Volume 56 - Number 4 - Winter 1990

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

56:40046 Bogue, Donald J.; Hartmann, David J. Essays in human ecology, No. 3. 1990. vi, 121 pp. Garcia-Bogue Research and Development: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This is the third volume in a series containing essays concerning human geography. The geographical focus is on the United States; one essay discusses international trends. Essays are included on the ethnic composition of U.S. metropolitan areas, methods of urban historical research, public policy implications of small area research, intercensal migration rates, longitudinal analysis of census tract data, school enrollment projection, and family planning in the 1990s.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Garcia-Bogue Research and Development, P.O. Box 37-7710, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40047 Fuguitt, Glenn V.; Brown, David L. Residential preferences and population redistribution: 1972-1988. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 4, Nov 1990. 589-600 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In seeking to explain recent trends in population distribution, there has been increased interest in residential preferences. This study is a comparison of preferences based on 1972 and 1988 [U.S.] national surveys, years that bracket a period of considerable change in distribution patterns. Over time there has been a small shift in preference toward cities less than 500,000 in size, primarily by those already living there. Rural settings, especially near cities, continue to be very attractive. At both times studied, more than half of those preferring a smaller or more remote place would retain this preference even if it meant 10% less income. Nevertheless, the proportion preferring to live more than 30 miles from a large city was unchanged and approximately equal to the proportion already living there at both times, indicating that a discrepancy between where people live and where they want to live is not an important basis for the upturn in nonmetropolitan growth away from large cities in the 1970s or the downturn in the 1980s."
Correspondence: G. V. Fuguitt, University of Wisconsin, Department of Rural Sociology, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40048 Horner, Arnold. 150 years of mapping Ireland's population distribution. Bulletin of the Society of University Cartographers, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1988. 1-8 pp. Enfield, England. In Eng.
"Over the last 150 years various approaches to the construction of maps showing the distribution of population in Ireland have been explored. This article reviews these approaches, and is particularly intended to illustrate how the compilers of Irish population maps have confronted that central issue facing all cartographers, namely the selection of an appropriate level of generalisation."
Correspondence: A. Horner, University College Dublin, Department of Geography, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:40049 Illeris, Sven. Counter-urbanization revisited: the new map of population distribution in central and north-western Europe. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift/Norwegian Journal of Geography, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1990. 39-52 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"The paper discusses the distribution of population within 11 north-western and central European countries from the mid-1950s to the late 1980s. While concentration into major metropolitan regions was widespread in the 1950s and 1960s, and counter-urbanization in the 1970s, the 1980s show diverging developments. In some countries, the major metropolitan regions have resumed their former growth, and in other countries their growth remains below or around the national average. The underlying causes are discussed, and it is suggested that the new information technologies make different distributions of population possible, with specific local conditions for economic activities then becoming decisive."
Correspondence: S. Illeris, Roskilde University Centre, Social-Economic Analysis and Computer Science, Institute of Geography, P.O. Box 260, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark. Location: New York Public Library.

56:40050 Korcelli, Piotr. Recent urban and population change in Poland. Geoforum, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1990. 173-84 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper documents recent changes in urban and population trends in Poland. These changes include a sharp decrease in the spatial mobility of the population, a transition from population concentration to deconcentration at interregional scale, and a weakening of the dominance of metropolitan core areas vis-a-vis metropolitan rings." The author suggests that rates of internal migration will increase in the 1990s as the large cohorts born in the 1970s enter the labor force.
Correspondence: P. Korcelli, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Warsaw, Poland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:40051 Ruiz Chiapetto, Crescencio. Population distribution and economic crisis in the 1980s: dichotomies and speculations. [Distribucion de poblacion y crisis economica en los anos ochenta: dicotomias y especulaciones.] Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1990. 185-203 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author attempts to determine whether the economic crisis of the 1980s has caused an increase or a decrease in population concentration in Mexico. Theories related to the topic are summarized, and data on past and current trends in population and economy in Mexico are analyzed. A forecast of future trends in population distribution and urbanization is also provided.
Correspondence: C. Ruiz Chiapetto, Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40052 Soffer, Arnon. Demography and the shaping of Israel's borders. Contemporary Jewry, Vol. 10, No. 2, Fall 1989. 91-105 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper will show that the demographic map of the Land of Israel in its present form is essentially the principal factor in shaping the extent of Jewish settlement in this generation, and that there is little possibility of changing this pattern except for making small and insignificant adjustments." The author describes the changing demographic picture in Palestine from the late nineteenth century to the present day, particularly changes in the ethnic composition of the population. He concludes that the presence of a majority Arab population in the Occupied Territories of Judea, Samaria, and the Gaza Strip will oblige Israel to compromise with regard to granting cultural and political autonomy. Furthermore, three large Arab enclaves in Israel proper--Galilee, the triangle, and the Bedouin Negev--will have to be given up if current settlement patterns do not radically change, which is itself unlikely.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

56:40053 Brady, J. E. Population change in Dublin, 1981-86. Irish Geography, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1988. 41-4 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
Population trends in Dublin, Ireland, over the period 1981-1986 are analyzed using data from the 1986 county census reports. The focus is on the changing spatial distribution of the population in the metropolitan region.
Correspondence: J. E. Brady, University College Dublin, Department of Geography, Dublin 4, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40054 Camps Cura, Enriqueta. Urbanization and internal migration during the transition to a manufacturing system: the Catalan case. [Urbanizacion y migraciones internas durante la transicion al sistema fabril: el caso catalan.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1990. 73-95 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author analyzes urbanization processes in Catalonia, Spain, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with a focus on the transformation of the Catalan economy and subsequent migration from rural areas to the cities. Problems of defining urban areas and determining data reliability are first considered. Phases in urban growth during the period are then described, and rural-urban migration is estimated. Data are from the censuses of 1857, 1877, and 1900 and cover 150 cities.
Correspondence: E. Camps Cura, European University Institute, Via dei Roccettini 5, 50016 San Domenico di Fiesole, Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40055 Delgado, Javier. From rings to segregation. Mexico City, 1950-1987. [De los anillos a la segregacion. La ciudad de Mexico, 1950-1987.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 5, No. 2, May-Aug 1990. 237-74, 365 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses different methods of urban analysis, using the example of Mexico City, Mexico. "In this work two outlines are used: a concentric one that reflects the city's expansion and a segregated one that sees the 'different cities' within. We analyze the commercial occupation of central areas and the growth due to the expansion of the periphery from 1950 to 1986. In both processes, the massive expulsion of the inhabitants appears, firstly as an effect and secondly as a cause. This fact serves as an argument to explore certain proposals in a prospective dimension. In the technical [spatial] analysis we generally avoid the design of the city itself. Here we approach some design ideas without forgetting their social dimension."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40056 Drakakis-Smith, David. Economic growth and urbanization in developing areas. ISBN 0-415-00442-X. LC 88-34312. 1990. xii, 384 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This book is the product of a conference held in Madrid, Spain, in August 1986 by the IGU Working Group on Urbanization in Developing Countries. The theme of the conference was economic development and urbanization in the periphery and semi-periphery. The volume consists of 11 papers by various authors on aspects of urbanization, primarily in developing countries, including Spain, Latin America, Malaysia, Fiji, Australia, South Africa, Brazil, and Hong Kong.
Correspondence: Routledge, Chapman and Hall, 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40057 Enyedi, Gyorgy. Specific urbanization in East-Central Europe. Geoforum, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1990. 163-72 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Socialist urbanization is not a new model of modern urbanization. East-Central European socialist countries replicate...the global process. The specific features of their urbanization result partly from their historical development--especially their belated urbanization--and partly from their political system. Behind the facade of East-West differences lies a common underlying pattern of causality: the modern process of urbanization. Capitalist and socialist political systems have different mechanisms by which to express the process but these result in similarities in long-term urban development."
Correspondence: G. Enyedi, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Center for Regional Studies, H-1538 Budapest, Hungary. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:40058 Fang, Shan. Urbanization in mainland China. Issues and Studies, Vol. 26, No. 2, Feb 1990. 118-33 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
Trends in urbanization in China since 1949 are analyzed using data from official Chinese sources. A distinction is made between trends in cities (shih) and towns (chen). The importance of political factors for past urbanization trends is stressed.
Correspondence: S. Fang, Institute of International Relations, 64 Wan Shou Road, Mucha, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

56:40059 Fielding, Elaine L. Black suburbanization in the mid-1980s: trends and differentials. CDE Working Paper, No. 90-13, Jun 1990. 40 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The 1980 U.S. Census revealed a marked acceleration in the suburbanization of blacks during the 1970s. This paper provides a preliminary answer to whether that acceleration continued in the 1980s by examining the 1985 American Housing Survey (National and Metropolitan Samples). These data sets permit racial and socioeconomic status comparisons in overall suburbanization level and in the propensity of recent movers to choose suburban destinations. Blacks continue to exhibit low levels of suburbanization relative to whites, and only a small percentage of blacks originating in central cities move to suburban areas. However, once in the suburbs, blacks tend to remain there at the same rate as whites. Intrametropolitan racial segregation remains strong, although it shows signs of decreasing."
This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 431).
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393.

56:40060 Garza, Gustavo. The metropolitan character of urbanization in Mexico, 1900-1988. [El caracter metropolitano de la urbanizacion en Mexico, 1900-1988.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1990. 37-59, 211 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes trends in urbanization in Mexico during the twentieth century, with a focus on the impact of rapid industrialization since 1982. Sections are included on the interrelations among economic development, industrialization, and urbanization; stages, levels, and measures of urbanization; the development of the city system in Mexico; and stages in the growth of Mexico City.
Correspondence: G. Garza, Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40061 Gonzalez, Edelmira. The urbanization of Latin America. [La metropolizacion de America Latina.] Revista Geografica, No. 110, Jul-Dec 1989. 5-20 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author examines the process of metropolitan growth in Latin America. The history and features of the process are described, and the spatial implications for the region are analyzed.
Correspondence: E. Gonzalez, Instituto Panamericano de Geografia e Historia, Apartado Postal 18879, 11870 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40062 Gornostayeva, G. A.; Petrov, P. V. New approaches to the study of population dynamics in cities of Moscow Oblast. Soviet Geography, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan 1990. 66-77 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
New approaches to the study of population growth, spatial distribution, and urbanization in the USSR are presented. "Quantitative analysis of historical trends in city growth rates within Moscow Oblast (1926-1984) reveals two major components or city types: a group of cities with below-(oblast) average rates for each of five periods of analysis (1926-39, 1939-59, 1959-70, 1970-79, 1979-84) and a second category experiencing above-average growth until 1970, with subsequent reduction of rates below the oblast average."
This is a translation of the Russian article in Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta: Geografiya (Moscow, USSR), No. 4, 1987, pp. 15-24.
Correspondence: G. A. Gornostayeva, Moscow M. V. Lomonosov State University, Leninskie gory, 117234 Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40063 Kayastha, S. L. Sustainability of metropolitan centres in third world countries. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 327-34 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines the growth patterns of urban areas in developing countries. The focus is on population growth, urbanization, and the increase in urban low-income populations in India. The difficulties faced by large urban centers in supporting the increased numbers of urban poor are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40064 Makowska, Krystyna. Migration in small towns, 1976-1985. [Migracje w malych miastach w latach, 1976-1985.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 4/98, 1989. 119-31 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
The impact of internal migration on the growth of small towns in Poland is examined. Polish towns are classified into groups according to in- and out-migration and volume of migration, and migration streams are analyzed by places of origin and destination. The importance of small towns in Polish internal migration trends is emphasized.
Correspondence: K. Makowska, Instytut Gospodarki Przestrzennej i Komunalnej, u1. Krzywickiego 9, 02-078 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40065 Malmberg, Gunnar. Metropolitan growth and migration in Peru. Geographical Reports, No. 9, ISBN 91-7174-329-4. LC 89-148284. 1988. 266 pp. University of Umea, Department of Geography: Umea, Sweden. In Eng.
"The study deals with the interplay between migration and metropolitan growth in Peru during the last decades. The key question is to what extent Peru's rural-urban migration and rapid urban growth is triggered by opportunities within the formal and informal sectors in the growing metropolis of Lima." The data are from official sources, primary data gathered by the author, and published research reports. The author concludes that the attraction of urban Lima and the improvement in living standards experienced by urban in-migrants are more important than push factors in areas of migrant origin in fostering migration. The importance of informal networks and personal contacts in both generating migration and coping with its difficulties is stressed.
Correspondence: University of Umea, Department of Geography, S-901 87, Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40066 Matos Mar, Jose. The process of urbanization in Latin America: integration and national identity. [El proceso de urbanizacion en America Latina: integracion e identidades nacionales.] Integracion Latinoamericana, Vol. 15, No. 153, Jan-Feb 1990. 15-23 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
The economic, political, and social changes that have taken place in Latin America over the past 50 years are reviewed, with a focus on urbanization. Particular attention is paid to developments in Peru. The author emphasizes the need to reevaluate economic, social, and cultural policies in light of modernization trends, in order to encourage the integration of society.
Correspondence: J. Matos Mar, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Avenida Republica de Chile 295, Of. 506, Casilla 454, Lima, Peru. Location: New York Public Library.

56:40067 Nangia, Sudesh. Integration of urban poor in physical and social development planning in megacities of developing regions. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 319-26 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
In light of increasing urbanization in India, the author discusses the sociocultural and traditional value systems of the urban poor who have migrated from rural areas to urban centers. The integration of the migrants into the urban community and the implications for development planning and policy are discussed.
Correspondence: S. Nangia, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40068 Pannell, Clifton W. China's urban geography. Progress in Human Geography, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1990. 214-36 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper I seek to review recent work on Chinese urban geography and to appraise the development of China's urban geography as a field of study both inside and outside China. The temporal scope will span scholarship finished and published mainly during the 1980s." The focus is on works published in English. The author examines the primary topics of interest, methodologies and theories, and available sources of data.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:40069 Ramachandran, R. Urbanization and urban systems in India. ISBN 0-19-562140-9. LC 89-900072. 1989. xiv, 364 pp. Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This work deals with urbanization and the urban system in India. "The first chapter provides an overview of studies on urbanization in India, and a detailed chapter on the history of urbanization follows....The locational aspects of urbanization are covered in the next five chapters which discuss the problem of defining an urban place, spatial patterns of urbanization, classification of cities, theories of settlement location and the analysis of settlement systems. The relationships between a city and its surrounding area are then studied at two levels--the larger area of city dominance and the city fringe area. Finally, the author examines the fundamental issues involved in framing a national urbanization policy...."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road, New Delhi 110 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40070 Rao, N. Baskara. Agricultural production and urban growth: a case study of a region. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 299-307 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The central objective of this study is to identify and examine the linkages between agricultural prosperity and the growth of towns [in India]. It is hypothesised that an increase in the scale of agricultural production creates a large marketable surplus which is traded in the urban centres of the region and which provides scope for the growth and expansion of a variety of agro-based industries....All these developments increase the employment opportunities in towns leading to inmigration and higher population growth."
Correspondence: N. B. Rao, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Nagarabhavi, Bangalore 560 072, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40071 Singlemann, Joachim. Urbanization, migration, and employment in developing countries. [Verstadterung, Wanderung und Beschaftigung in Entwicklungslandern.] In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. 1988. 171-90 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This paper deals with urban population growth and urbanization in developing countries and the consequences for urban employment. The relationship between urbanization and economic development is first reviewed, components of urban population growth in selected countries are analyzed, and projections of urban growth and urbanization are presented for third-world regions up to the year 2025. Possible strategies for dealing with the resulting problems are discussed.
Correspondence: J. Singlemann, Louisiana State University, Department of Sociology, Baton Rouge, LA 70803. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:40072 Smith, David A.; London, Bruce. Convergence in world urbanization? A quantitative assessment. Urban Affairs Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jun 1990. 574-90 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"Cross-national data are used to explore the question of whether world urban patterns and processes are converging or diverging. We compare tabular data on overall percent urban, urban primacy, overurbanization, and urban bias across world-system strata and global regions. The evidence suggests continuing differences and little evidence for convergence. To determine whether world-system effects have causal efficacy, we conclude with a regression analysis. These results provide strong evidence for a world-system explanation of continuing differences in overall level of urbanization and urban primacy, and a developmentalist approach seems to explain persisting divergence in levels of urban bias."
Correspondence: D. A. Smith, University of California, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:40073 Thrall, Grant I. Statistical and theoretical issues in verifying the population density function. Urban Geography, Vol. 9, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1988. 518-37 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
Some principles of urban land use theory are reviewed, particularly the principle that there is a direct relation between proximity to a city center or subcenter and population density. Specific attention is given to the concept of population-density gradients.
Correspondence: G. I. Thrall, University of Florida, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:40074 Venkatarangan, L. B. Population trends of first four megacities in India. In: Population transition in India, Volume 2, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 309-18 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This article aims to discuss the population levels and trends of Greater Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras, the first four top megacities in India and their agglomerations, examine the demographic factors responsible for their rapid growth and project their populations for the period 1986-2010 at five yearly intervals."
Correspondence: L. B. Venkatarangan, Annamalai University, Centre for Population Studies, Annamalai Nagar PO, Tamil Nadu 608 101, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

56:40075 Burdack, Joachim. Population development in rural areas of the United States in the 1980s: turnaround of trends or continuity? [Bevolkerungsentwicklung im landlichen Raum der USA in den achtziger Jahren: Trendwende oder Kontinuitat?] Erdkunde, Vol. 43, No. 4, Dec 1989. 280-92 pp. Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The article analyses the population growth in rural counties of the U.S.A. for 1970-80 and 1980-86. The growth rates are examined on different levels of aggregation (individual counties, subregions and regions) and in relation to several possible determinants of growth. The main objective of the study is to examine whether the growth patterns in the eighties support the hypothesis of a turnaround in the population development of rural areas....The results reveal a diversity of growth patterns and significant regional differences. Rural counties within the daily urban system of a metropolitan area have significantly higher growth rates than peripheral rural counties. The results do not support the notion of a turnaround of long established trends. The trends in the eighties bear more resemblance to traditional growth patterns of rural areas."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

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