Volume 57 - Number 1 - Spring 1991

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

57:10577 Canada. Statistics Canada. Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division (Ottawa, Canada). A portrait of seniors in Canada: target groups project. Pub. Order No. 89-519. ISBN 0-660-54851-8. Sep 1990. 57, 58 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Characteristics of the elderly population in Canada are analyzed based on official data. Chapters are included on demographic characteristics; living arrangements and housing; employment, income, and expenditures; health and safety; and social and cultural characteristics.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: New York Public Library.

57:10578 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. The process of demographic aging. [El proceso de envejecimiento de la poblacion.] CELADE Serie E, No. 35, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.87. Nov 1990. 145 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
The publication presents the text of four lectures on aspects of demographic aging, which were presented by the author at CELADE in 1987. They concern demographic determinants of changes in the age structure, financial implications of demographic aging, economic consequences, and social consequences. An appendix prepared by Susana Schkolnik includes information on demographic aging in Latin America, 1950-2025.
Correspondence: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10579 Delbes, Christiane; Gaymu, Joelle. The rise in the number of isolated individuals in France: new trends in behavior? [Croissance du nombre des isoles en France: vers de nouveaux comportements?] Population, Vol. 45, No. 3, May-Jun 1990. 501-30 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors first describe the characteristics of the population of France living in one-person households, with emphasis on the heterogeneity of this population. They then consider trends in this population over the period 1962-1982 and analyze the factors associated with its growth. The major factors are identified as changes in marriage patterns, the growing trend among the non-married to live on their own, and longer life expectancy. The importance of geographic differences in the number of single households is noted.
Correspondence: J. Gaymu, Institut National d'Etudes Demogaphiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10580 Deroubaix, Jean-Claude. The Franco-Belgian and Wallonia-Flanders frontiers: do they influence the age distributions of the populations concerned? Some methodological propositions. [Les frontieres France-Belgique et Wallonie-Flandre: se marquent-elles dans la repartition par age des populations? Propositions methodologiques.] Revue Belge de Geographie, Vol. 113, No. 2, 1989. 119-38 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
The impact of current and historical political and linguistic frontiers on the demographic characteristics of the populations concerned is examined using the example of the Franco-Belgian frontier, including the linguistic boundaries between French and Dutch speakers in Belgium. The emphasis is on alternative methodologies available to analyze such factors.
Correspondence: J.-C. Deroubaix, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut de Sociologie, Laboratoire de Methodologie du Traitement des Donnees, 50 avenue Franklin Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: New York Public Library.

57:10581 Hill, John K. Demographics and the trade balance. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas Economic Review, Sep 1989. 1-11 pp. Dallas, Texas. In Eng.
A simulation model is used to examine the relationship between changes in the age composition of the U.S. population and movements in the trade balance. The author finds that "recent and projected shifts in the age composition of the U.S. population are capable of producing large swings in the trade balance. He concludes that much of the current trade deficit reflects mutually beneficial international exchange. To that extent, the deficit should not be interpreted as a sign that U.S. living standards will decline."
Correspondence: J. K. Hill, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Station K, Dallas, TX 75222. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:10582 Long, John F. The relative effects of fertility, mortality, and immigration on projected age structure. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 503-22 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The author "attempts to disentangle the relative effects of fertility, mortality, and migration on the projected age structure. Assuming extreme alternatives for the future of the U.S. population, [he] shows that, in the long run, fertility changes have the greatest impact, whereas, in the short run, the immigration component may matter most."
Correspondence: J. F. Long, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Estimates and Projections, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10583 Longino, Charles F.; Soldo, Beth J.; Manton, Kenneth G. Demography of aging in the United States. In: Gerontology: perspectives and issues, edited by Kenneth F. Ferraro. ISBN 0-8261-6660-1. LC 89-21789. 1990. 19-41 pp. Springer: New York, New York. In Eng.
Some characteristics of demographic aging in the United States are discussed. "These are (1) growth in the absolute size of the elderly population, (2) changes in the relative number of older persons (i.e., structural change), (3) increases in life expectancy, and finally, (4) the relative increase of the aged in local populations due to population redistribution." Qualitative factors in planning for an aging society are also considered.
Correspondence: C. F. Longino, University of Miami, Department of Sociology, Coral Gables, FL 33124. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

57:10584 New Zealand. Department of Statistics (Wellington, New Zealand). Elderly population of New Zealand. Pub. Order No. 03.110. ISBN 0-477-06472-8. 1990. 54 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
This publication "brings together a variety of demographic and related information on the elderly population of New Zealand, including recent and projected changes in their size, overall pattern of increase, and age-sex structure. Other topics covered include: geographical distribution, marital status, ethnicity, living arrangements, mortality, internal and external migration, income, and labour force participation."
Correspondence: Department of Statistics, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10585 Pan American Health Organization [PAHO] (Washington, D.C.). A profile of the elderly in Costa Rica. PAHO Technical Paper, No. 29, ISBN 92-75-13029-9. 1990. v, 117 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is one in a series of PAHO studies on the elderly and their needs in the countries of the Caribbean and Latin America. The emphasis is on providing data needed to develop policies and programs for the elderly. The reports contain information on health status, physical functioning, socioeconomic characteristics, social relationships, financial situation, and informal care. Data are from a series of household surveys carried out in the individual countries. This report concerns Costa Rica; a similar report is available for Chile.
For reports concerning other countries, see 56:20498.
Correspondence: Pan American Health Organization, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10586 Pardthaisong, Tieng. Psychosocial aspects of aging. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jan 1990. 185-203, 247-8 pp. Nakhonpathom, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
A rapid fertility decline and a decrease in mortality levels are changing the age structure of Thailand. The author projects age distributions by sex up to the end of the twenty-first century. Psychological aspects of aging based on a U.S. sample are discussed as they contribute to the understanding of Thailand's changing population structure and its needs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10587 Takahashi, Shigesato. Effects of fertility and mortality change on aspects of aging in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 3, Oct 1990. 1-15 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of the present paper is to review the recent trends in population age structure in Japan and to assess the demographic determinants of those trends relating to the impacts of fertility and mortality change on aging." A decline in cohort mortality and a significant decrease in the birth rate since 1973 have increased the proportion of the aged population.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10588 United States. National Institute on Aging. Behavioral and Social Research Program (Bethesda, Maryland). The Behavioral and Social Research Program at the National Institute on Aging: history of a decade. BSR Working Document, Nov 1990. xii, 131 pp. Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
"This document presents a...picture of the first decade...of the Behavioral and Social Research Program of the [U.S.] National Institute on Aging. Here one can find the concepts and challenges in behavioral and social research of special relevance to aging--in individuals and in social and societal aspects--which have guided the development of this important arena of research in aging. The report proceeds to give a picture of challenges for the future; there are...contributory comments by a number...of scientists in these fields; and appendices provide informative details of the varied program activities in supporting and extending such research and training."
Correspondence: U.S. National Institute on Aging, Behavioral and Social Research Program, Building 31C, Room 5C32, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10589 Valkovics, Emil. Trends in population aging. [A nepesseg oregedesenek tendenciai.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 68, No. 11, Nov 1990. 869-99 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The age structure of the world population between 1950 and 1985 is analyzed according to changes in fertility, mortality, and international migration in developing and developed countries. "Relying on the results of the medium scenario of the population forecasts prepared by the U.N. Division of International Economic and Social Affairs, the author demonstrates that aging of the world population will become a global phenomenon, characteristic of every region and county of the world, between 1985 and 2025."
Correspondence: E. Valkovics, Mavos-u. 27 V. 2, 112 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

57:10590 Brambilla, Donald J.; McKinlay, Sonja M. A prospective study of factors affecting age at menopause. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 42, No. 11, 1989. 1,031-9 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper describes a multivariate analysis of a 3-year prospective study of the covariates of age at menopause among [2,014 U.S.] women who were randomly sampled from a general population....median age at last menstruation, estimated from a model of the marginal distribution of age at menopause, was 50.7 years. When covariates were considered singly, age at menopause varied with smoking, education and income but not with marginal status, parity, location, height, weight or use of either oral contraceptives or menopausal estrogens. Multivariate analyses showed that education and income were confounded with smoking status. The results indicate that many previously identified sources of variation in age at menopause reflect confounding with smoking and self-selection in target populations, rather than real effects."
Correspondence: D. J. Brambilla, New England Research Institute, 9 Galen Street, Watertown, MA 02172. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10591 Day, Lincoln H. Upper-age longevity in low-mortality countries: a dissenting view. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 117-28 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The author advises caution concerning the prospect of increasing life expectancy in developed countries. He points to environmental pollution, the virulence of infectious diseases, increased stress, and increased morbidity in aging societies as possible deterrents to longer life expectancy.
Correspondence: L. H. Day, Australian National University, Department of Demography, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10592 Desjardins, Bertrand; Charbonneau, Hubert. The inheritability of longevity. [L'heritabilite de la longevite.] Population, Vol. 45, No. 3, May-Jun 1990. 603-15 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The relationship between the longevity of parents and children is examined using data on the population of Quebec during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The data suggest a positive correlation between longevity of parents and children, particularly for boys, which is evidence of an inherited component of longevity.
Correspondence: B. Desjardins, Universite de Montreal, Programme de Recherche en Demographie Historique, Caisse Postale 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10593 Duchene, Josianne; Wunsch, Guillaume. Population aging and the limits to human life. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 27-40 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"After a brief overview of the demographic and actuarial literature concerning mortality laws and life limit tables, we present some results from the biological literature on aging and senescence. These results are then used to construct a hypothetical life limit table conforming to present biological knowledge. Various demographic consequences for future population aging are then derived in the final section of this chapter, taking Japan as an example of a low-mortality country."
Correspondence: J. Duchene, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Demography, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10594 Ekonomov, Arkadii L.; Rudd, Charles L.; Lomakin, Aleksey J. Actuarial aging rate is not constant within the human life span. Gerontology, Vol. 35, No. 2-3, Mar-Jun 1989. 113-20 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"It is often believed that the mortality intensity in the modern human population undergoes an exponential growth after 40 years, i.e. the actuarial aging rate is regarded to be constant after 40 years. To check this assumption we have calculated local aging rate values for 13 age ranges (within the interval of 30-92 years) for the male and female population of 48 states of the U.S. (1969-1971). It was found that generally the male aging rate is not constant but lowers monotonically with time, while for females the aging rate...[varies over time]. The results obtained are a warning to those who boldly use Gompertz of Gompertz-Makeham formulas when describing human aging on the population level."
Correspondence: A. L. Ekonomov, Interconcepts, Anti-Aging Group, X111 Beke Ter 12, H-1139 Budapest, Hungary. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

57:10595 Helm, Peter; Lidegaard, Ojvind. The relationship between menarche and sexual, contraceptive and reproductive life events. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, Vol. 8, No. 1, Mar 1990. 59-63 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"Relationships between menarche and sexual, contraceptive, and reproductive life events were investigated by structured interviews of 585 Danish women, aged 15-45 years. Data were analyzed by multivariate test statistics. The trend toward an earlier menarche was confirmed. No association was found between menarche and social class. Women with early menarche had an earlier coital debut. After correction for coital debut, no association was observed between menarche and coital frequency, number of sexual partners, or use of oral contraceptives....The results suggest that the predictive value of the menarche for sexual and contraceptive life events is conditioned primarily by the association between menarche and coital debut."
Correspondence: P. Helm, Bakkedruget 16, DK-3400, Hillerod, Denmark. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

57:10596 Manton, Kenneth G. New biotechnologies and the limits to life expectancy. In: Future demographic trends in Europe and North America: what can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1991. 97-115 pp. Academic Press: San Diego, California/London, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"We presented a model which, by using the available biomedical data and theory, describes the effects on life expectancy for certain types of interventions. The results of these simulations suggest that there is considerable potential for increasing life expectancy with existing biotechnology. Whether or not these gains will be realized depends upon society's commitment to continuing (and expanding) such research and its commitment to disseminating these health technologies on a mass basis."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10597 Okonofua, F. E.; Lawal, A.; Bamgbose, J. K. Features of menopause and menopausal age in Nigerian women. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 31, No. 4, Apr 1990. 341-5 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"The age of menopause and the clinical features of menopause were investigated by questionnaire survey in 563 Nigerian women of Yoruba descent who have been menopausal for at least 5 years. The mean and median ages of menopause were 48.4 and 48.0 years, respectively. No relationship could be established between menopausal age and various biosocial factors such as age of menarche, social class, parity, smoking and place of residence."
Correspondence: F. E. Okonofua, Obafemi Awolowo University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Perinatology, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

57:10598 Alexander, Gigi; Cebula, Richard J.; Koch, James V. Geographic after-tax real income differentials and population growth rates. Atlantic Economic Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 1990. 92 pp. Edwardsville, Illinois. In Eng.
"The purpose of this [one-page] note is to empirically investigate the impact of geographic after-tax real income differentials on geographic population growth rate differentials. The focus is on population growth rates in Florida's 67 counties over the period 1980-88." The authors conclude that "even after allowing for a variety of other location-influencing factors, including coastal access, after-tax real income differentials exercise a positive and significant impact on population growth rate differentials among Florida's counties."
Correspondence: G. Alexander, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:10599 Blackburn, McKinley L.; Bloom, David E.; Neumark, David. Fertility timing, wages, and human capital. NBER Working Paper, No. 3422, Aug 1990. 32, [3] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Women who have first births relatively late in life [in the United States] earn higher wages. This paper offers an explanation of this fact based on a simple life-cycle model of human capital investment and timing of first births. The model yields conditions (that are plausibly satisfied) under which late childbearers will tend to invest more heavily in human capital than early childbearers. The empirical analysis finds results consistent with the higher wages of late childbearers arising primarily through greater measurable human capital investment."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:10600 Clark, W. A. V.; Davies, Suzanne. Elderly mobility and mobility outcomes: households in the later stages of the life course. Research on Aging, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1990. 430-62 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"Recent research has demonstrated that elderly residential mobility is conditioned more often by economic factors than is mobility in general. This article explores these issues, specifically those related to the effects of mobility, aging in place, and migration on elderly economic well-being. Using the American Housing Survey national file for 1985, different types of mobility and migration for households in the later stages of the life course are examined. The evidence reiterates central city/suburban locational differences for the elderly, emphasizes the role of house costs and house cost/income ratios in creating stress for the elderly, and strongly suggests that the elderly population is not simply grouped into young-old, old, and old-old, but is better treated in a continuum of life course changes."
Correspondence: W. A. V. Clark, University of California, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10601 Deaton, Angus; Paxson, Christina H. Patterns of aging in Thailand and Cote d'Ivoire. NBER Working Paper, Pub. Order No. 3436. Sep 1990. 26, [19] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Data from a series of household surveys are used to compare living standards among the elderly in the Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) and Thailand. Factors considered include "living arrangements, labor force participation, illness, urbanization, income and consumption. One of the issues we examine is whether life-cycle patterns of income and consumption can be detected in the data....We find that labor force participation and individual income patterns follow the standard life-cycle hump shapes in both countries, but that average living standards within households are quite flat over the life-cycle. The data presented suggest that changes in family composition and living arrangements of the elderly are likely to be more important sources of old-age insurance than asset accumulation."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:10602 Downey, Douglas B. Family size and occupational mobility, Indianapolis: 1860-1880. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 74, No. 4, Jul 1990. 197-201 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"This paper uses U.S. Census data from Indianapolis to compare occupational attainments of fathers in 1860 with sons in 1880, classified by family size. A son from a small family was more likely than a son from a large family to rise above his father's occupational category."
Correspondence: D. B. Downey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10603 Friesen, Wardlow. Economic activity and occupation in the Pacific Islands: issues of census classification and analysis. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 4, No. 2, Summer 1990. 11-8, 29-31 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The author discusses the census assessment of economic activity and occupation in the Pacific Island nations of Oceania. "In the Pacific Islands, subsistence and certain kinds of cash activities are often overlooked, and this omission tends to make vulnerable groups, especially women, less visible to planners and politicians. Some progress has been made in incorporating nonwage and noncash activities into recent classification systems used in censuses. One of the purposes of the new International Classification of Occupations...is to provide an improved system of classification for such activities....Also needed in the Pacific are systems for providing more meaningful data collection and analysis on the relationship between individual and household activities."
Correspondence: W. Friesen, University of Auckland, Private Bag, Auckland 1, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10604 Goldberg, Gertrude S.; Kremen, Eleanor. The feminization of poverty: only in America? ISBN 0-275-93691-0. LC 90-7424. 1990. xii, 231 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This study asks whether the feminization of poverty, the tendency of women and their families to become the majority of the poor, is a phenomenon unique to the United States. Seven industrialized nations, both capitalist and socialist, with different degrees of commitment to social welfare are compared: Canada, Japan, France, Sweden, Poland, the Soviet Union, and the United States. In each of the countries the authors analyze information about women, labor market conditions, equalization policies, social welfare programs, and demographic variables. This is the first book which uses a cross-national approach to gain an in-depth understanding of the feminization of poverty in the industrialized world and to consider anti-poverty policy and strategies for women in the United States."
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10605 Heisler, Douglas W. Nationality and wages in 1986 in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pub. Order No. DA9004788. 1989. 324 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Fourth Economic Development Plan, 1985-1990, proposed to replace foreign workers with Saudis. This study describes the population and labor force in Riyadh in 1986, estimates the wage differences by nationality after controlling for other variables, and evaluates the feasibility of the Fourth Five Year Plan in the context of the capital."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(9).

57:10606 Margo, Robert A. The effect of migration on black incomes: evidence from the 1940 census. Economics Letters, Vol. 31, No. 4, Dec 1989. 403-6 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Evidence from the 1940 [U.S.] census reveals that southern-born blacks who left the region prior to 1935 had higher incomes than non-southern born blacks. The income gap between migrants and non-migrants declined with schooling."
Correspondence: R. A. Margo, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

57:10607 Medici, Andre C. Differences in income distribution data between the population census and household surveys (PNAD): conceptual and operational aspects. [Diferenciais de rendimentos entre censos demograficos e PNADs--aspectos conceituais e operacionais.] Revista Brasileira de Estatistica, Vol. 49, No. 192, Jul-Dec 1988. 49-64 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The [purpose] of this article is to explain the main differences between the concepts and the [collection procedures] of income distribution data used in [the] 1980 demographic census and in [the] 1979 and 1981 household surveys in Brazil. The article also comments [on] some differences about the data information on income distribution produced by census and household surveys."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:10608 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Criteria for classifying households in the study of the relationship between population and consumption. [Critere de classement des menages pour l'etude des relations population-consommation.] Sep 1990. 34 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Problems concerning the classification of households solely by level of standard of living are reviewed. The importance of taking into account differences in household size and characteristics of individuals is noted. Data from a 1985 survey on consumption in Morocco are used to examine the value of data on housing and on educational status of head of household for this purpose.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10609 Shin, Eui-Hang; Lee, Young Hwan. Relative size of the black population and occupational differentiation in metropolitan areas. Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 21, No. 1, Sep 1990. 52-71 pp. Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
"The primary purpose of this study is to analyze structural factors affecting the cross-sectional variation in occupational differentiation between Blacks and Whites [in the United States]. More specifically, this study attempts to analyze the relative importance of the effects of relative size of Black population, education level of Blacks, community size, industrial structure, demographic characteristics of the labor force, and region on the cross-sectional variation in occupational differentiation between Blacks and Whites."
Correspondence: E.-H. Shin, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (AAS).

57:10610 Skvoretz, John; Smith, Shelley A. Changing reward structures and population distributions: an aggregate analysis of earnings inequalities in the 1980s. Social Science Research, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1990. 372-98 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Trends in the earnings of [U.S.] women and men and blacks and whites during the 1980s are examined with a method that distinguishes two sources of earnings inequality: (1) differences in rewards to labor market divisions and (2) differences in the distribution of status groups over unequally awarded divisions." The method, which permits a statistical assessment of the significance of changes over time in relative status group earnings, is applied to data from the 1980 and 1987 Current Population Surveys. "The overtime analysis reveals significant interactions between year and gender and between year and occupation, both which serve to improve noticeably the earnings of women relative to men but for different, and unexpected reasons."
Correspondence: J. Skvoretz, University of South Carolina, Sociology, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

57:10611 Clark, W. A. V. Residential preferences and neighborhood racial segregation: a test of the Schelling segregation model. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1991. 1-19 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The debate over the role of the forces that create the patterns of residential separation has identified neighborhood preferences as one of the explanatory variables, but although we possess some empirical data on the nature of neighborhood racial preferences, the theoretical contributions have received only limited empirical evaluation. Among the theoretical statements, Schelling's model of the effects of small differences in preferences on residential patterns has provided a basic building block in our understanding of preferences, choices, and patterns....This model is at the center of the present paper, which examines the Schelling concept in some detail and provides empirical support for his abstract formulations. First, however, the paper sets the context of studies of neighborhood segregation and residential preferences, followed by a reiteration of the Schelling thesis and an analysis of data from several surveys. These preliminary steps allow us to estimate directly the theoretical distributions proposed by Schelling." The model is tested empirically using data from telephone surveys in five U.S. cities.
Correspondence: W. A. V. Clark, University of California, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1524. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10612 Denton, Nancy A.; Massey, Douglas S. Patterns of neighborhood transition in a multiethnic world: U.S. metropolitan areas, 1970-1980. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1991. 41-63 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper we document changes between 1970 and 1980 in the degree to which three minority groups--blacks, Hispanics, and Asians--are represented within neighborhoods of the...largest [U.S.] metropolitan areas. Our scheme for classifying patterns of neighborhood change relies on two key variables: ethnic structure and minority composition....We describe the data set and the definitions used to identify each minority group. Then we cross-classify the 1970 ethnic structure of neighborhoods by the 1980 ethnic structure and examine the transition of census tracts between different structural types, focusing on shifts out of the all white category. Next we consider minority composition and change within neighborhoods of different structural types. In the final section we use multivariate models to describe the relative importance of ethnic structure versus minority composition in predicting racial and ethnic change within urban neighborhoods, controlling for a variety of ecological and demographic conditions."
Correspondence: N. A. Denton, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10613 Feigelman, William; Gorman, Bernard S. Blacks who live near whites: 1982 and 1987. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 74, No. 4, Jul 1990. 202-7 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the tendency of Black Americans to live near Whites, using General Social Survey data from 1982 and 1987. Respondents were asked whether any whites lived in their neighborhood and how close they lived. A number of social characteristics of Black people are investigated and found to influence their tendency to live near whites. High [socioeconomic status], predictably, relates to greater tendency to live on the same block with whites....Between the 1982 and 1987 surveys, there is a surprising increase in the tendency of Black people to live on the same block as White people, despite the lack of evidence of declining segregation from other sources."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

57:10614 Haveman, Robert; Wolfe, Barbara; Spaulding, James. Childhood events and circumstances influencing high school completion. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1991. 133-57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper is an empirical exploration of the effects [in the United States] of a variety of family and economic circumstances experienced during childhood on one indicator of success in young adulthood--high school completion. The estimates suggest that parental education and mother's work are positive and significant determinants of high school completion, whereas growing up in a family with more children (who compete for resources), being persistently poor and on welfare, and moving one's residence as a child have significant negative impacts on high school completion. The effects of some family stress and economic events differ depending on the age of the child when they occur. The results support the economic model of investment in children, as well as the welfare culture and socialization models." Data are from the 1987 tape (Wave 20) of the University of Michigan's Panel Study of Income Dynamics.
Correspondence: R. Haveman, University of Wisconsin, Department of Economics, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10615 Knodel, John; Wongsith, Malinee. Family size and children's education in Thailand: evidence from a national sample. Demography, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1991. 119-31 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Analysis of a large, nationally representative survey shows that family size exerts a substantial negative influence on the probability that a child will attend secondary school in Thailand. The primary mechanism underlying this effect is most likely the dilution of familial resources available per child associated with larger numbers of children. The extent and the level of schooling at which this effect operates vary with the household level of wealth and with rural or urban residence. Because fertility decline is leading to a major increase in the proportion of children who come from small families, falling birth rates contribute to increasing educational attainment in Thailand."
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10616 Lee, Barrett A.; Wood, Peter B. Is neighborhood racial succession place-specific? Demography, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1991. 21-40 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper evaluates the geographic generality of the succession model of neighborhood racial change for the period 1970 to 1980. Using [U.S.] census data on racially mixed tracts, we determine whether white-to-black compositional shifts were equally common across the four regions and 58 central cities in our sample. Substantial variation occurred by region in the incidence and magnitude of racial succession; tracts in western cities departed most markedly from expectations. Even in other regions, some cities experienced more numerous instances of stability and displacement than of succession. These region and city effects persist when neighborhood characteristics believed to influence racial transition are controlled."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 431).
Correspondence: B. A. Lee, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10617 van Hoorn, W. D. Determinants of leaving the parental home. [Determinanten van het uit huis gaan van kinderen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 38, No. 11, Nov 1990. 16-22 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The factors affecting the process of grown children leaving the parental home in the Netherlands are examined using data from the 1988 Netherlands Fertility Survey and methods of multivariate analysis.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10618 Wright, James D. Address unknown: the homeless in America. Social Institutions and Social Change, ISBN 0-202-30364-0. 1989. xix, 170 pp. Aldine de Gruyter: Hawthorne, New York. In Eng.
This study attempts to answer some basic questions about the homeless in the United States, such as: "Who are the homeless? How many of them are there? How did they get to be homeless? Why here? Why now? What happened in American society in the decade of the 1980's to create this problem? And now that the problem exists, what, if anything, can be done to solve it?" The emphasis is on the large-scale social and economic forces that have operated over the past decade to price an increasingly large segment of the urban poor out of the housing market.
Correspondence: Aldine de Gruyter, 200 Saw Mill River Road, Hawthorne, NY 10532. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

57:10619 Abu-Lughod, Janet L. Palestinians: exiles at home and abroad. Current Sociology/Sociologie Contemporaine, Vol. 36, No. 2, Summer 1988. 61-9, 109-11 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
An attempt is made to estimate the size and present location of the Palestinian population. Five major groups are identified: Arabs in Israel, Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza, Palestinians in the Arab states adjacent to Israel, Palestinians in the Gulf States, and Palestinians abroad.
Correspondence: J. L. Abu-Lughod, Northwestern University, Department of Sociology, Evanston, IL 60201. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10620 Axelrod, Paul. Cultural and historical factors in the population decline of the Parsis of India. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 3, Nov 1990. 401-19 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The population decline of the Parsis of India has been the subject of a number of demographic studies. While descriptive statistical accounts provide some clues about the causes of the decline, they fail to assess systematically the cultural and historical factors that are basic for the decline. This paper identifies the relative roles of low nuptiality, low fertility, emigration, and intermarriage in that decline, and the particular aspects of Parsi cultural values and historical experiences that account for them."
Correspondence: P. Axelrod, Ripon College, Department of Anthropology, P.O. Box 248, Ripon, WI 54971. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10621 Belanger, Alain; Rogers, Andrei. The internal migration and spatial redistribution of the foreign-born population in the United States: 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Population Program Working Paper, No. WP-90-5, Apr 1990. 23, [15] pp. University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program: Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
The authors analyze internal migration and spatial redistribution patterns of the foreign-born population in the United States during the periods 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. "We aggregate the diverse nationalities into eight different regions of origin: Mexico, Puerto Rico, Rest of South and Central America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Oceania, Canada, and the Rest of the World....We examine the regional distribution of these eight groups. We also look at the regional distribution of the new immigrants in order to identify their different 'gateway' locations....We look at the redistribution of the foreign-born population and its changes over time. We compare the net migration of each native-specific population subgroup and show its impact on the different regions....Finally...[we examine] the age patterns of internal migration for the different subgroups and then [link] migration and mortality components of change together in a cohort perspective with a multiregional life table analysis."
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 422).
Correspondence: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10622 Desjardins, Bertrand. Ethnic homogeneity of the Quebec population during the French regime. [Homogeneite ethnique de la population quebecoise sous le Regime francais.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 19, No. 1, Spring 1990. 63-76 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author analyzes the ethnic structure of the population of Quebec province, Canada, during the French regime. "The Quebec population [was] defined very early along lines which were kept subsequently, because immigration contributed only marginally to its growth. After one century of settlement, spouses whose ethnic origin was French still represented 97% of the total, with Normandy, the Paris region and the West of France contributing...about two thirds."
Correspondence: B. Desjardins, Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie, Programme de Recherche en Demographie Historique, Caise Postale 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10623 Dugas, Clermont. The evolution of ethnic structure in Quebec's peripheral regions. [Composition et evolution ethniques de regions peripheriques du Quebec.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 19, No. 1, Spring 1990. 77-94 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The main purpose of this paper is to analyse, on the basis of census data, the evolution of the ethnic structure of the population in five peripheral regions of Quebec. After some methodological considerations and a brief discussion of the settlement structure, the author describes the evolution of ethnic structure over two sub-periods: 1871-1971 and 1971-1986."
Correspondence: C. Dugas, Universite du Quebec, Departement des Sciences Humaines, 300 Avenue des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10624 Fleischer, Henning. Foreigners, 1989. [Auslander 1989.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 8, Aug 1990. 540-4 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The first part of this article contains data on the foreign population in West Germany in 1989, along with some comparative statistics for earlier years. Information is included on population size, births and deaths, international migration, refugees, regional distribution, nationality, and age structure. The second part provides summary statistics on foreigners in East Germany.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

57:10625 Horton, Carrell P.; Smith, Jessie C. Statistical record of black Americans. ISBN 0-8103-7724-1. LC 902242X214. 1990. xi, 707 pp. Gale Research: Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
The authors attempt to summarize the published information concerning blacks in the United States. A population section (pp. 515-50) includes data on population, 1960-1987; urban population; household characteristics; age and sex distribution; marital status; educational status; labor force; income; housing; institutional population; families and children; migration; aged population; population projections; population growth, 1950-1986; poverty; regional distribution; and residence characteristics. Another section, entitled vital statistics (pp. 623-81), contains data on causes of death, birth control, birth rates, death rates, fetal death rates, infant mortality, life expectancy, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, and unmarried mothers. Additional sections present data on education, the family, health and medical care, housing, income, and religion.
Correspondence: Gale Research, 835 Penobscot Building, Detroit, MI 48226-4094. Location: New York Public Library.

57:10626 Krass-Schneider, Frauke. Population groups and minorities: handbook of the world's ethnic, linguistic, and religious population groups. [Bevolkerungsgruppen und Minoritaten: Handbuch der ethnischen, sprachlichen und religiosen Bevolkerungsgruppen der Welt.] ISBN 3-515-05431-6. LC 89-206071. 1989. 239 pp. Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden: Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This handbook contains summary statistics on ethnic and minority groups, languages, and religious groups in individual countries of the world. The data are taken from primary sources whenever possible and are arranged by country. Indexes of countries, ethnic and minority groups, languages, and religions are provided. The publication also includes a bibliography and several maps.
Correspondence: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 7000 Stuttgart 1, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

57:10627 Pien, Feng-kuei. The population of Chinese minority nationalities. Issues and Studies, Vol. 26, No. 4, Apr 1990. 43-62 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
The author analyzes population dynamics among the minority nationalities of China, which total some 67 million persons. Sections are included on geographic distribution, population growth, age composition and sex ratio, educational status, and controversies concerning family planning.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

57:10628 Schmelz, Uziel O. World Jewish population in the 1980s: a short outline. Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics Occasional Paper, No. 1989-06, 1989. 24 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
The author describes the size and geographic distribution of the worldwide Jewish population in the 1980s. Demographic trends and differentials among the Jews living in Israel and those settled in other countries are compared. Consideration is given to fertility, marriage patterns, family and household composition, age distribution, migration, and mortality. The author presents "three versions of projections that are intended to roughly illustrate plausible evolutions of the Jewish population in the Diaspora as a whole and the United States particularly, in Israel, and in the world during the 25-year period from 1985 to 2010...."
Correspondence: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Mount Scopus Campus, 91905 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

57:10629 Shu, Jing. Minority nationalities in China: their social formation, geographical location, and differentiation from the Han majority. Pub. Order No. DA8920841. 1989. 168 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The dissertation investigates the geographic distribution and socioeconomic and demographic composition of the fifty-five minority groups in China in 1982. The data sources are the newly available 100% computerized tabulations and the 100% manual tabulations of the 1982 Population Census of China....[It] analyzes the fifty-five Chinese minority groups and their varying levels of similarity with the Han majority."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(4).

57:10630 Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois (Villeneuve d'Ascq, France). Foreign communities in Europe. [Les communautes etrangeres en Europe.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1990. [158] pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng; Fre.
This issue is devoted to the study of foreigners currently resident in the countries of Western Europe. The papers, which are in English or French with summaries in both languages, examine the situation of foreign communities in Belgium, the United Kingdom, Austria, France, the Netherlands, West Germany, Denmark, and Luxembourg.
Correspondence: Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois, U.F.R. de Geographie, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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