Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo (Quito, Ecuador). The
population policy of the Republic of Ecuador. [Politica de
poblacion de la Republica del Ecuador.] 1988. 63 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In
The official population policy of Ecuador is outlined in this report. The publication includes chapters on demographic trends in the country, the objectives of the policy, and a strategy for its implementation. (To obtain this document from CELADE, refer to Document No. DOCPAL 13498.00.).
Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.
Mary A. Abortion and divorce in Western law: American
failures, European challenges. ISBN 0-674-00160-5. LC 87-7534.
1987. 197 pp. Harvard University Press: Cambridge,
Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
This is a comparative analysis of abortion and divorce law in 20 Western countries. The forms of dependency connected with pregnancy, marriage, and child raising are stressed. Particular attention is given to differences in U.S. law and those of other developed countries and to the role that political factors have played in the development of U.S. laws.
Correspondence: Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
C. "Population problem": need for a total view.
Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 25, No. 33, Aug 18, 1990. 1,827-30
pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author addresses problems concerning India's population growth and recommends policies and programs to deal with these problems. Consideration is given to family planning programs, nutritional status in urban and rural areas, and the need to raise the educational level and marriage age of adolescent girls.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).
56:40688 Hope, Kempe
R. Managing rapid urbanization in the third world: some
aspects of policy. Genus, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1989. 21-35
pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This work has argued for and advocated a set of policies necessary to make urbanization manageable in the Third World within the limitations imposed by a country's available resources. That framework necessitates the giving of priority to appropriate national urbanization policies and must include four major objectives: the full development of the national resources of a country; the maintenance of national cohesion among various regions, particularly in the case of very large disparities in per capita output among regions; the prevention or correction of excessive concentration of economic activities within the urban regions; and the more efficient and more equitable growth management within cities. It follows then that national urbanization policies must include elements that reduce urban unemployment and narrow the rural-urban wage gap; increase the relative disposition of the public services in the urban centers; foster integrated rural development; and improve administrative responsiveness."
Correspondence: K. R. Hope, H. and H. Economics Incorporated, Weston, Ontario, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
56:40689 Leeuw, F.
L.; Dekker, P. J. Population policy and the concept of the
demographic self-regulating capacity of human societies.
[Bevolkingsbeleid en de these van de demografische zelfstuurbaarheid.]
Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Aug 1990. 1-15 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In
Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The authors discuss a theory of the self-regulating capacity of human populations. Consideration is given to government population policy and fertility regulation. They conclude that "the thesis about the existence of a demographic self regulating mechanism which enables societies to solve their population problem timely and effectively without governmental intervention, is not based on empirical facts."
Correspondence: F. L. Leeuw, EUR/Complex Woudestein/Gebouw F3, Postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches
Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Recent trends in
population policy in Morocco. [Aspects recents de la politique de
population au Maroc.] May 1990. 25 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This is a review of the development of population policy in Morocco since independence. Trends in fertility, mortality, internal migration, and international migration are first outlined. The report concludes with a description of how the country's various development plans deal with the population factor.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Hermann. Population policy and family planning in the
third world. [Bevolkerungspolitik und Familienplanung in der
Dritten Welt.] In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in
der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and
Gerhard Heilig. 1988. 274-95 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New
York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The relationship between family planning and socioeconomic development in the third world is discussed. An overview of government attitudes toward population policy and family planning is then presented for various less-developed regions. Ethical principles and organizational structures of family planning programs are also reviewed.
Correspondence: H. Schubnell, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg, Werthmannplatz, 7800 Freiburg i. BR., Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Christabel. Australia's ageing population: policy
options. ISBN 0-644-12897-6. 1990. xiv, 94 pp. Bureau of
Immigration Research: South Carlton, Australia; Australian Government
Publishing Service: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author examines population policy options available in Australia in light of demographic aging, with a focus on differences in the roles of immigration and fertility. The aims of the study are "to quantify the likely effects on the size and age structure of the Australian population of various future scenarios of migration and fertility....to compare the Australian situation with the demographic structure of countries with which Australia has had strong migration links, particularly with regard to age structure and level of fertility....to conduct a literature search to determine the character of pro-natalist policies in various developed countries....[and] to assess whether some of these policies might be applicable to the Australian situation."
Correspondence: Bureau of Immigration Research, P.O. Box 659, South Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
56:40693 Zavala de
Cosio, M. Eugenia. Population policy in Mexico.
[Politicas de poblacion en Mexico.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia,
Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1990. 15-32 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author reviews the history of population policy in Mexico. Sections are included on antecedents of official population policy; the radical change in orientation since the enactment of the third General Law of Population in 1973; institutional bases of Mexican population policy; the National Family Planning Plan, 1977-1982; and an evaluation of the results of the population policy.
Correspondence: M. E. Zavala de Cosio, Universite de Paris, 12 place du Pantheon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Yi. Population policies in China: new challenge and
strategies. In: An aging world: dilemmas and challenges for law
and social policy, edited by John M. Eekelaar and David Pearl. 1989.
61-73 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; Nihon Kajo Publishing:
Japan. In Eng.
Population growth in China from 1949 to 1985 is reviewed, and the policies affecting it are discussed. The author considers the related topics of demographic aging, fertility attitudes of rural populations, urbanization, and the future direction of the national family planning policy.
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Peking University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Thomas; Lutz, Wolfgang. Measuring fertility responses to
policy measures in the German Democratic Republic. IIASA Working
Paper, No. WP-89-37, Jun 1989. v, 12 pp. International Institute for
Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"The present paper presents empirical evidence that in fact [population] policy can make a difference [in raising fertility]. In order to do that [we] had first to measure the difference between fertility in West Germany and Austria on the one hand and East Germany on the other. Statistics show clearly that year by year since 1976 when policy measures were introduced in East Germany births have been higher by about half a child each year....[The authors] establish that [a fertility] rise [occurred in East Germany]....And they also show that such a rise did not occur in West Germany and Austria. The measures that produced the rise included generous maternity leave, plus subsequent paid leave for working mothers, interest free marriage loans whose repayment was partly canceled on the birth [of] children."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Pierre. Evolution of family policy in the light of
demographic development in West European countries. International
Social Security Review, Vol. 42, No. 4, 1989. 395-426 pp. Geneva,
Switzerland. In Eng.
The author examines some of the issues facing those responsible for developing family policies in European countries, many of which are experiencing rapid demographic aging. Population dynamics in Council of Europe member countries are first described. Implications of this trend for social policies as a whole are also reviewed.
Correspondence: P. Gilliand, University of Lausanne, Batiment du Rectorat et de l'Administration Centrale, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).
R. S. The anti- and pro-natalist discussion in the
Netherlands. [De anti- respectievelijk pronatalistische discussie
in Nederland.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Aug 1990. 75-93 pp. Brussels,
Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article gives a brief overview of the political debates around the issues of anti-natalist (from 1965 to 1972) and pro-natalist (since 1982) policy in the Netherlands." The author discusses factors that have affected population policy, including overpopulation, the Catholic church, and environmental pollution.
Correspondence: R. S. Hoogmoed, Prof. Bromstraat 116-2, 6525 BJ Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Ralph W. Family planning in Taiwan: the conflict between
ideologues and technocrats. Modern China, Vol. 16, No. 2, Apr
1990. 173-89 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
In this article, which is based in part on personal interviews conducted in Taiwan in the early 1960s, the author focuses on the development of population policy. In particular, he examines the debate between the ideologues, who were opposed to family planning, and the technocrats, who favored family planning, and how the technocrats triumphed despite formidable obstacles. "In terms of tactics, the lessons of the family planning controversy in Taiwan are pretty straightforward: use front organizations when necessary, choose language carefully, and cultivate allies."
Correspondence: R. W. Huenemann, University of Victoria, School of Public Administration, POB 1700, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).
Jouko. Family policy in Western Europe. Yearbook of
Population Research in Finland, Vol. 28, 1990. 5-27 pp. Helsinki,
Finland. In Eng.
"This study is a cross section of the family policies in West European countries. The data used reflect the situation in the beginning of 1988. The article starts with an overview of working life, labor force participation of women, length of working time, part time work, paid work carried out at home, etc. Among the family policy measures are included child and maternity benefits, maternity and parental leave, child care service, counseling and tax deductions. Lastly the author compares family policy measures and possible population policy aims and presents examples from [selected] countries."
Correspondence: J. Hulkko, Elontie 114, 00660 Helsinki 66, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Jodi L. Baby budget. World Watch, Vol. 2, No. 5,
Sep-Oct 1989. 21-31 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author evaluates China's one-child family policy and concludes that it has been successful in bringing down the rate of population growth, but that its future effectiveness is threatened by recent economic and political reforms.
Correspondence: J. L. Jacobson, Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Josef. The influence of population policy on fertility in
Czechoslovakia. [Vliv populacni politiky na plodnost v
Ceskoslovensku.] Demografie, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1990. 193-203 pp. Prague,
Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author assesses the effectiveness of pro-natalist population policy measures in Czechoslovakia. The results indicate that such measures have primarily short-term effects and do influence the timing of births. They also increase the number of children of second and third parities and fertility at higher ages. The effect of economic conditions on fertility is paramount.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
56:40702 Moors, Hein
G. Attitudes towards demographic trends and population
policy: Italy and the Netherlands in a comparative perspective.
Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 1990. 179-94
pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A comparative analysis was carried out using survey data on attitudes regarding population trends and policy in Italy and in the Netherlands. The results show that current trends and the determinants of those trends are perceived similarly in both countries. With regard to policy, the Italians exhibit much more positive attitudes toward suggested new family policy measures than the Dutch. In the Netherlands, family policy generally is given a much lower priority than other areas of social policy. It appears that having children reflects different values in the two countries. Those who attach greater value to having children are also more in favour of new family policy measures than others. However, the results suggest that introduction of these measures would not raise the reproduction rate to anywhere near a stationary level."
Correspondence: H. G. Moors, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Rossella; Bonifazi, Corrado; Menniti, Adele. Demographic
trends, population policy and public opinion. Genus, Vol. 45, No.
3-4, Jul-Dec 1989. 37-54 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre;
The authors report on a survey carried out in Italy in 1987 concerning reproductive behavior and attitudes toward political intervention in demographic issues. "In particular, they focus on 1) those variables which may be indirectly affecting Italians' fertility intentions and 2) the degree of acceptability of a global social policy i.e., one that is not only restricted to economic incentives to be offered to families."
Correspondence: R. Palomba, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 0014 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Brinder P. S. Population control and the law: problems,
policies, remedial measures. ISBN 81-7100-147-5. 1989. 264 pp.
Deep and Deep Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes social and legal aspects of laws concerning population issues in India. Separate articles consider the legal basis of fertility control, the role of women in population control, the law and the status of children, voluntary and compulsory sterilization, abortion, the marriage age of women, legislation, and policy issues.
Correspondence: Deep and Deep Publications, D-1/24 Rajouri Garden, New Delhi 110 027, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
56:40705 Tien, H.
Yuan. China's population planning after Tiananmen.
Population Today, Vol. 18, No. 9, Sep 1990. 6-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In
The author reports on the meeting of the China Demographic Society in Beijing in January 1990. The one-child policy is reviewed, and political changes that have taken place since the events in Tiananmen Square and their effect on the family planning policy are discussed.
Correspondence: H. Y. Tien, Ohio State University, 300 Bricker Hall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Blanckenburg, Peter. Influencing the reproductive behavior
of rural families through rural development measures. [Zur
Beeinflussung des generativen Verhaltens von Landfamilien durch
Massnahmen der landlichen Entwicklungsforderung.] In: Probleme und
Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by
Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. 1988. 304-7
pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal
Republic of. In Ger.
Various examples of how rural development measures can influence the fertility of rural families in developing countries are discussed. The need to construct development policies that will also reduce fertility is stressed.
Correspondence: P. von Blanckenburg, Technische Universitat Berlin, Institut fur Sozialokonomie der Agrarentwicklung, Strasse des 17 Juni 135, 1000 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Wertheimer-Baletic, Alica. Contemporary population
policy in developing countries. [Suvremena populacijska politika u
zemljama u razvoju.] Ekonomski Pregled, Vol. 40, No. 1-2, 1989. 14-27
pp. Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Population policies in developing countries are reviewed, with a focus on the development of family planning programs. The author notes the growing awareness that the success of such programs is related not only to the measure of economic development achieved, but also to their adaptation to the cultural and social features of the population served.
Correspondence: A. Wertheimer-Baletic, Marjana Badela 34, 41040 Zagreb, Yugoslavia. Location: New York Public Library.
James F. Immigration and the French state: problems of
policy implementation. Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 23, No.
1, Apr 1990. 56-79 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"Why is it so difficult for a liberal-democratic state to regulate immigration? Although control of a territory is part and parcel of the definition of state sovereignty, labor-importing countries have found it increasingly difficult to regulate the flow of noncitizens across their borders. This article seeks to address the difficulties of regulating immigration by focusing on the policy-making process and the interaction of politics and markets in France, one of the principal countries of immigration."
Correspondence: J. F. Hollifield, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02254-9110. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).
Philip L.; Taylor, J. Edward. The initial effects of
immigration reform on farm labor in California. Population
Research and Policy Review, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep 1990. 255-83 pp.
Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The initial effects in California of the 1986 U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) on illegal seasonal migration from Mexico are examined. The author includes the results of a survey of 300 farm employers that was "designed to provide data on employment, wages, and production practices in 1988. This period is critical for assessing the impacts of immigration reform on the California farm labor market because it covers the period just before [the] December 1, 1988 imposition of employer sanctions against employers who knowingly hire illegal immigrant workers in perishable agriculture. A second purpose of the survey was to explore the initial impacts of IRCA on recruitment patterns and to solicit farmers' perceptions of the likely impacts of IRCA on their operations in the future."
Correspondence: P. L. Martin, University of California, Department of Agricultural Economics, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Mohamed El S. The political economy of migration in Egypt:
1974-1975. Population Council Regional Papers: West Asia and
North Africa, No. 36, May 1990. 65 pp. Population Council: Cairo,
Egypt. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to determine the significance of emigration policy in Egypt from a political economy point of view....Our argument...is that in the case of organismic equilibrium, the attempt at transformation by arbitrary dismantling of a certain set of controls, as happened in the case of Egypt, caused severe institutional distortions that damaged the fabric of the society. Under these circumstances the failure of liberalization was inevitable. We will argue our case in the following way: a) by showing the nature of this special situation which we characterized as organismic equilibrium; b) by characterizing the model of liberal transformation in Egypt as applied by the Sadatist elite; c) by demonstrating how emigration policy was devised as a way out of the contradictions of this model; and d) by stating the main purposes of emigration policy, as formulated and applied since 1974."
Correspondence: Population Council, P.O. Box 115, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Laurie P. Domestic pressures and the politics of exit:
trends in Soviet emigration policy. Political Science Quarterly,
Vol. 104, No. 4, Winter 1989-1990. 671-87 pp. New York, New York. In
The process by which more than 15 percent of the Soviet Jewish population have been able to emigrate from the USSR, despite the Soviet ideology that does not accept free emigration, is explored. The author concludes that the changing volume of Jewish emigration over time reflects the changing dynamics of the Soviet domestic situation. Emigration policy is seen as a useful indicator of the magnitude and direction of reform in the USSR.
Correspondence: L. P. Salitan, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Political Science, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
Ismo. Finnish migration and the European integration
process. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 28,
1990. 28-35 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author discusses Finnish migration policies and how they and the policies of the European Community affect migration trends to Finland.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Jesus; Lozano, Fernando. Mexican perceptions on rural
development and migration of workers to the United States and actions
taken, 1970-1988. Commission Working Paper, No. 55, Jul 1990. 31
pp. Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative
Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper is a brief review of the main actions taken by the Mexican government in the 1970s and 1980s concerning the migration of workers to the United States. It gives an overview of the government's apparent perception of the demographic phenomenon and its explicit economic policy strategies for handling it. In other words, it examines government actions in favor of rural development and the relationship of those actions to the flow of Mexicans to the United States."
Correspondence: Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development, 1111 18th Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.
Lydio F. Impacts and consequences of IRCA; legalization,
social services and health; IRCA's employer sanctions provisions; legal
immigration reform; refugees' policy issues. In Defense of the
Alien, Vol. 12, ISBN 0-934733-43-0. LC 90-1536. 1990. xi, 199 pp.
Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the 1989 Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy, sponsored by the Center for Migration Studies. The subject of the conference was the impact of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 on immigration to the United States. The impact and consequences of the Act are examined in the first two parts, which contain seven papers. The next four papers consider the revision of U.S. legal immigration reform and issues needing further analysis. The next five papers examine international perspectives and domestic policy issues concerning refugees. The final seven papers consider aspects of the Act's employer sanctions provisions.
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Michael J.; Bean, Frank D.; Espenshade, Thomas J. The U.S.
1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and undocumented migration to
the United States. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 9,
No. 2, May 1990. 93-116 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"One of the major goals of the 1986 [U.S.] Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) is to reduce the number of undocumented immigrants coming to and residing in the United States....This paper evaluates the impact of IRCA on the flow of undocumented migrants across the U.S.-Mexican border by analyzing a monthly time series of Border Patrol apprehensions from January 1977 to September 1988 within the context of a multivariate statistical model....Our results indicate that INS [Immigration and Naturalization Service] resources, Mexican population growth, comparative economic conditions on both sides of the border, and seasonal factors related to the agricultural planting and harvesting cycle are all determinants of border apprehensions and, by implication, of the flow of undocumented migrants to the United States."
Correspondence: M. J. White, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Xiushi; Goldstein, Sidney. Population movement in Zhejiang
province, China: the impact of government policies. International
Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, Fall 1990. 509-33 pp. Staten Island,
New York. In Eng.
"China's urbanization policies include strict control of permanent migration to large cities, but encourage the growth of small cities and towns. Concurrently, temporary migration is widely permitted as a way to stimulate commerce. Data for Zhejiang province indicate that permanent mobility is largely directed toward urban places, that towns gain more than cities and that rural areas experience migration losses. Permanent migrants to urban places are selective of the better educated. Temporary migration is also urban directed but greater in volume than permanent migration, and places considerable strain on urban infrastructure. Government policies are a key to understanding the migration streams and migrant characteristics. The considerable net movement into cities suggests that strict control of city growth is more difficult to achieve than envisaged by policymakers."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 386).
Correspondence: X. Yang, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).