Volume 56 - Number 4 - Winter 1990

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

56:40351 Adams, Owen. Divorces in Canada, 1988. [Les divorces au Canada, 1988.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jul 1990. 57-66 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Divorce data based on 1988 Statistics Canada findings are presented and compared with divorce rates for previous years. Differentials among provinces, marriage duration, reasons for divorce, and child custody are also discussed.
Correspondence: O. Adams, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40352 Ahmed, Ashraf U. Socio-economic determinants of age differences between spouses in Bangladesh. Genus, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1989. 83-95 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This study examines socio-economic differentials in age differences between spouses in Bangladesh. The variables considered for the analysis are bride's current and childhood residences, education, work status before and after marriage; and groom's childhood residence, education and occupation. Among these variables, childhood residence, education and occupation evince the strongest differentials."
Correspondence: A. U. Ahmed, University of Dhaka, Institute of Statistical Research and Training, Ramna, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40353 Balakrishnan, T. R.; Burch, T. K.; Chen, Jiajian; Rajulton, Fernando. Union formation and dissolution in Canada: a multistate/multivariate analysis of cohort experience. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 90-5, May 1990. 23, [12] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
The authors analyze trends in union formation and dissolution in Canada over the past two decades, with a focus on remarriage. "This paper...examines how the remarriage behaviour differs between men and women, has changed over time (or cohorts), and what alternatives have come into existence to reshape the typical sequence of events preceding remarriage. Because we stress the importance of past marital history we briefly investigate the events before remarriage, namely first entry into union and dissolution. After an examination of sex, cohort and regional differences, we focus on some of the covariates of remarriage using a hazards model....The data for this paper come from the [Canadian] Family History Survey...conducted in February 1984."
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 393).
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada.

56:40354 Bozon, Michel. Women and the age difference between spouses: domination by consent. Part 1. Type of union and preferences concerning the age difference. [Les femmes et l'ecart d'age entre conjoints: une domination consentie. I. Types d'union et attentes en matiere d'ecart d'age.] Population, Vol. 45, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 327-60 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Age differences between spouses in France are analyzed using data from two surveys carried out by INED, one in 1984 on the formation of couples and one in 1985 on family situations. In this, the first of a two-part article, the author analyzes the social factors affecting age differences of spouses at marriage. "In this first article, it is shown that the wider variety of ways of entering into a union from mid-1970's onwards corresponds clearly to a wider range of age differences, which are smaller in the case of unions of single cohabitants, and larger in the case of first marriages without prior cohabitation. The age difference is definitely much higher for women who enter a union when they are younger. Young women, and especially the least educated among them, who are in the most precarious occupations, are those who manifest the strongest attachment to the male's domination by age, while young men seem largely indifferent to the age of their partner."
Correspondence: M. Bozon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40355 Cain, Glen G.; Wissoker, Douglas A. A reanalysis of marital stability in the Seattle-Denver Income-Maintenance Experiment. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 95, No. 5, Mar 1990. 1,235-314 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper challenges the widely cited finding of Groeneveld, Hannan, and Tuma that the Seattle-Denver Income-Maintenance Experiment provides evidence that guaranteed income plans for poor husband-wife families will increase marital dissolutions relative to the existing [U.S.] program, Aid to Families with Dependent Children. The reanalysis of the experimental data distinguishes between the experimental...and the treatment plans....The conclusion of this paper is that the plans (specifically, the negative income tax plans in the experiment) had no effect on the rate of marital dissolutions among the 'treatment' couples relative to the control couples." A reply by Michael T. Hannan and Nancy B. Tuma is included (pp. 1,270-89), as well as a response by Cain and Wissoker (pp. 1,299-314).
Correspondence: G. G. Cain, University of Wisconsin, Department of Economics, Social Science Building, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40356 Cazes, M. H. Endogamy among the Dogon of Boni, Mali. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan 1990. 85-99 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines factors influencing endogamy in a Dogon population in Mali....This population of about 5,000 individuals is distributed over fifteen villages located on four independent massifs....[It] is strongly endogamous (only 4% of all marriages are contracted with neighbouring ethnic groups), and each massif shows high endogamy. The roles of lineage, residence in the same village, and geographical distance in mating choice are examined."
Correspondence: M. H. Cazes, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40357 Cottrell, Ann B. Cross-national marriages: a review of the literature. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2, Summer 1990. 151-69 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng.
The author reviews the literature on cross-national marriage patterns. "The first section suggests the beginnings of a typology of international marriages, the second part of the paper evaluates the current state of research on cross-national marriage identifying important research needs, and the third part suggests a few generalizations which can be made on the basis of this research." This paper is part of a special issue on intermarriage.
Correspondence: A. B. Cottrell, San Diego State University, Department of Sociology, San Diego, CA 92182. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40358 Das, Nitai C. A note on the estimation of marriage rate from census data. Genus, Vol. 45, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1989. 143-51 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The level and trend in nuptiality for the developing countries can not be studied because necessary data are not available. A broad idea of the trend is obtained by examining the never-married proportion for different age cohorts at different censuses. In this paper, a methodology for estimating age-specific marriage rates from census data is presented."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40359 Haskey, John. Children in families broken by divorce. Population Trends, No. 61, Autumn 1990. 34-42 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"There were 148 thousand children aged under 16 affected by divorce in their family in England and Wales during 1989--about one in every 70 children that year. This article examines trends since 1970 in the numbers of children of divorcing couples and their family sizes. One in four of all children who were affected by divorce in 1988-89 came from a one-child family and one in two came from a two-child family. The most common ages of children were from 3 to 8. Amongst marriages which had lasted under five years before ending in divorce in 1988-89, six in every ten children came from families containing two or more children. In addition, a life table method is used to estimate that almost one in four children would experience divorce in their family before reaching age 16, were divorce rates to persist unchanged at their composite 1988-89 levels."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40360 Hwang, Sean-Shong; Saenz, Rogelio. The problem posed by immigrants married abroad on intermarriage research: the case of Asian Americans. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, Fall 1990. 563-76 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Cross-sectional and longitudinal variations in rates of intergroup marriage [in the United States] have often been used as indicators of assimilation for minority groups. This article demonstrates that both types of comparisons can give misleading results when census data are used for calculating intermarriage rates without restrictions. Census data include immigrants who married abroad (IMAs) in the enumeration. The inclusion of these individuals in the study of intermarriage inevitably biases the level of minority inmarriage upward, making cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of intermarriage rates for groups with different levels of IMAs inappropriate. Cumulation of IMAs also inflates the inmarriage rates of older cohorts, leading to a misimpression of increasing outmarriage among younger cohorts. These problems are illustrated for several Asian groups using 1980 Public Use Microdata Sample data for California. Alternative approaches for remedying the problem are proposed and their different implications for assimilation theory and research are discussed."
Correspondence: S.-S. Hwang, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40361 Khlat, Myriam. Consanguineous marriages in Beirut: marriage traditions and public health. [Les mariages consanguins a Beyrouth: traditions matrimoniales et sante publique.] Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 125, ISBN 2-7332-0125-5. 1989. viii, 121, 22 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author analyzes consanguineous marriage in Beirut, Lebanon, in the context of the widespread preference among Arab societies for marriages between first cousins. The data concern students and patients at the American University Hospital in Beirut. The study examines the characteristics of such marriages, the social characteristics of the marriage partners, the anthropological context, and the genetic implications for offspring, including the impact on fertility and infant mortality.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de France, 108 boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40362 Leslie, Paul W. Demographic behavior, mating patterns, and the distribution of inbreeding. In: Convergent issues in genetics and demography, edited by Julian Adams, David A. Lam, Albert I. Hermalin, and Peter E. Smouse. 1990. 63-79 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
In this chapter the author "examines a number of factors that may influence the frequency of consanguineous marriages, including population growth, migration, and the age correlation between spouses....An extension of Hajnal's model allows assessment of the impact of age correlation between spouses on the probabilities of various kinds of consanguineous matings....[The author] shows that the variance as well as the mean of the distribution of the age difference between mates will significantly affect inbreeding in a population." Examples from historical studies of various populations are included.
Correspondence: P. W. Leslie, State University of New York, Department of Anthropology, Binghamton, NY 13901. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40363 Locoh, Therese; Pilon, Marc; Assogba, L. N. Mensan. Marital unions in Togo: continuity and change. [Les unions au Togo: permanences et changements.] Etudes Togolaises de Population, No. 15, 1990. 105 pp. Universite du Benin, Unite de Recherche Demographique: Lome, Togo. In Fre.
This monograph consists of three separate papers on aspects of marriage patterns in Togo. The first, by Therese Locoh, examines new forms of marital unions occurring in Lome. The second, by Marc Pilon, analyzes nuptiality and the marital system of the Moba-Gurma of northern Togo. The third, by L. N. Mensan Assogba, looks at the relationships among changes in the status of women, changes in family structures, and the fertility transition in the Benin Gulf.
Correspondence: Universite du Benin, Unite de Recherche Demographique, B.P. 12971, Lome, Togo. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40364 Moffitt, Robert. The effect of the U.S. welfare system on marital status. Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 41, No. 1, Feb 1990. 101-24 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"An issue of long-standing importance in the U.S. welfare system has been its lack of neutrality with respect to family composition, which generally provides payments only to female-headed families--that is, families with no able-bodied male present. Using data from 1969 to 1985 to examine the issue, this study finds that (1) the simple cross-sectional correlations between marital status and welfare benefits are almost always in the expected direction but are generally weak in significance; (2) that the magnitude and significance of the correlations have nevertheless grown over time; and (3) that the correlations for men are no weaker and usually stronger, especially for blacks, than those for women."
Correspondence: R. Moffitt, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:40365 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Marriages and divorces: Casablanca wilaya, 1987. [Les mariages et les divorces: wilaya de Casablanca, 1987.] Mar 1990. 50 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This is the second report on trends in marriage and divorce in Morocco. Data concern marriages and divorces recorded in local tribunal records in Casablanca. Following a description of the data sources and their quality, the report analyzes selected marital characteristics, including age at marriage, previous marriages, and month of marriage, and selected divorce characteristics.
For a previous report concerning Rabat, published in 1989, see 56:10369.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40366 Ni Bhrolchain, Maire. Age difference asymmetry and a two-sex perspective. In: mod 16084. LS Working Paper, No. 70, Sep 1990. 34, [13] pp. City University, Social Statistics Research Unit: London, England. In Eng.
Trends in male and female age differences at marriage in England and Wales are examined using official data. "The paper shows that male and female spousal age differences can be and have been different from each other and that they can exhibit different trends. The discrepancy between them is due to remarriage and has been growing in England and Wales in the last three decades. At female first marriage the gap is larger than at male first marriage. On remarriage, the female age difference is smaller than the male. The period 1901-5 to 1987 saw substantial fluctuations, relative to the average level, in both male and female age differences. The separate male and female gaps reach more extreme values than other summary indices. There is suggestive evidence that change in the age difference is associated with the relative numbers of men and women at the prime marriage ages. The data indicate that an unqualified interpretation of the trend in the age difference as reflecting changes in the relative status of the sexes is not justified."
Correspondence: City University, Social Statistics Research Unit, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40367 Pagnini, Deanna L.; Morgan, S. Philip. Intermarriage and social distance among U.S. immigrants at the turn of the century. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 96, No. 2, Sep 1990. 405-32 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The pattern of assortative mating among European immigrants [to the United States] and native whites is examined by ethnicity and generation using a national sample drawn from the 1910 census manuscripts and a sample of marriages registered in New York City between 1908 and 1912. The pattern of assortative mating is virtually identical in the two data sets. Endogamy was strong for all groups examined, but was castelike for the 'new' ethnics from eastern and southern Europe. Marriages between 'old' and 'new' ethnics were especially rare. The pattern of ethnic intermarriage was nearly identical for men and women. Within ethnic groups there was also strong generational endogamy: immigrants tended to marry other immigrants and second-generation ethnics tended to marry others in the second generation."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 509).
Correspondence: S. P. Morgan, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk CR, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

56:40368 Pavalko, Eliza K.; Elder, Glen H. World War II and divorce: a life-course perspective. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 95, No. 5, Mar 1990. 1,213-34 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Using longitudinal data on a sample of American men, this article investigates the effect of the World War II period on divorce by estimating the effects of three aspects of war mobilization--entry into the armed forces, timing of this entry, and combat experience. The analysis shows that veterans were more likely to divorce than nonveterans but that marriages established during the war were no more likely to disolve than marriages begun at other times."
Correspondence: E. K. Pavalko, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square 3004, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40369 Shaikh, Kashem. Marriage and mortality: a life table analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan 1990. 53-61 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of age at marriage and differential mortality of males and females on the incidence of widowhood between the sexes. Abridged life tables constructed from marital status and death registration data of a rural area of Bangladesh for the period 1974-79 were used....The mortality differentials show that the probabilities of a male or a female surviving the other spouse would be approximately the same, were there no other influence. But the incidence of widows is about ten times that of widowers. Other relevant factors, under a given regime of mortality, are age at marriage and age difference between husband and wife."
Correspondence: K. Shaikh, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40370 Sinel'nikov, A. B. Marriage and birth rates in the USSR. [Brachnost' i rozhdaemost' v SSSR.] Voprosy Demografii, ISBN 5-02-013395-7. 1989. 102 pp. Nauka: Moscow, USSR; Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Institut Sotsiologii: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
In 1981 the USSR began implementing a demographic policy with the goal of stabilizing families. In the present volume, the author examines the policy's impact on marriage, divorce, and fertility. Sections are included on the impact of marriage trends and marital stability on the birth rate, and the lower birth rates that are a result of an increase in divorce.
Correspondence: Nauka, Profsoyuznaya u1. 90, B485 Moscow 117864, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40371 Singh, S. N. Age of female at effective marriage in rural areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 81-8 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
Trends in marriage age and educational levels of women in rural areas of India are examined according to caste and religion. The focus is on age of women at effective marriage rather than age at the marriage ceremony.
Correspondence: S. N. Singh, Banaras Hindu University, Centre of Population Studies, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40372 Suzuki, Tohru. Interregional marriage in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 46, No. 2, Jul 1990. 17-32 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Patterns in interregional marriage in Japan are examined by prefecture. Data are from the 1977, 1982, and 1987 National Fertility Surveys and are presented for distance between marriage site and birthplace, including the effects of arranged marriage and wife's labor force participation; prior living arrangements; and educational status of the couple.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40373 Teachman, Jay D.; Polonko, Karen A. Cohabitation and marital stability in the United States. Social Forces, Vol. 69, No. 1, Sep 1990. 207-20 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Recent evidence from Canada and Sweden indicates that cohabitation prior to marriage significantly increases the risk of subsequent marital dissolution. In this article we present results testing the hypothesis that cohabitation increases marital disruption in the United States. We find that premarital cohabitation increases the risk of subsequent marital instability. However, the effect of cohabitation can be attributed to the fact that cohabitants have spent more time in union than noncohabitants. Once total length of union is accounted for, there is no difference in marital disruption between cohabitants and noncohabitants. We argue that subsequent research comparing cohabitants and noncohabitants with respect to marital behaviors that are duration dependent should account for the total amount of time spent in union....We take our data from the fifth follow-up to the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) conducted in 1986."
Correspondence: J. D. Teachman, University of Maryland, Center on Population, Gender and Social Inequality, College Park, MD 20742-1315. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40374 Vanderhoeft, C. Nuptiality patterns of Maghrib women in Belgium. [Eerste-huwelijkspatronen bij Maghrebiaanse vrouwen in Belgie.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Aug 1990. 95-121 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"During the last decades important changes in marital behaviour have been observed in foreign minorities in Belgium. Nuptiality patterns for Maghrebian women (i.e. women with Algerian, Moroccan, Tunisian or Libyan nationality) living in Belgium are analysed to illustrate this fact. Attention is directed to the effect of Belgian schooling on paramaters of the distribution of age at first marriage....Current status data from the national census [1981] are used for the analysis."
Correspondence: C. Vanderhoeft, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Centrum voor Statistiek en Operationeel Onderzoek, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40375 Vemuri, Murali D. Female age at marriage in India: a cohort analysis based on 1971 and 1981 census data. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 73-9 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
Median age at marriage for women in India is analyzed based on reconstructed data from the 1971 and 1981 censuses.
Correspondence: M. D. Vemuri, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Centre for the Study of Regional Development, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40376 Villeneuve-Gokalp, Catherine. From marriage to cohabitation: a recent history of changes in sexual unions. [Du mariage aux unions sans papiers: histoire recente des transformations conjugales.] Population, Vol. 45, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 265-97 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Recent trends in marriage patterns in France are analyzed using data on 4,000 individuals from a 1985 INED survey of family situations. The focus is on the growing popularity of consensual unions and on differences in type of consensual union by social class. "The concepts of the couple and of marriage held by young people who are beginning to live together are also determined by their family background. This article analyzes the consequences of mothers' work, separation of parents, or the death of a parent, on the conjugal behavior of the children."
Correspondence: C. Villeneuve-Gokalp, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40377 Wadhera, Surinder N. Marriages, Canada and the provinces, 1988. [Mariages, Canada et les provinces, 1988.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jul 1990. 89-90 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Statistics concerning marriages and marriage rates for each Canadian province for 1981, 1987, and 1988 are presented.
Correspondence: S. N. Wadhera, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

56:40378 Aborampah, Osei-Mensah. Family structure in African fertility studies: some conceptual and methodological issues. A Current Bibliography on African Affairs, Vol. 18, No. 4, Sep 1985-1986. 319-35 pp. Farmingdale, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, an attempt is made to define the African family as it relates to reproduction. A review of the theoretical discussions and empirical studies indicates that none of the earlier conceptualizations of family structure is adequate enough for analyzing the relationship between family structure and fertility. It is suggested that three major dimensions, social structure, social-psychology and economics, underlie the African family structure and that their full understanding is essential to a meaningful analysis of the role of kinship networks in Africa's population growth. Indeed, the issues involved in the study of the fertility of African, especially rural, women may not be fully understood until the ramifications of the African family and kinship networks are fully understood and adequately conceptualized."
Correspondence: O.-M. Aborampah, University of Wisconsin, Department of Afro-American Studies, Milwaukee, WI 53201. Location: Princeton University Library (DR).

56:40379 Barrere-Maurisson, Marie-Agnes; Marchand, Olivier. Family characteristics and the labor market in developed countries: a clear distinction between north and south. [Structures familiales et marches du travail dans les pays developpes: une nette opposition entre le Nord et le Sud.] Economie et Statistique, No. 235, Sep 1990. 19-30, 56-7 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The relationship between family characteristics and the labor market is explored using data concerning 15 OECD countries. Several distinct geographical groupings are identified, including the Mediterranean countries, Scandinavia, North America, and Japan and West Germany. Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom occupy a middle ground and are less specifically defined. Furthermore, "the statistical map shows a strong relationship which manifests itself in two opposite ways. On the one hand, it shows the link between a traditional family structure and a weak integration of women in the working population (Spain, Ireland), and, on the other hand, it shows a close link between a divided family and the fact women have a paying job, often just part time (Sweden, Denmark)."
Correspondence: M.-A. Barrere-Maurisson, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Seminaire d'Economie du Travail, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40380 Berquo, Elza. The family in the twenty-first century: a demographic review. [A familia no seculo XXI: um enfoque demografico.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 6, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1989. 1-16 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The future of the family in Brazil is examined in the context of convergence theory concerning family transformation. In particular, the author considers whether industrialization and urbanization will affect the family in different societies in the same way. Factors considered include declining fertility, increased life expectancy, increased female labor force participation, sexual liberation, the fragility of conjugal relationships, and growing individualism.
Correspondence: E. Berquo, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Cidade Universitaria Zeferina Vas, CP 1170, 13100 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40381 Bosman, Erwin. The incompatibility of maternity and labor force participation: a historical and conceptual analysis. [De incompatibiliteit van buitenshuisarbeid van de vrouw en ouderschap: historische situering en begripsbepaling.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Nov 1989. 103-33 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Researchers as well as politicians point more and more to the problematic relationship between maternity and labour force participation. This article aims at a conceptual clarification of this conflicting relation and at describing the different aspects of it. The role theory is used as the conceptual framework, which is however placed within a broader socio-historical analysis. The incompatibility can be seen as part of the evolution from an agrarian family to the present nuclear family. It can also be seen in the context of the evolution of female labour force participation and of the opinions on this participation." Concerns of incompatibility include time factors, financial costs and needs, and maternal stress.
Correspondence: E. Bosman, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40382 Bumpass, Larry L. What's happening to the family? Interactions between demographic and institutional change. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 4, Nov 1990. 483-90 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
In this article, which was the Presidential Address to the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, the author discusses recent changes affecting the family in the United States and implications for family structure in the future. He considers trends in marital disruption; cohabitation, family formation, and marriage; fertility; marital relationships; labor force needs; intergenerational relationships; and women's status.
Correspondence: L. L. Bumpass, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40383 Burch, Thomas K. Towards a theory of family change for the developed world. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 90-8, Jun 1990. 18 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
The author considers the possibility of formulating a theory of family change in developed countries for the period 1800 to the present. Sections are included on an examination of historical processes; typologies of family systems; static models of change; demography, ecology, and familism; convergence in family systems; and male authority and family change.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada.

56:40384 Burch, Thomas K. 1986 census of Canada: families in Canada. [Recensement Canada 1986: les familles du Canada.] Focus on Canada, No. 27, Pub. Order No. 98-127. ISBN 0-660-54019-3. Mar 1990. 41, 47 pp. Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
This is one in a series of analytical reports based on data from the 1986 Canadian census. The present volume, on families and households, contains chapters on household size and structure; marriage, cohabitation, and divorce; cohabitation--diversity and family change; and family change and personal well-being.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Publication Sales, Room 1710, Main Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: University of Texas at Austin, Population Research Center Library. Source: APLIC Census Network List, No. 108, Jun 1990.

56:40385 Chen, Jiajian; Balakrishnan, T. R. Do gender preferences affect fertility and family dissolution in Canada? Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 90-7, Jun 1990. 32 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to explore the possible impact of gender preference on fertility and family dissolution in Canada. We first hypothesize that Canadian fertility is influenced by the desire for a balanced gender composition and not specifically by the preference for sons or daughters. That is, families with unbalanced gender compositions would have more rapid birth timing than women with balanced gender compositions in Canada. Secondly, couples with at least one son are expected to experience lower risk of marital dissolution than those couples without a son....Data [are] from [the] 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS), a national probability sample of 5,315 women of all marital statuses in their reproductive ages 18-49."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40386 Clarke, Lynda. Chilrens's changing circumstances: recent trends and future prospects. CPS Research Paper, No. 89-4, ISBN 0-902657-27-5. Dec 1989. 35 pp. University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper traces the changing family circumstances of children in Britain in the last two decades, both in terms of the prevalence of different family types at various points in time and as experienced by children throughout their childhood....What is important to recognise for policy issues concerning the welfare of children is the large proportion of children who will experience family disruption or the likelihood of transition between family types at some point in their childhood. Our estimates were that 22% of children born to a married couple experience marital disruption and of these, 60% experience the remarriage of their mother before their sixteenth birthday. The majority of children born to mothers outside marriage experience their mother's marriage or remarriage. Also our findings indicate that children's family type at birth is crucial in determining the length of time they can expect to live in a lone-mother family."
Correspondence: University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40387 Clarke, Lynda; Eldridge, Sandra. The structure and characteristics of families: a review of the circumstances of children in the 1980s. CPS Research Paper, No. 89-3, ISBN 0-902657-28-3. Dec 1989. 37, [3] pp. University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper brings together demographic information on the family circumstances of children, of which there are over eleven million under the age of sixteen in Great Britain today. Our main concern is to examine the structure of the families in which these children are living and to provide a basis for analyzing the determinants of trends in children's family circumstances during the 1980s....[We examine] the prevalence of different types of family in which children live, the demographic and social determinants of these family types, how the pattern has changed over time, and the transitions between family types." Data are from registration statistics and official surveys.
Correspondence: University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40388 Fossett, Mark A.; Kiecolt, K. Jill. Mate availability, family formation, and family structure among black Americans in nonmetropolitan Louisiana 1970-1980. Rural Sociology, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1990. 305-27 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"This paper assesses the effects of the community sex ratio on black family formation and family structure in nonmetropolitan parishes in Louisiana. As predicted, the sex ratio is found to have strong positive effects on marriage prevalence for black women, the prevalence of husband and wife families for black families, and the percentage of black children residing in husband and wife families and strong negative effects on the nonmarital fertility ratio for black women."
Correspondence: M. A. Fossett, Texas A and M University, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40389 Gee, Ellen M. Demographic change and intergenerational relations in Canadian families: findings and social policy implications. Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1990. 191-9 pp. Guelph, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper provides estimates of the demographic parameters of parent-child relations in Canada, using an historical framework. Four birth cohorts are chosen (1860, 1910, 1930, and 1960) and are examined from two points of view--as children (particularly adult children) and as parents. The analysis highlights the ways in which demographic change influences the intergenerational context of family life. Four major social policy implications of the data are outlined, focussing upon care-giving and care-receiving in an aging society."
Correspondence: E. M. Gee, Simon Fraser University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

56:40390 Gunnlaugsson, Gisli A. Family and household in Iceland, 1801-1930: studies in the relationship between demographic and socio-economic development, social legislation and family and household structures. Studia Historica Upsaliensia, Vol. 154, ISBN 91-554-2278-8. 1988. 189 pp. Uppsala Universitet, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis: Uppsala, Sweden. Distributed by Almqvist and Wiksell International. In Eng.
"The principal thesis of the dissertation is that through the application of social legislation regarding paupers and legally defined occupational classes of cottars, lodgers, boarders and servants, local governments sought to regulate the labour market and family building in 19th century Iceland. This control aimed at providing farmers with a steady supply of cheap labour and preserving the structure of a rural society....Until 1880 access to land was a prerequisite for founding a family and a household. The number of farms was restricted by natural conditions. Since the authorities actively obstructed urbanization, population growth led to an ever larger mean household size. Subsequently the percentage of unmarried persons rose, as did the age at marriage and illegitimacy. Population growth gradually resulted in overpopulation in relation to utilized economic resources. The period 1880-1930 saw several socio-economic and demographic responses to this. This was a period of transition during which the socio-economic structure of a rural society was replaced by a modern, urbanized one. Mean household size in rural and urban areas decreased and marriage prospects improved."
Correspondence: Almqvist and Wiksell International, Box 638, S 101 28, Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40391 Hammel, E. A. The elderly in the bosom of the family: la famille souche and hardship reincorporation. Program in Population Research Working Paper, No. 31, Aug 1990. 25 pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
The author analyzes the social value of the elderly and examines "the support structure that has enabled the elderly to contribute to the development of the species....In this paper I try to examine the mutual effects between two plausible systems of accommodation of the elderly and different levels of mortality between two contrasting and plausible historical demographic regimes. I also examine whether we would be able to distinguish systems of family formation or regimes of demographic rates with the sample sizes ordinarily available in historical censuses....The examination is carried out by computer microsimulation....The two demographic regimes used here are that of the United States in 1900, as a fairly typical Western European system at the beginnings of the industrial revolution..., and a medieval regime gleaned from historical evidence...."
Correspondence: University of California, Graduate Group in Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40392 Hermalin, Albert I.; Liu, Xian. Gauging the validity of responses to questions on family size preferences in China. Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1990. 337-54, 399-401 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"As a consequence of the government's firm policy aimed at lowering fertility in China, there is considerable interest in measuring trends and differentials in desired family size. Accordingly a large number of surveys have included questions on family size preferences, but there have been few attempts to gauge the validity of the data so generated, despite the obvious possibility that some respondents may not report freely their true preferences. This article, exploiting the existence of two surveys conducted in Shanghai that used different approaches for assuring confidentiality, estimates the degree of underreporting, identifies the groups most likely to underreport, and traces the consequences of underreporting for modeling desired family size."
Correspondence: A. I. Hermalin, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40393 Jejeebhoy, Shireen J.; Kulkarni, Sumati. Demand for children and reproductive motivation: empirical observations from rural Maharashtra. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 107-21 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the structure of demand for children, in terms of numbers and underlying motivations prevailing in a rural society in the process of demographic transition, namely, Maharashtra [India] in 1983, and its association with fertility regulation behaviour. Maharashtra....[is] an area which has both traditional agrarian characteristics as well as exposure and access to modernisation."
Correspondence: S. Kulkarni, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40394 Johnson, Barbara E.; Freymeyer, Robert H. Replicating family size: does living in a single parent family matter? Sociological Focus, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1989. 263-74 pp. Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper examines how living in a single parent family affects intergenerational marriage patterns regarding preferred family size. Data collected from 1,300 college students at a large midwestern [U.S.] university provide further evidence of a positive relationship between number of siblings in one's family of origin and preferred marital family size. However, this relationship does not hold for all groups. Factors affecting preferred family size differ for males and females from intact and nonintact family structures. The positive relationship between size of family of orientation and family of procreation holds only for individuals from intact homes."
Correspondence: B. E. Johnson, University of South Carolina, Aiken, SC. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:40395 Kojima, Hiroshi. Coresidence of young adults with their parents in Japan: do sib size and birth order matter? Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 13, May 1990. 15-26 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"This study examines the effects of sib size and birth order on the coresidence of never-married youth with their parents in Japan, where eldest sons are often expected to live with their parents after marriage....While sib size has a significant and negative effect on prenuptial coresidence among both sexes, eldest-child status has a significant and positive effect among males only. The results support the hypotheses about more pressure toward daughters to stay home before marriage and to leave home after marriage; more pressure toward eldest children to stay home before and after marriage; and more pressure from crowding toward children of a larger family to leave home before marriage." Data are from the 1982 National Fertility Survey.
This is a revised, abbreviated version of a paper presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, pp. 511-2).
Correspondence: H. Kojima, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

56:40396 Mahadevan, K.; Jayasree, R. Value of children and differential fertility behaviour in Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 123-31 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The value of children and its impact on fertility behavior in India is explored. The author examines the economic, social, cultural, and psychological factors affecting family size in three states of India. Consideration is also given to the impact of son preference on fertility.
Correspondence: K. Mahadevan, Sri Venkateswara University, Department of Population Studies, Tirupati, District Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh 517 502, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40397 Mannan, M. A. Preference for son, desire for additional children and contraceptive use in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1988. 31-57 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"The extent of son preference and its effect on desire for additional children and contraceptive use is examined for rural Bangladesh. Our results show that there is strong son preference, expressed through contraceptive behaviour and desire for additional children, on the part of rural Bangladeshi women. In deciding whether or not to have an additional birth or to use contraception, sex composition of children and number of sons are the most important determinants. Most couples are guided in their desire for additional children by an ideal sex composition which is commonly found to comprise two to three sons and one daughter....It can be argued from our findings that if the desired number of sons and daughters have already been born, women will be more likely to use contraception and less likely to want additional children."
Correspondence: M. A. Mannan, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Adamjee Court, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: New York Public Library.

56:40398 Mott, Frank L. When is a father really gone? Paternal-child contact in father-absent homes. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 4, Nov 1990. 499-517 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This research uses unique [U.S.] longitudinal data to examine the dynamics of the father's presence or absence during a child's first few years of life and consider the extent to which overt father presence/absence statistics mask a continuing contact with the child's father or other potential father figures. I document the extent to which (1) substantial proportions of children born to younger mothers never have had a biological father residing in the home, (2) 'net' levels of fathers' absence at various postbirth points mask significant 'gross' flows of fathers in and out of the household, and (3) large proportions of children in homes lacking the biological father have potentially significant contact with absent fathers or new father figures."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 468).
Correspondence: F. L. Mott, Ohio State University, Center for Human Resource Research, 921 Chatham Lane, Columbus, OH 43221. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40399 Nauck, Bernhard. Parent-child relations of Germans, Turks, and migrants: an intercultural comparison of the values of children, reproductive behavior, educational attitudes and socialization practices. [Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen bei Deutschen, Turken und Migranten: Ein interkultureller Vergleich der Werte von Kindern, des generativen Verhaltens, der Erziehungseinstellungen und Sozialisationspraktiken.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1990. 87-120 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
An intercultural comparison of attitudes toward children, reproductive behavior, child care, and sex roles is modeled for natives of West Germany and migrants from Turkey. The impact of cultural background, living conditions, educational status, and intergenerational familial relationships is analyzed.
Correspondence: B. Nauck, FB IV der Padagogischen Hochschule Weingarten, Kirchplatz 2, D-7987 Weingarten, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40400 Ni Bhrolchain, Maire. Family matters: trends and explanations. Economic Review, Vol. 8, No. 1, Sep 1990. 9-12 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In recent decades, profound changes have been taking place in marriage and family life in Britain and the developed world generally. This article looks first at recent trends in this area. It then proceeds to consider some of the explanations that have been proposed. The article concludes by examining briefly an aspect of recent demographic trends that has been very widely discussed--the growth in the number of lone-parent families." Consideration is given to the effects of changes in economic structure, including women's labor force participation, and developments in contraceptive technology.
Correspondence: M. Ni Bhrolchain, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton S09 5NH, England.

56:40401 Paillat, Paul. Recent and predictible population trends in developed countries. In: An aging world: dilemmas and challenges for law and social policy, edited by John M. Eekelaar and David Pearl. 1989. 25-36 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; Nihon Kajo Publishing: Japan. In Eng.
Population trends in developed countries are examined, with a focus on the impact of fertility, mortality, migration, marriage, and divorce on family structures. Decreased family size, intergenerational families, and single-parent households are trends projected for the future.
Correspondence: P. Paillat, 25 Avenue du Chateau, 92190 Meudon, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40402 Ralebipi, Matabole D. R. Inventory of marriage and family literature, 1988/89. Vol. 15, ISBN 0-916174-28-X. LC 67-63014. 1990. xvi, 976 pp. National Council on Family Relations: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
This volume is a reference guide to 5,886 articles on marriage and the family that were published between September 1988 and December 1989. The unannotated bibliography is presented in three sections: a subject index, an author index, and a keyword in title (KWIT) index. The geographical scope is worldwide. The bibliography is restricted to publications in English.
For Volume 13, published in 1988, see 54:30376.
Correspondence: National Council on Family Relations, 3989 Central Avenue NE #550, Minneapolis, MN 55421. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40403 Szasz, Ivonne. The dimensions of the labor market, temporary migration, and domestic reproduction. A case study in the rural zone of the state of Mexico. [Dimensiones del mercado de trabajo, migraciones temporales y reproduccion domestica. Un caso en la zona rural del Estado de Mexico.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1990. 151-67 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author analyzes the impact of temporary migration on the reproduction of households in agricultural communities in Malinalco, Mexico. The interrelationship between the demographic structure of households and trends in temporary migration is studied, and the role of different types of economic activity in households is considered.
Correspondence: I. Szasz, Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40404 Thomson, Elizabeth; McDonald, Elaine; Bumpass, Larry L. Fertility desires and fertility: hers, his, and theirs. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 4, Nov 1990. 579-88 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The relationship between desired and achieved fertility may be misspecified by excluding husbands' fertility desires or by confounding effects of shared desires with the resolution of conflicting desires. Using couple data from the classic Princeton Fertility Surveys, we find relatively large husband effects on fertility outcomes as well as unique effects of spousal disagreement. Wives and husbands were equally likely to achieve fertility desires, and disagreeing couples experienced fertility rates midway between couples who wanted the same smaller or larger number of children. These conditions do not hold, however, when we include willingness to delay births for economic mobility as part of the measure of fertility desires. Among couples who both wanted a third child, only husbands' willingness to delay births had significant negative effects on birth rates." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: E. Thomson, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology and Center for Demography and Ecology, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40405 Voets, S. Y.; Kuijsten, A. C. Divorce and changes in the life course of children: an overview of approaches. [Echtscheiding en leefsituatieveranderingen van kindren: een overzicht van benaderingen.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Nov 1989. 73-101 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Studies in the field of divorce and changes in the life course of children are generally characterized by a lack of consensus. Different findings are often the result of differences in observation methods and theoretical approaches. In this article an overview is given of both quantitative (demographic) and qualitative (sociological/psychological) approaches....The development of a theoretical framework in which changes in the life course could be conceptualized and which integrates approaches from different disciplines, could be an important step in the analysis of life course changes from a child's perspective."
Correspondence: S. Y. Voets, Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografische Institut, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40406 Vossen, A. P. Toward a frame of reference for the study of the fertility scenario: an introduction to the concept of "life-style" [Naar een referentiekader voor vruchtbaarheidsscenario's: de introductie van het concept "leefstijl"] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Nov 1989. 135-55 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the correlation between fertility desires and actual completed family size. "The underlying idea is that a distinction can be made in family development between desired reproductive behaviour and actual reproductive behaviour....Consideration is given to the external conditions [such as life-style] which determine whether couples find it opportune to deviate from their original reproductive wishes. Institutions which play a central role are the employment market and government policy....We indicate in which way the now completed hypothetical frame of reference can be used in the construction of a fertility scenario." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: A. P. Vossen, Katholieke Universiteit Brabant, Subfaculteit Sociaal-Culturele Wetenschappen, Hogeschoollaan 225, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40407 Wolf, Douglas A.; Burch, Thomas K.; Matthews, Beverly J. Kin availability and the living arrangements of older unmarried women: Canada, 1985. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1990. 49-70 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A model of the living arrangements of older unmarried women is presented, using data from a 1985 survey of the Canadian population. Living arrangements are represented by a multichotomous variable distinguishing those living alone, with children, with siblings and with others. The hypothesized determinants of living arrangements include income, disability status, the array of available kin and education. Results from a multinomial logit estimation of the model confirm the importance of income, disability and kin availability; particularly interesting is the significant effect of the number of grandchildren on the relative propensities to live alone, with children and with siblings."
Correspondence: D. A. Wolf, Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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