Volume 56 - Number 4 - Winter 1990

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

56:40634 Assenmacher, Marianne. The role of women in the demographic development of the third world. [Die Rolle der Frau in der demographischen Entwicklung der Dritten Welt.] In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. 1988. 206-16 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The relationship between women's roles and demographic trends in developing countries is examined. Topics discussed include the participation of women in nonagricultural occupations and the relationship between fertility and female employment.
Correspondence: M. Assenmacher, Universitat Paderborn, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Warburger Strasse 100, 4790 Paderborn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40635 Basu, Alaka M. Culture and the status of women in North and South India. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 233-41 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
Women's status as a determinant of fertility and child mortality is compared for southern and northern India. Consideration is given to exposure to and interaction with the outside world (nonfamilial) and to the extent of female autonomy in decision making. Regional cultural differences are found to persist even after controlling for education.
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, National Council of Applied Economic Research, Parisila Bhavan, 11, Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40636 Brand, S. S. Demography, debt, and economic development. [Demografie, skuld en ekonomiese ontwikkeling.] South African Journal of Economics/Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Ekonomie, Vol. 57, No. 4, Dec 1989. 317-35 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Afr. with sum. in Eng.
The problems that will be faced by South Africa during the 1990s in providing public facilities and services are reviewed. Consideration is given to the growth and composition of the population, the increasing pressure to reduce differences in the provision of these services among ethnic groups, and such economic factors as the shortage of foreign capital. The author argues that a fundamental adjustment in the structure of the economy is required in order to cope with these problems, which would involve a change in the distribution of disposable income among different sectors of the population, including more rapid increases in the earnings of blacks.
Correspondence: S. S. Brand, Development Bank of Southern Africa, POB 1234, Halfway House 1685, South Africa. Location: New York Public Library.

56:40637 Catasus, S.; Farnos, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Grove, R.; Hernandez, R.; Morejon, B. Cuban women: changing roles and population trends. Women, Work and Development, No. 17, ISBN 92-2-106387-9. 1988. xi, 125 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this monograph is to document the economic, cultural and social changes which have in fact taken place for Cuban women, both at the family and at the societal levels, and to analyse the effects these changes have had on demographic behaviour during the last two decades, in particular in relation to fertility and infant mortality." Chapters are included on fertility, ideal family size and birth spacing, nuptiality patterns, and induced abortion and contraceptive use.
Correspondence: International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40638 Grover, Deepak. Population change and social security in India. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 55-62 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
Population change in India and its impact on the social security needs of specific demographic groups are discussed. Selected demographic factors including population size, urbanization, and life expectancy are analyzed to project the size of population groups that will be in need by the year 2001.
Correspondence: D. Grover, Panjab University, Population Research Centre, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40639 Gulhati, Kaval. Investment in women. Populi, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep 1990. 30-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines women's status in developing countries and explores the need for development programs that focus on raising the status of women. Consideration is given to social discrimination, health problems, unpaid labor, and lack of political power. The author concludes that "most women in the developing countries have few options open to them other than marriage and childbearing....But if investment in women were to become a policy objective, other options would be open to them and reduce their dependence on children for status and support. Thus, family planning is perhaps the most important investment in women....Investment in women must also include improvement in health services and expanded education and training opportunities."
Correspondence: K. Gulhati, Centre for Development and Population Activities, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40640 Khan, M. E.; Rao, Sandhya. Do welfare services reach couples below the poverty line? A case study of family welfare programme in Bihar. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 143-52 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present paper is based on...[a] study carried out [in 1989] in Bihar [India] to assess the accessibility of health and family welfare services to rural couples falling below the poverty line." Family profiles were developed on the basis of socioeconomic status, educational levels, and family size. Inequalities in access to and use of free health and family welfare services were found among families below and above the poverty line. Implications for policy design are discussed.
Correspondence: M. E. Khan, Operations Research Group, Baroda 390 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40641 Khomra, A. U. Demographic interrelations with education. [Demograficheskie vzaimosvyazi obrazovaniya.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 13, 1989. 53-68 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes trends in the birth rate, death rate, and migration in the USSR by educational level. The effects of education on actual and desired fertility and various residence characteristics are considered. Changes in the educational level of the population as a result of migration are also assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40642 Knodel, John; Havanon, Napaporn; Sittitrai, Werasit. Family size and the education of children in the context of rapid fertility decline. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, Mar 1990. 31-62, 207, 209 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Results of a survey of semi-matched samples in two rural sites in Thailand indicate that family size has an important impact on children's education. The number of children in a family and the likelihood that a child will study beyond the compulsory level are inversely associated, even when other important determinants of children's schooling are controlled. Survey results and qualitative data collected through focus groups also reveal that in Thailand the primary responsibility for funding children's education falls directly on parents....Given the inverse association between family size and children's education, the fertility decline that is under way is likely to contribute to rising levels of education by changing the distribution of children with respect to family size."
Correspondence: J. Knodel, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40643 Kono, Shigemi. Well-being among children and the aged in the aging society. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 13, May 1990. 5-13 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The age structure of Japan and the well-being of the aged as compared to that of children are discussed in light of Samuel Preston's thesis that the increase in the number of elderly people contributes to their well-being. The author evaluates "three-year comparisons of Japanese expenditure data by age on the basis of special tabulations of the Social Survey for Health and Welfare Administration....An attempt has been made to retabulate and analyze the latest available income data from...the Statistics Bureau. The results of both surveys seem to generally support the relevance [of] Preston's [argument]."
For the articles by Preston, published in 1984, see 50:40677 and 40678.
Correspondence: S. Kono, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

56:40644 Mahadevan, K. Women and population dynamics: perspectives from Asian countries. ISBN 0-8039-9615-2. LC 89-34757. 1989. 382 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This volume deals with the...interface between population dynamics and the various aspects of the lives of Asian women. The book is divided into three sections. The papers in the first part discuss the status of women in eight Asian nations--China, Thailand, Taiwan, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran and Kuwait....The second section deals with India. The first paper in this section provides an overview of the status of women in India while the remaining seven discuss a particular region of the country in detail. The last section presents a conceptual model and an analytical framework to enable a better understanding of the problem as also to assist future research in this area. The papers in this book commence with a historical account of the status of women in a particular country or region and an examination of issues such as their educational and economic status, legal rights, political participation and avenues for employment. The authors then examine a number of important population parameters based on available data such as fertility, family planning, sex-ratio, mortality, infanticide and abortion."
Correspondence: Sage Publications, M-32 Greater Kailash Market I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40645 Meusburger, Peter. The effects of the decline in fertility: forecasts and models of the development of the Austrian school population up to 2011. [Die Effekte des Geburtenruckgangs: Prognosen und Modellrechnungen zur Entwicklung des osterreichischen Volksschulwesens bis 2011.] In: Osterreich zu Beginn des 3. Jahrtausends, edited by Elisabeth Lichtenberger. Beitrage zur Stadt- und Regionalforschung, Vol. 9, 1989. 101-18 pp. Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut fur Stadt- und Regionalforschung: Vienna, Austria. In Ger.
This paper deals with the impact of the projected population decline on the primary school system in Austria up to the year 2011. Special regard is given to the expected renaissance of small schools (one-teacher schools) and to changes in the size of schools and classes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40646 Muller, Harald K. Demography, social structure, and change. Two examples from West and East Africa (the Ayizo and the Turkana). [Demographie, Sozialstruktur und Wandel. Zwei Beispiele aus West- und Ostafrika (Ayizo und Turkana).] In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. 1988. 192-205 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The aim of this paper is to illustrate how changes in social structure can affect demographic trends in developing countries. Two ethnic groups are used as examples: the Ayizo of Benin and the Turkana of Kenya.
Correspondence: H. K. Muller, Freie Universitat Berlin, Institut fur Ethnologie, Altensteinstrasse 40, 1000 Berlin 33 (Dahlem), Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40647 Salamanca, Fernando; Gonzalez, Juan C. Social programs as fields of action for the implementation of population projects. [Programas sociales como espacios de accion para la puesta en marcha de proyectos poblacionales.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 18, No. 49, Apr 1990. 89-103 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"These introductory and preliminary notes aim to discuss the possibility of inserting population projects in social institutional programmes as a way of generating population policies in an inductive form. The suggested areas of action for the integration of population projects are programmes of health, education, housing, employment and justice. The activities [of nongovernmental] organizations are also considered as a creative institutional framework for the development of this kind of project. Finally, the relations between this activity and the training and education in population and development are established." The geographical focus is on Latin America.
Correspondence: F. Salamanca, Universidad Diego Portales, Avenida Ejercito 260, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40648 Uitto, Juha I. The Kenyan conundrum: a regional analysis of population growth and primary education in Kenya. Meddelanden fran Lunds Universitets Geografiska Institutioner, No. 107, ISBN 91-7966-069-X. 1989. 202 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden. In Eng.
"In the present study, the focus is on the development of primary education in Kenya, the country in Africa which has the highest population growth rate. Education, especially female education, seems to be the most important single determinant of fertility. However, provision of universal education is hampered by the on-going demographic processes resulting in a rapid increase of the school-age population. The specific questions analyzed in the study include the relationship of education and fertility in Kenya, as well as the effects of population growth and structure on the expansion of primary education, and the spatial implications of the economic and demographic processes on the access to education."
Correspondence: Lund University Press, Box 141, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40649 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Population and human rights: proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on Population and Human Rights, Geneva, 3-6 April 1989. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/107, 1990. x, 230 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a report from a meeting held to discuss new and emerging human rights issues related to fertility, mortality, and other demographic matters. It contains a report of the proceedings, the recommendations adopted, and the papers presented. Topics considered include human rights issues concerning contraception and family planning, abortion, incentives and disincentives affecting fertility, new biotechnologies, health care and human rights (including AIDS), euthanasia, and aging and intergenerational equity.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

56:40650 Romann, Michael. Territory and demography: the case of the Jewish-Arab national struggle. Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul 1990. 371-82 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between territorial control and demographic trends in the history of the Jewish-Arab struggle for control in Palestine from the late nineteenth century to the present day is reviewed. The author concludes that the essential issue concerns the collective political rights of Jews and Arabs. "In fact, the demographic issue is not so much related to population numbers and ratios as to the collective political rights of the minority compared to those of the majority. Likewise, the territorial issue mainly concerns collective rights to the contested land, still mutually denied, and thus remaining at the core of the Jewish-Arab national conflict."
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

56:40651 Thomas, Robert N.; Hoy, Don R. A demographic perspective to El Salvador's internal struggle. Proceedings of the Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers, Vol. 10, No. 14, 1988. 38-42 pp. Muncie, Indiana. In Eng.
Aspects of the demographic history of El Salvador are examined in order to explain the events leading to the current internal conflict. "El Salvador's rapid rate of population growth and high level of population density, exacerbated by a land tenure system that favored the wealthy, have helped to create extreme levels of poverty for much of the nation's population. Faced with few alternatives, considerable numbers of El Salvador's rural population migrated to adjacent countries, particularly Honduras with its large, sparsely populated areas. When the 1969 'Soccer War' forced large numbers of Salvadoreans from Honduras, El Salvador's economic and demographic situation worsened and, furthermore, a 'no-man's land' was created between the two countries. This ineffectively controlled Honduran area became a guerrilla sanctuary for the anti-government forces operating in El Salvador."
Correspondence: R. N. Thomas, Michigan State University, Department of Geography, East Lansing, MI 48824. Location: State University of New York, Buffalo, NY.

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

56:40652 Anderson, R. M.; Blythe, S. P.; Gupta, S.; Konings, E. The transmission dynamics of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the male homosexual community in the United Kingdom: the influence of changes in sexual behaviour. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: B. Biological Sciences, Vol. 325, No. 1226, Sep 5, 1989. 7-60 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the transmission dynamics of human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the male homosexual population in the U.K. via numerical studies employing a mathematical model representing the principal epidemiological process....Most of the paper addresses the influence of changes in sexual behaviour on the magnitude and duration of the epidemic....On the basis of limited data on the pattern of change in sexual behaviour among the male homosexual community in the U.K., numerical studies of model behaviour tentatively suggest that the epidemic is at, or near to, a period of peak incidence of the disease AIDS. Analyses suggest that, following the peak in incidence, there will be a period of slow decline over many decades provided recent changes in behaviour are maintained in the coming years."
Correspondence: R. M. Anderson, Imperial College of Science and Technology, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, London SW7 2BB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:40653 Basu, Alaka M. Cultural influences on health care use: two regional groups in India. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1990. 275-86 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report presents the results of a study in India of two distinct regional groups of similar socioeconomic status, residing in the same locality and, therefore, theoretically exposed to the same health services. Both groups share a strong faith in modern medicine (especially if it is obtained from a private practitioner) for the treatment of most common illnesses. However, important cultural differentials exist in the medical services sought for childbirth and in the treatment of morbidity in children of different ages and sexes. These cultural commonalities and differentials are described, their possible causes--primary among these being the status of women--explored, and some policy recommendations made."
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, University Enclave, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40654 Bejnarowicz, Janusz. Main changes and differentiations in the health status of Poland's population with allowances for international mortality comparisons. [Glowne zmiany i zroznicowania stanu zdrowia ludnosci Polski z uwzglednieniem miedzynarodowych porownan umieralnosci.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 34, No. 10, Oct 1989. 11-6 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The health status of the population of Poland is analyzed for the postwar period, with emphasis on the 1980s. Trends in mortality, and particularly in excess male mortality, are described and compared with other European countries.
Correspondence: J. Bejnarowicz, Instytut Kardiologii, ul. Aplejska 42, 04-628 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40655 Briscoe, John. Brazil: the new challenge of adult health. A World Bank Country Study, ISBN 0-8213-1636-2. LC 90-43527. 1990. vii, 113 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study focuses on the problems which the Brazilian health system will face in coming decades as the population gets older, and as chronic and degenerative diseases and AIDS increase. The focus in this report is on the causes of mortality which become dominant in the latter stages of the epidemiologic and demographic transition." These include cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and injuries from violence. The author describes various responses to these new health care challenges, emphasizing the particular problems associated with reaching the poor. He argues that new methods of financing health services will be necessary in an era of financial restraint.
Correspondence: World Bank Publications, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433.

56:40656 Cox, David R.; Anderson, R. M.; Hillier, Hilary C. Epidemiological and statistical aspects of the AIDS epidemic. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: B. Biological Sciences, Vol. 325, No. 1226, Sep 5, 1989. [150] pp. Royal Society: London, England. In Eng.
This special issue is concerned with epidemiological and statistical aspects of the AIDS epidemic, with the geographical focus on the United Kingdom. It includes background papers prepared for a government working party on AIDS set up in 1988.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Royal Society of London, 6 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1 5AG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:40657 Floud, Roderick; Wachter, Kenneth; Gregory, Annabel. Height, health and history: nutritional status in the United Kingdom, 1750-1980. Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time, No. 9, ISBN 0-521-30314-1. 1990. xxi, 354 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This study "uses a wealth of military and philanthropic data to establish the changing heights of Britons during the period of industrialisation, and thus establishes an important new dimension to the long-standing controversy about living standards during the Industrial Revolution." The study provides information on the changing nutritional status of the population over time, and thus on changes in mortality and morbidity. The results indicate that there has been an increase in average nutritional status since 1750 but that this increase has not been smooth or uninterrupted. At the same time, there has been a reduction in inequalities between social and geographic groups. The authors also find that "both the existence and the timing of growth in height after the 1870s strongly suggest that improved nutritional status was soon reflected, except for infants, in declining mortality."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40658 John, A. Meredith. Endemic disease in host populations with fully specified demography. Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 37, No. 3, Jun 1990. 455-71 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study explores the epidemiology of an aerogenically transmitted infectious disease following an S.I.R. pattern [susceptible, infected, and removed individuals] in a host population with completely specified age-specified maternity and mortality schedules. A fully age-structured demographic-epidemiologic model is developed, and its demographic and epidemiologic behaviour is explored in numerical studies. The impact of variations in host population demographic structure upon the effect of immunization programs is also studied." The application of the model to data for developed and developing countries is discussed.
Correspondence: A. M. John, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40659 Kanitkar, Tara; Sinha, R. K. Antenatal care services in five states of India. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 201-11 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors examine the extent of use of prenatal care services during pregnancies leading to live births in five states of India. Differentials according to urban and rural population, level of literacy, and household standard of living are discussed. Results reveal a lack of information, education, and communication services concerning maternal health care services.
Correspondence: T. Kanitkar, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40660 Kaseje, Dan. Malaria: prevention, treatment, and its effect on mortality; the case of Kenya. [Le paludisme: prevention, traitement et influence sur la mortalite; le cas du Kenya.] In: Mortalite et societe en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Gilles Pison, Etienne van de Walle, and Mpembele Sala-Diakanda. 1989. 195-217 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
An attempt is made to define the different types of malaria infestation and the appropriate strategies for malaria control in different situations. The results of a study carried out in Saradidi, Kenya, to assess the relative merits of different approaches are analyzed. The results emphasize the importance of differences in socioeconomic conditions, as well as biological or climatic factors, in the effective control of malaria.
Correspondence: D. Kaseje, Aga Khan Health Service, Kisumu, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40661 Kintner, Hallie J. Demographic change in a corporate health benefits population, 1983-87. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 79, No. 12, Dec 1989. 1,655-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper describes changes in the population for which General Motors provides health benefits using data from domestic personnel records. Total population size grew from 2.01 million in 1983 to 2.14 million in 1987, twice as fast as the U.S. population. Dependents, particularly spouses, fueled the population growth. Trends suggest that nonworker eligibility for employer-provided health benefits may receive more attention in health care cost containment efforts."
Correspondence: H. J. Kintner, General Motors Research Laboratories, 30500 Mound Road, Warren, MI 48090-9055. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40662 Kjellstrom, Tord; Rosenstock, Linda. The role of environmental and occupational hazards in the adult health transition. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1990. 188-96 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors examine the role of environmental and occupational hazards on the health transition, defined as the shift toward improved levels of health and well-being, "with a greater proportion of diseases being noncommunicable (non-infectious chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease), even though the actual mortality rates from these diseases are concomitantly declining." The hazards considered include "urban air pollution, tobacco smoking, pesticides, occupational hazards in new industries and traffic accidents."
Correspondence: T. Kjellstrom, World Health Organization, Division of Environmental Health, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40663 Mariotto, A. Rate of growth of AIDS epidemic in Europe: a comparative analysis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: B. Biological Sciences, Vol. 325, No. 1226, Sep 5, 1989. 137-40 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Estimates of the rate of increase of the AIDS epidemic for each of 18 European countries are obtained by fitting a Poisson process with exponential rate of growth to data. A linear regression model of these estimates on the proportion of cases that are intravenous drug users, homosexuals/bisexuals and heterosexuals, was estimated and suggested that the rates of growth of the epidemics amongst these groups are different and in increasing order. Empirical Bayes estimates of the rates are obtained for each country."
Correspondence: A. Mariotto, IAC-CNR, Viale del Policlinico, 137 Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:40664 Moreno, Lorenzo; Goldman, Noreen. An assessment of survey data on birthweight. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1990. 491-500 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this analysis is to evaluate information on birthweight collected in a national sample survey in another population--one in which a substantial fraction of children are delivered outside the formal health system. The ultimate goal is to determine the feasibility of collecting accurate birthweight information from mothers for their recent births based on a retrospective fertility history design. Questions on birthweight were incorporated into the 'experimental questionnaire' of the 1986 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) in Peru....[Findings] demonstrated that the large proportion of missing responses on numerical weights can lead to substantial underestimates of the incidence of low birthweight, misleading findings on the significant correlates of low birth weight, and a possible overestimate of the excess mortality risk associated with low birthweight babies."
Correspondence: L. Moreno, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40665 Ott, Jurg. Genetic interpretation of disease clustering. In: Convergent issues in genetics and demography, edited by Julian Adams, David A. Lam, Albert I. Hermalin, and Peter E. Smouse. 1990. 245-55 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author discusses several models useful for genetic interpretation of disease clustering. Polygenic, single-gene, and oligogenic models are described, and different methods of evaluating goodness of fit are considered.
Correspondence: J. Ott, Columbia University, Department of Psychiatry, 722 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40666 Palloni, Alberto; Lamas, Luis. A duration dependent model of the spread of the HIV/AIDS in Africa. CDE Working Paper, No. 90-15, [1990]. 24, [6] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In this paper we describe a simple model for the spread of HIV and AIDS in a predominantly heterosexual society. The model is a generalization of a cohort population projection with multiple states and multiple flows....[and] considers duration of infection as well as age dependencies....In addition to their epidemiological significance, duration dependencies are important for the calculus of the social and economic toll of the epidemic. Thus, for example, they are useful for the assessment of the added demand for health services, the effects on lifetime losses of manpower and productivity, and the impact on family structure."
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40667 Schull, William J. Some lessons from genetic epidemiology and a prognosis for future work. In: Convergent issues in genetics and demography, edited by Julian Adams, David A. Lam, Albert I. Hermalin, and Peter E. Smouse. 1990. 219-30 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Genetic epidemiology is explored as it relates to demography and population genetics. The epidemiology of chronic disease as it affects genetic variation through such factors as population migration, marriage patterns, and environmental forces is discussed.
Correspondence: W. J. Schull, University of Texas, Health Science Center, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Center for Demographic and Population Genetics, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX 77225. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40668 Shah, Iqbal H.; Khanna, Jitendra. Breast-feeding, infant health and child survival in the Asia-Pacific context. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1990. 25-44 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article considers the role of breast-feeding in infant health and child survival, with a special reference to the available information from countries in the Asian and Pacific region. A simplified framework is proposed for the systematic investigation of the direct influence of breast-feeding on infant and child health through its protective effects against infections, especially of the gastro-intestinal tract, and the indirect influences on infant mortality through lactational amenorrhoea (birth-spacing)."
Correspondence: I. H. Shah, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40669 Singh, Neeru; Sharma, V. P.; Saxena, B. N. A study of socio-economic environmental and technical constraints to malaria control in a tribal area of Madhya Pradesh. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 257-65 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The present study is an attempt to point out the complex interaction between socio-economic status, disease transmission, human response to disease and disease control activities." The focus is on the tribal populations in Madhya Pradesh, India. Consideration is given to three types of "obstacles in the malaria programme in a tribal area [including] socio-economic and cultural characteristics of the population, geographical considerations, and availability of health services."
Correspondence: N. Singh, Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Jabalpur 482 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40670 Strzelecki, Zbigniew; Groblewska, Celina. The quality of the working environment and demographic processes. [Jakosc srodowiska pracy a procesy demograficzne.] 1989. 257 pp. Polskie Towarzystwo Demograficzne: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
These are the proceedings of a conference on the work-related factors that affect demographic processes in Poland, held in Lodz, April 21-23, 1989. Topics discussed include differences in morbidity by occupation and region; the effect of harmful working environments on mortality, particularly male mortality; the effect of working conditions on the declining health status of the population and the growing number of work-related injuries and occupational diseases; and the impact of women's economic activity on fetal and infant mortality, women's health, fecundity, and family life.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40671 van de Walle, Etienne. The social impact of AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 68, Suppl. 1, 1990. 10-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author investigates the social impact of AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. "The potential expansion of the HIV epidemic and its cultural impact in sub-Sarahan Africa are vast. Projections under conservative assumptions suggest that the toll of AIDS will reach five million annual deaths by 2010, although the net African population will continue to increase significantly. Cultural practices, including large differences in age between men and women at marriage and a long period of postpartum abstinence, have contributed to the frequency of extramarital relations and eased the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. In response to the spread of AIDS, social adaptations will include profound changes in sexual behavior, marriage customs, and childbearing."
Correspondence: E. van de Walle, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, Sociology Department, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40672 Wilkie, A. D. Population projections for AIDS using an actuarial model. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: B. Biological Sciences, Vol. 325, No. 1226, Sep 5, 1989. 61-74 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper gives details of a model for forecasting AIDS, developed for actuarial purposes, but used also for population projections. The model is only appropriate for homosexual transmission, but it is age-specific, and it allows variation in the transition intensities by age, duration in certain states and calendar year. The differential equations controlling transitions between states are defined, the method of numerical solution is outlined, and the parameters used in five different bases of projection are given in detail. Numerical results for the population of England and Wales are shown."
Correspondence: A. D. Wilkie, R. Watson and Sons, Watson House, London Road, Reigate RH2 9PQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:40673 Zatonski, W.; Becker, N. Atlas of cancer mortality in Poland 1975-1979. ISBN 3-540-17722-1. 1988. 202 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"The atlas sums up the epidemiological situation of cancer in Poland over a period spanning from 1963-1982. In 82 colored maps the geographical distribution of about 20 main cancer sites is presented, based on 49 voivodships, the basic administrative units of Poland."
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Germany. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

56:40674 Adams, Julian; Lam, David A.; Hermalin, Albert I.; Smouse, Peter E. Convergent issues in genetics and demography. ISBN 0-19-506287-6. LC 89-72196. 1990. xii, 361 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of articles by different authors on interdisciplinary studies of population genetics and demography. Chapters are grouped under four headings: genetics, demography, and historical information; heterogeneity, phenotypic variation, and frailty; genetics, demography, and epidemiology; and persistent issues in genetics and demography. The geographical focus is worldwide.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40675 Adams, Julian. Introduction: genetics and demography and historical information. In: Convergent issues in genetics and demography, edited by Julian Adams, David A. Lam, Albert I. Hermalin, and Peter E. Smouse. 1990. 3-13 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is the introductory chapter to a book concerning the relationship between the disciplines of demography and population genetics. The author provides an overview of population history and genealogies; migration as a demographic and genetic force; mate choice and inbreeding; and differing perspectives of genetics and demography.
Correspondence: J. Adams, University of Michigan, Department of Biology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1048. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40676 Bean, Lee L. The Utah Population Database: demographic and genetic convergence and divergence. In: Convergent issues in genetics and demography, edited by Julian Adams, David A. Lam, Albert I. Hermalin, and Peter E. Smouse. 1990. 231-44 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The linkage of genetic and demographic studies established by the creation of the Utah Population Database is discussed. The database project relates genealogy records and cancer morbidity to facilitate the study of demographic variables in genetic epidemiology.
Correspondence: L. L. Bean, University of Utah, Middle East Center, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40677 Castilla, Eduardo E.; Adams, Julian. Migration and genetic structure in an isolated population in Argentina: Aicuna. In: Convergent issues in genetics and demography, edited by Julian Adams, David A. Lam, Albert I. Hermalin, and Peter E. Smouse. 1990. 45-62 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we present data concerning the history and the reproductive structure of [the rural village of Aicuna, Argentina] that are relevant to both disciplines of genetics and demography. Changes in the mean inbreeding coefficient of the population during its history, the present breeding structure, the distribution of surnames, and the migration patterns of the historical population were analyzed in order to examine those processes of population change common to demography and genetics." Data are from pedigrees extending 16 generations, from the seventeenth century to the present day.
Correspondence: E. E. Castilla, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Departamento de Genetica, Caixa Postal 926, Avenida Brasil, Rio de Janeiro 20.000, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40678 Christiansen, Freddy B. Genetic comparisons of life stages in natural populations of Zoarces viviparus. In: Convergent issues in genetics and demography, edited by Julian Adams, David A. Lam, Albert I. Hermalin, and Peter E. Smouse. 1990. 287-305 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Natural selection is examined in Zoarces viviparus, a fish living in the waters along the coasts of northern Europe. Implications for human populations concerning differences in survival, fertility, and genetic variation as they are affected by the environment of the species are discussed.
Correspondence: F. B. Christiansen, University of Aarhus, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000, Aarhus C., Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40679 Ewens, W. J. The minimum viable population size as a genetic and a demographic concept. In: Convergent issues in genetics and demography, edited by Julian Adams, David A. Lam, Albert I. Hermalin, and Peter E. Smouse. 1990. 307-16 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author describes a mathematical model that determines the effective population size required to maintain genetic variation. The effects of both demographic and genetic factors on minimum viable population size are discussed.
Correspondence: W. J. Ewens, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40680 Roy, Raymond; Declos, Manon; Bouchard, Gerard; Mathieu, Jean. The reproduction of families affected by Steinert's dystrophy in Saguenay (Quebec), 1885-1971: demographic parameters. [La reproduction des familles touchees par la dystrophie de Steinert au Saguenay (Quebec), 1885-1971: parametres demographiques.] Genus, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1989. 65-82 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita.
"In the light of the literature in the field, one would expect that the myotonic dystrophy (or Steinert) gene carries a severe selective disadvantage. Indeed, this phenotype is commonly said to entail...sterility, infant mortality, and a lower nuptiality. In the worst cases, it is not unlikely that the gene could eliminate itself through non-reproduction. [A model is developed and] tested in the Saguenay (Quebec) population, known for its exceptionally high prevelance (1/475) of the disease. Authors have been able to use a computerized demographic and genealogical data base in order to study several demographic variables (fertility, nuptiality, mortality, etc)....Case-control analyses produced very [few] differences between affected and control families, suggesting no significant selective disadvantage associated with the gene."
Correspondence: R. Roy, Universite du Quebec, SOREP, 555 Boulevard de l'Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40681 Thompson, Elizabeth. From history to genes: from genes to history. In: Convergent issues in genetics and demography, edited by Julian Adams, David A. Lam, Albert I. Hermalin, and Peter E. Smouse. 1990. 27-43 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The theme of this chapter is centered on the importance of demographic information in providing, together with models for population genetic processes, explanations of genetic data....The interesting genetic questions arising in the complex genealogies of small genetic isolates fall into two broad classes, exemplified here by two studies. The first is that of inferences of allelic origins, as illustrated by analysis of the Tristan da Cunha study. The second relates to a range of questions in the analysis of the genetic epidemiology of a trait, such as arise in analysis of the West Coast Newfoundland study." Also considered are populations in Iceland, the Faeroe Islands, and South and Central America.
Correspondence: E. Thompson, University of Washington, Department of Statistics, GN-22, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40682 Vaupel, James W. Kindred lifetimes: frailty models in population genetics. In: Convergent issues in genetics and demography, edited by Julian Adams, David A. Lam, Albert I. Hermalin, and Peter E. Smouse. 1990. 155-70 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"How in a heterogeneous population do individual life-history traits that are theoretically important but largely unobservable, affect observed population dynamics? How can inferences be drawn about the underlying traits from the population patterns?...This pair of questions is of convergent interest to both geneticists and demographers; this chapter presents a new method for addressing some aspects of it....The chapter focuses [on] the analysis of lifetimes...[and uses examples pertaining] to human twins [from Denmark] and to adopted children and their biological and adoptive parents, but applications to other sets of relatives and to other species can be developed. To facilitate extensions to various life-history traits, kin groupings, and species, mathematical results are presented in quite general terms....Results presented are those of direct interest to geneticists and demographers who are analyzing survival or duration data."
Correspondence: J. W. Vaupel, Humphrey Institute, Center for Population Analysis and Policy, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40683 Weiss, Kenneth M. Biology, homology, and epidemiology. In: Convergent issues in genetics and demography, edited by Julian Adams, David A. Lam, Albert I. Hermalin, and Peter E. Smouse. 1990. 189-206 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose ot this chapter has been primarily to describe the highly regular pattern found across a diverse range of human cancer hazard functions, to show how biological factors can operate strongly to constrain the expression of human disease, that is, to provide a clearly convergent issue in genetics and demography. In addition, I have speculated about possible mechanisms underlying those constraints in light of what is known about the biology of cancer....The views expressed in this paper are an attempt to show that opportunities exist to make the concept of heterogeneity in the hazard function epidemiologically useful and biologically meaningful."
Correspondence: K. M. Weiss, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology, 409 Carpenter Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40684 Wood, James W.; Weinstein, Maxine. Heterogeneity in fecundability: the effect of fetal loss. In: Convergent issues in genetics and demography, edited by Julian Adams, David A. Lam, Albert I. Hermalin, and Peter E. Smouse. 1990. 171-88 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we adopt a population geneticist's viewpoint while considering a demographic problem: how heterogeneity in the risk of fetal loss--that is, the spontaneous death in utero of either embryos or fetuses...affects the distribution of birth interval components....We explore the effects of variation in fetal loss on couple-to-couple heterogeneity in effective fecundability and on the waiting time to next fertile conception....As our analyses clearly indicate, the impact of fetal loss is considerably greater if heterogeneity in the risk of loss increases with age." Data are from various studies covering geographical locations throughout the world.
Correspondence: J. W. Wood, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology, 409 Carpenter Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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