Volume 57 - Number 1 - Spring 1991

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

57:10713 Cairo Demographic Centre (Cairo, Egypt). Population policies in the third world: issues and practice. Twenty-fifth anniversary commemorative conference, 1988. LC 89-961624. [1988]. iii, 349, [20] pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference on population policies in developing countries, held to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Cairo Demographic Centre. They consist of a series of reports on specific topics discussed in panel sessions, including the World Population Plan of Action, fertility policies, spatial distribution policies, mortality and morbidity policies, and integrated approaches to population and development planning. Country studies are also included on population policies in China, Indonesia, Egypt, Tunisia, the Arabian Gulf, Morocco, and the Sudan. A final paper assesses current and future directions of population policies.
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Centre, 2 Lebanon Street, P.O. Box 73, Mohandiseen 12655, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10714 Donaldson, Peter J. On the origins of the United States government's international population policy. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 3, Nov 1990. 385-99 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Based on documents obtained from the archives of the Agency for International Development and on the author's interviews with participants in the field, this article describes the evolution of America's international population policy. The analysis highlights the perceived negative view of the consequences of rapid population growth that were popular among American policy makers during the 1960s. Also discussed are organizational and policy changes that took place within the Agency for International Development's population programme during its early years. The article concludes that the origins of America's international population programme were fundamentally conservative, and based on the assumption that a certain demographic balance was an essential feature of the properly ordered social life."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 409).
Correspondence: P. J. Donaldson, Population Council, P.O. Box 11-1213, Nana Post Office, Bangkok 10112, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10715 Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales [ILDIS] (La Paz, Bolivia). Population. [La poblacion.] Temas de Politica Social, No. 7, Jul 1988. 105 pp. La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
This publication is the result of a workshop on population policy held on May 4, 1988, in La Paz, Bolivia. It consists of four papers on aspects of the population situation in Bolivia, including papers on population policy, fertility policy, foreign populations in Bolivia, and spatial distribution and immigration.
Correspondence: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales, Edificio Torre de las Americas, Bloque B, 2do. Mezaninne, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10716 Meda, Yirzaola. National Council on Population: what are the priorities for the Second Five-year Plan? [Conseil National de la Population: quelles priorites pour le 2e Plan quinquennal.] Carrefour Africain, No. 1121, Apr 27, 1990. 10-3 pp. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In Fre.
The author describes the origins of the National Council on Population in Burkina Faso and its role in ensuring that demographic factors are given proper consideration in the country's development planning process.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:10717 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). World population policies. Volume III: Oman to Zimbabwe. Population Studies, No. 102, Add.2; ST/ESA/SERA/102/Add2, Pub. Order No. E.90.XIII.2. ISBN 92-1-151188-7. 1990. vi, 264 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the third of three volumes presenting information on world population policies, based on the continuous monitoring of population policies by the U.N. Population Division. The work is organized alphabetically by country; this volume covers countries from Oman to Zimbabwe. The information for each country includes selected demographic indicators, current government perceptions of those indicators, the general policy framework, the institutional framework relevant to policy formation, and specific policies and measures.
For Volumes I and II, published in 1987 and 1989, see 54:10776 and 55:20694.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

57:10718 Albers, Willi; Galler, Heinz P.; Graff, Carsten; Homburg, Stefan; Kammann, H. Werner; Klanberg, Frank; Quinke, Hermann. Family compensation and demographic trends. [Familienlastenausgleich und demographische Entwicklung.] Schriften des Vereins fur Social politik, Gesellschaft fur Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Neue Folge, Vol. 175, ISBN 3-428-06432-1. LC 89-139656. 1988. 130 pp. Duncker und Humblot: Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This publication contains six papers, most of which were presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Social Policy's Committee on Population Economy, held in February 1987 in Stuttgart. The meeting focused on family compensation and demographic trends, with a geographic emphasis on West Germany. The topics covered include the economic basis of family compensation, concepts of optimal family compensation, influencing the behavior of families with economic measures, existing family compensation and its further development, family life situations and compensation, and methods for estimating the costs of family compensation.
Correspondence: Duncker und Humblot, Dietrich-Schafer-Weg 9, Postfach 410329, 1000 Berlin 41, Germany. Location: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI.

57:10719 Buttner, Thomas; Lutz, Wolfgang. Estimating fertility responses to policy measures in the German Democratic Republic. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1990. 539-55, 610, 612 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This note attempts to quantitatively measure the fertility response to a package of pronatalist policy measures introduced in the German Democratic Republic in 1976. To create a standard of comparison between the fertility trend following the policy and the hypothetical trend without the policy, an age-period-cohort model is applied to the data....The results suggest that the policy is responsible for a short-term increase in fertility of about 20 percent and a medium-term (up to 1987) increase of around 15 percent."
Correspondence: T. Buttner, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Population Program, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10720 Greenhalgh, Susan. Socialism and fertility in China. In: World population: approaching the year 2000, edited by Samuel H. Preston. Jul 1990. 73-86 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the forces underlying the fertility decline that occurred in China in the 1970s and early 1980s. She argues that "the success of the later-longer-fewer policy of the 1970s and of the one-child policy of the 1980s can only be explained by reference to the larger socioeconomic and sociopolitical context in which the policies were carried out. The construction of a socialist society in the first decade of Communist rule restructured social institutions and state-society relations in ways that fundamentally altered both the economics of childbearing, reducing the attractiveness of children to parents, and the politics of fertility decision making, giving parents little choice but to comply with restrictive fertility policies after they were introduced. The direction of fertility change in the 1990s is likely to hinge on developments in rural economic policies, whose future, the past has taught, is hazardous to predict."
Correspondence: S. Greenhalgh, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10721 Greenhalgh, Susan. The peasantization of population policy in Shaanxi: cadre mediation of the state-society conflict. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 21, 1990. 48 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the evolution of state-society relations in China in the area of population control. Using retrospective field data from the northwestern province of Shaanxi, it traces shifts in reproductive control in the 1980s and the strategies local birth planning cadres used to help engineer those shifts. In the villages studied, the economic and political reforms launched in the late 1970s both undermined the mechanisms by which the one-child policy was to be enforced and reduced the power of local officials charged with carrying it out. Finding the de jure fertility policy unenforceable, local birth planning cadres devised a more workable de facto policy and enforced that instead. That de facto policy largely neglected the state's rules on late marriage and childbearing, and allowed couples to have two children, including one son. The paper traces the political processes and charts the demographic consequences of this shift in local fertility policy."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10722 Hohn, Charlotte. Policies relevant to fertility. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 247-55 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
This chapter concerns "explicitly political options that have both direct and indirect effects on fertility." The prospects for devising effective pronatalist policies in developed countries are examined.
Correspondence: C. Hohn, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 55 28, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10723 Kessler, Wolfgang. A slow gallop into the year of the horse: new legislation on family planning in the People's Republic of China. [In gebremstem Galopp ins Jahr des Pferdes: Neues Recht der Geburtenplanung in der VR China.] Verfassung und Recht in Ubersee/Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1990. 107, 109-26 pp. Hamburg, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The current efforts in China to restrict the rate of population growth by adopting and implementing stringent birth control legislation are described. The author notes that while such legislation is being considered at the national level, existing legislation at the provincial level remains in force. A translation of the Birth Planning Rules of Zhejiang Province as of December 1989 is provided as an example.
Correspondence: W. Kessler, Consulate General of the Federal Republic of Germany, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10724 Khan, Haroon ar R. Political culture and the implementation of population policies in India and Bangladesh. Pub. Order No. DA8918380. 1988. 167 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines the effects of political factors, education, the value of children, and cultural background on the implementation and acceptance of population policies aimed at decreasing fertility in India and Bangladesh. "The results of the study show that if people are skeptical about the future, have greater trust in their children for support during old age or emergencies than the government, then they tend to resist birth control policies....Surprisingly, education does not seem to have a significant influence in the practice of birth control."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Kansas.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(4).

57:10725 Larsen, Ulla. An assessment of the one-child policy in China from 1980 to 1985. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1990. 257-84 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author examines the characteristics of couples who had a second or third child under the one-child policy in China. "An analysis of second and third live birth conceptions, from January 1980 to July 1984, in the two Chinese provinces of Hebei and Shaanxi from the In-Depth Fertility Surveys showed: (1) in urban areas third live birth conceptions were quite rare, and higher economic development was associated with lower second live birth conception risks; and (2) in the countryside the preference for sons was a strong predictor of both second and third live birth conceptions, and higher household income was followed generally by lower risks of second and third live birth conceptions, while other socioeconomic factors had little effect."
Correspondence: U. Larsen, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4356. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10726 Lee, Ronald; Miller, Tim. Population policy and externalities to childbearing. In: World population: approaching the year 2000, edited by Samuel H. Preston. Jul 1990. 17-32 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
Four categories of externalities that affect childbearing are investigated in this study: "reproductive dilution of collective wealth; cost spreading for public goods; public-sector intergenerational transfers--health, education, and pensions; and other governmental expenditures. Intergenerational transfers are found to create large positive externalities in industrial welfare states but small negative ones in Third World countries. Public goods lead to sizable positive externalities in both groups of countries. Other governmental expenditures lead to considerable negative externalities. Collective wealth in the form of publicly owned mineral reserves leads in some cases to enormous negative externalities, while in other cases it is of little importance." The results provide little support for fertility-reduction policies in developing countries that go beyond the provision of family planning services, but do provide support for the subsidizing of childbearing and child-rearing in the United States, where most child-related costs are privatized.
Correspondence: R. Lee, University of California, Department of Economics, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10727 Levy, Michel L. The ebb and flow of pro-natalism. [Flux et reflux du natalisme.] Population et Societes, No. 251, Nov 1990. [4] pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author reviews various measures that have been adopted in France since the Revolution to provide aid to families with children and to promote fertility. Consideration is given to the reform of the current social security system.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10728 Lundberg, Shelly; Plotnick, Robert D. Effects of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on premarital childbearing among white adolescents. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1990. 246-51, 275 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study develops an empirical model that measures the influence of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on decisions concerning premarital pregnancy, abortion and single parenthood. Data are based on the fertility and marital experiences of white females from the three youngest cohorts of the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, for 1979-1986. The results show that laws restricting contraceptive availability are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy. Restrictive policies on public funding of abortions reduce the likelihood of abortion, while greater availability of abortion services is associated with a higher likelihood that adolescents will obtain abortions. Finally, the estimates indicate that higher welfare benefits reduce the probability that pregnant adolescents will marry before bearing their children."
Correspondence: S. Lundberg, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10729 Vasilev, Dimitar. Economic measures as a form of social impact on the reproductive behavior of spouses. [Ikonomicheskite merki kato forma na sotsialno vazdeistvie varkhu reproduktivnoto povedenie na sapruzite.] Naselenie, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1989. 47-68 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The economic measures taken by various countries that are designed to influence the fertility behavior of individual couples are reviewed. Data are from two groups of countries: those experiencing low fertility that have completed the demographic transition, and those with high fertility that have not. An attempt is made to identify both the antinatalist and pronatalist measures that have been the most effective.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10730 Wang, Xiangying. China's population policy. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1989. 1990. 1,037-51 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
An overview of China's population policy and family planning program is presented. "This paper describes the policy, its evolution, implementation, and its success."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

57:10731 Bean, Frank D.; Edmonston, Barry; Passel, Jeffrey S. Undocumented migration to the United States: IRCA and the experience of the 1980s. ISBN 0-87766-490-0. LC 90-12967. 1990. xx, 271 pp. Rand Corporation: Santa Monica, California; Urban Institute: Washington, D.C. Distributed by University Press of America, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. In Eng.
"The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act--the most sweeping revision of U.S. immigration policy since 1965--contains several major provisions but its most important objective was to reduce illegal immigration. This book presents the most up-to-date evidence available on the size of the illegal population in the United States and how it has changed in the 1980s. The various authors rely on several different data sources to tackle the problem of estimating whether IRCA has had an impact on illegal immigration to the United States and employ a variety of approaches to tease out information on trends. Some present results based on data collected in Mexico, the single most important source country...."
Correspondence: Urban Institute Press, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10732 Beaujot, Roderic. Immigration policy and sociodemographic change: the Canadian case. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 359-77 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"Starting with a brief history of immigration policy, this chapter will consider the demographic, socioeconomic, and sociocultural impacts of immigration to Canada." The author includes a discussion of the impact of migration policy on future migration flows to Canada.
Correspondence: R. Beaujot, University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10733 Choi, Jin-Ho. Patterns of urbanization and population distribution policies in the Republic of Korea. Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 11, No. 1, Spring 1990. 130-58 pp. Nagoya, Japan. In Eng.
"This article will first examine the patterns of urbanization in the [Republic of Korea] and describe the population policies to date. It will then assess the effectiveness of those policies [on spatial distribution] and finally, suggest possible future policy directions." A comment by Ramamohan Mahidhara is included (pp. 152-8).
Correspondence: J.-H. Choi, Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements, 10-2 Youido-dong, Youngdungpo-gu, Seoul 150, Republic of Korea. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:10734 Finch, Wilbur A. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: a preliminary assessment. Social Service Review, Vol. 64, No. 2, Jun 1990. 244-60 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 represented a new attempt at controlling immigration into the United States while offering legalization to a large number of persons who earlier had entered illegally. An examination of the provisions of this legislation and an analysis of its implementation in relation to legalization, employer sanctions, and nondiscrimination identify a range of problems that have yet to be resolved. In addition, its impact on illegal immigration into the United States is examined, and the problem posed by lack of accurate statistics on undocumented workers currently residing in this country is considered. Clearly, the law has failed to remove the undocumented underclass from American society and may contradict economic reality as America becomes increasingly dependent on immigrant workers to fill labor shortages in future years."
Correspondence: W. A. Finch, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10735 Hansen, Niles. Urbanization and population distribution policies in Asia and the Pacific. Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 11, No. 1, Spring 1990. 208 pp. U.N. Centre for Regional Development: Nagoya, Japan. In Eng.
This special issue is the product of a cross-national research project set up to examine implicit and explicit population distribution policies and programs and how they have affected urbanization trends and urban management in the countries of Asia and the Pacific region. It contains papers presented at a workshop held in Honolulu, Hawaii, in March 1989.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: U.N. Centre for Regional Development, Nagono 1-47-1, Nakamura-ku, Nagoya 450, Japan. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:10736 Ito, Ruri. Selective internationalization: foreign workers and Japanese society. [L'internationalisation selective: travailleurs etrangers et societe japonaise.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1990. 7-26 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Japanese legislation to regulate international migration and increase governmental control over skilled and unskilled migrants to Japan is discussed. "After a brief overview of Japanese migratory experiences in the past and a presentation of basic data concerning the new migrants, the article points out some of the underlying socio-political stakes of this selective internationalization. Two dimensions are of interest. Firstly, its implications in connection with the emerging socio-economic segmentation and the transformation taking place in the field of employment structure. Secondly, and more importantly, its consequences upon the integration policy of foreign populations, especially with regard to Korean and Chinese communities."
Correspondence: R. Ito, Meiji Gakuin University, Faculty of International Studies, 1518 Kami Kurata-Cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 244, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10737 Jones, Gavin W. Structural economic change and its relationship to urbanization and population distribution policies. Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 11, No. 1, Spring 1990. 1-22 pp. Nagoya, Japan. In Eng.
The author examines the attitude of governments toward trends in spatial distribution and urbanization, using data from the U.N. Population Enquiry Among Governments. He points out that during periods of rapid structural change, as experienced in many Asian countries in recent years, large cities tend to absorb an increasing share of both total and urban population growth. However, he also notes an anti-urban bias among many third-world policymakers that manifests itself in dissatisfaction with current trends in both spatial distribution and urbanization. A comment by Ernesto M. Pernia is included (pp. 19-22).
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:10738 Kim, Won Bae. Population distribution policy in China: a review. Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 11, No. 1, Spring 1990. 159-91 pp. Nagoya, Japan. In Eng.
"After briefly reviewing China's development strategy in the post-1949 period, this article describes the policies and programmes adopted by the Chinese government for controlling internal migration. The effects of those policies and programmes on total migration rates, rural-to-urban migration, interregional migration, interprovincial migration, and population distribution among cities of different size are also assessed. The increasing number of temporary migrants, including China's 'floating population,' will be examined as well, together with recent policy changes in population migration and movement." A comment by Lawrence J. C. Ma is included (pp. 188-91).
Correspondence: W. B. Kim, East-West Center, Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:10739 Murphy, Joseph P.; Espenshade, Thomas J. Immigration's prism: historical continuities in the Kennedy-Simpson legal immigration reform bill. Population and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 2, Winter 1990. 139-58 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"National debates about U.S. immigration policy usually involve a blend of three issues: (1) How many immigrants should the United States accept? (2) Where should the immigrants come from? (3) What criteria should be used in selecting immigrants? The debate and compromise surrounding the Kennedy-Simpson bill, passed by the U.S. Senate in July 1989 and constituting the Senate's latest attempt to reform U.S. legal immigration policy, is no exception. This paper examines the evolution of the Kennedy-Simpson bill, partly to reveal current directions in the U.S. immigration policy but more importantly to use this analysis as a prism through which historical continuities in U.S. immigration reforms may be isolated and evaluated."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10740 Rondinelli, Dennis A. Policies for balanced urban development in Asia: concepts and reality. Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 11, No. 1, Spring 1990. 23-59 pp. Nagoya, Japan. In Eng.
The author summarizes government plans and policies in Asia that are designed to influence the spatial distribution of the population. Information is from U.N. surveys of governments. He concludes that most countries are trying to encourage population growth and economic development in medium-sized cities rather than in major urban centers or remote rural areas. A comment by Mike Douglass is included (pp. 52-9).
Correspondence: D. A. Rondinelli, Research Triangle Institute, Office for International Programs, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

57:10741 Sassen, Saskia. U.S. immigration policy toward Mexico in a global economy. Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 43, No. 2, Winter 1990. 369-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article will briefly examine the main immigration flows, [from Mexico] into the United States since 1965 in the light of major immigration policy objectives, the impact of the internationalization of production on the formation of migration flows, transformations in the U.S. labor market, particularly those that may contribute to the absorption of the post-1965 immigration, and finally, what all this means for policy." The author's main hypothesis is that the failure of U.S. immigration policy is due to an insistence on treating immigration, particularly from Mexico, as an autonomous process independent of the growing internationalization of economic affairs.
Correspondence: S. Sassen, Columbia University, Graduate School of Architecture and Planning, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

57:10742 Tsai, Hsung-Hsiung. Population decentralization policies: the experience of Taiwan. Industry of Free China, Vol. 73, No. 3, Mar 1990. 1-12 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
"Social and economic policies and programs adopted by the government of Taiwan have slowed the pace of population concentration and prevented the highly concentrated distribution of population experienced by many developing countries. After presenting a brief analysis of Taiwan's population growth and distribution during the past three decades, this text examines the policies and programs credited with having curbed population concentration. They include both spatial development policies established for the purpose of decentralizing the population and its economic activities, and development policies that, although not designed expressly to curb population concentration, have had such an effect."
Correspondence: H.-H. Tsai, Council for Economic Planning and Development, Urban and Housing Development Department, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:10743 Zagorski, K. Regional differences in immigration and economic structure in Australia. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1990. 347-68 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The scale of overseas immigration and the exceptional importance of the role played by migrants in demographic, economic and cultural trends in Australia makes the immigration policy one of the key components of Australian politics. Both the immigration policy and the outcomes of this policy are shaped by four major groups of factors: demographic, economic, cultural, and political in a broad sense. The weighting of these factors changes from period to period. This paper looks at the extent to which some of these factors affect regional differentiation of the immigration pattern. The analysis is focused on the influences of employment structure and other socio-economic characteristics of different Australian regions, exerted on overseas migration to these regions."
Correspondence: K. Zagorski, Australian National University, Research School of Social Science, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1991-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.