, is one in a series on population policies and planning issues in the mega-cities of the developing world. The objective of the series is to examine the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of population policies in mega-cities in the context of the relation between population and development. A chapter is included on demographic characteristics, with sections on population growth, migration, and population projections.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, 2 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:20076 Zhang, Xing Quan. Urbanisation in China. Urban Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1991. 41-51 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The paper describes changes in the rate of Chinese urbanisation since 1945. The urban population has become concentrated into a few very large cities and many small towns, with the highest densities on the east coast where four megalopolises have evolved. The relationship between urban growth and economic growth is examined, although the manner in which workplace and residence data are compiled causes problems. Changes in agricultural technology are now generating labour surpluses in rural areas and many farmer-workers are moving to urban areas where there is considerable cultural conflict between rural migrants and their host urban communities. Government policy has changed, recognising that attempts to restrict the movement of displaced rural workers to adjacent small towns is economically inefficient, and promoting the development of medium-sized cities."
Correspondence: X. Q. Zhang, Hua Qiao University, Department of Architecture, Quanzhou, Fujian 362011, China. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

57:20077 Roussel, Veronique. The theory of the critical threshold of depopulation and the irreversibility of the depopulation process. [Theorie des seuils critiques de depopulation et irreversibilite du processus de desertification.] Revue d'Economie Regionale et Urbaine, No. 5, 1988. 811-26 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the process of rural depopulation in France and particularly the theory that once a critical level has been passed, the process is irreversible. The theory is tested using the example of 23 communes in the Puy de Dome region. She concludes that significant changes in environmental, political, and economic conditions during the past 20 years call into question the concept of the irreversibility of the process. The importance of local conditions that can successfully influence efforts to arrest depopulation is stressed.
Correspondence: V. Roussel, Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs des Travaux Agricoles, Amenagement Rural, Clermont-Ferrand-Marmilhat, France. Location: University of California Library, Berkeley, CA.

Copyright © 1991-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.