Volume 56 - Number 3 - Fall 1990

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

56:30700 Andorka, Rudolf. Policy responses to population decline in the twenty-first century: pronatalism, migration policy, growing labour force participation or other alternatives? In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 303-13 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Pronatalist policies, migration policies, and policies affecting labor force participation are examined for their potential impact on future trends of below-replacement fertility and demographic aging in developed countries. The author concludes that "noncoercive pronatalist policy measures consisting of social benefits, plus a liberal immigration policy, plus policies aiming at the growth of participation rates of women and of the elderly will be needed to face the challenge of the present demographic trends of the advanced societies."
Correspondence: R. Andorka, Karl Marx University of Economic Sciences, 1093 Budapest IX, Dimitrov-ter 8, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30701 Grieswelle, Detlef. Discourse on population questions and family policy. [Diskurs uber Bevolkerungsfragen und Familienpolitik.] Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, No. 18/89, Apr 28, 1989. 23-31 pp. Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The debate over population policy in the Federal Republic of Germany is described. Attention is given to distinctions between population policy and family policy, and key areas needing policy intervention are noted.
Location: New York Public Library.

56:30702 Lacey, Linda. The new generation of African population policies. In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. 1990. 135-46 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in population policies in Africa are discussed, with a focus on the content of the policies of Liberia and Nigeria. "In this chapter, we review the factors that led to the development of these new policies, discuss the goals, objectives, targets, and implementation strategies that are stated, and assess current approaches in policy implementation."
Correspondence: L. Lacey, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30703 Mintz, Steven. Regulating the American family. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1989. 387-408 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The article offers an interpretive synthesis of recent scholarship on family law and government regulation of the family [in the United States]. It traces changes in family law from the colonial era to the present and concludes with an analysis of family law as a discourse involving four broad themes: the law's social functions; the social values upheld by law; the relative responsibility of private individuals and the larger society for enforcing values; and the ways in which the law intervenes in family affairs."
Correspondence: S. Mintz, University of Houston, 4600 Gulf Freeway, Houston, TX 77023. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30704 Roberts, Godfrey. Population policy issues in selected Asian countries. In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. 1990. 85-97 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Population policies in Asia are discussed, with a focus on their effect on fertility rates and their interrelationship with development planning. In considering the future impact of Asian population policies, the author concludes that socioeconomic development will result in lower birth rates and notes the importance of access to family planning services and careful allocation of resources in achieving this goal. The protection of individual rights and improvements in women's status are also linked to successful policy outcomes.
Correspondence: G. Roberts, Rutgers University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, POB 2101, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30705 Roberts, Godfrey. Population policy: contemporary issues. ISBN 0-275-93039-4. LC 89-36160. 1990. xii, 216 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers on population policies and planning around the world. "These chapters on population policy seek answers to some questions: What are some of the national policy priorities? How are they implemented? How successful have they been? What is the role of international agencies in the implementation of population policy? What are some of the legal and ethical issues surrounding the implementation of population policies?" Special focus is on the relationship between development planning and population policies in developing countries and on the role of developed nations in funding international population programs.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Praeger, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30706 Sadik, Nafis. The role of the United Nations--from conflict to consensus. In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. 1990. 193-206 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The development of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), its goals, and supporting institutions are reviewed. Special focus is on the effects of the World Population Conference of 1974, the International Conference on Population of 1984, and the changing role of the United States in the international population movement.
Correspondence: N. Sadik, United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30707 Sai, Fred T.; Chester, Lauren A. The role of the World Bank in shaping third world population policy. In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. 1990. 179-91 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The activities of the World Bank and their impact on population policies in developing countries are examined. Particular attention is given to regional, sectoral, and country-level economic studies; policy dialogue with government officials; lending; research on the links between population growth and development; and cooperation in international efforts concerning population issues. "This paper will discuss the role of each of these activities in the Bank's efforts to highlight and give priority to population issues and to help member countries develop national population policies. It will review which activities have had the greatest impact on promoting and facilitating policy development and provide examples of countries where the Bank's influence has been most evident."
This paper was originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 510).
Correspondence: F. T. Sai, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30708 Simon, Julian L. The population establishment, corruption, and reform. In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. 1990. 39-58 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author critically analyzes the funding, program objectives, and organization and administration of the institutions comprising the "population establishment" in the United States. "The corruption mentioned in the title of this chapter refers to the nexus of connections among research funding, individuals' perquisites, individual and institutional decisions about research topics to pursue, choices of people to hire and invite, emphasis placed upon various findings in the research, and sometimes the research conclusions themselves."
Correspondence: J. L. Simon, University of Maryland, College of Business and Management, Adelphi, MD 20783. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30709 Stolnitz, George J. Population and development policies aimed at population growth. PIRT Working Paper, No. 1, May 1987. 69 pp. Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT]: Bloomington, Indiana. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to summarize the factual status of Third World policies aimed at affecting rates of population growth through its fertility and mortality components....[The author] considers an array of research issues believed especially likely to condition the nature and usefulness of demographic-development planning and policy linkages. In conclusion, [he] suggests recommendations which could help enhance the scope and value of such linkages."
Correspondence: Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30710 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Results of the sixth population inquiry among governments. Population Policy Paper, No. 31; ST/ESA/SER.R/104, 1990. xviii, 245 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the sixth in a series of surveys on governments' attitudes toward demographic trends and population policies in their respective countries. The survey was carried out in 1987 by the United Nations as called for in the World Population Plan of Action. The report includes separate sections on population growth, morbidity and mortality, fertility and the family, population distribution and internal migration, international migration, the integration of demographic factors into development planning, women's status, international cooperation, and peace and security considerations. Also included are a coding manual, sample questionnaire, and data dictionary.
For the fifth survey in the series, published in 1984, see 50:10732.
Correspondence: U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30711 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). The role of population information in response to changing population policies and programmes for the 1990s. Population Research Leads, No. 34, 1990. 15 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is an overview of the effect of population information on the development of population policies and programs. The focus is on countries in the ESCAP region. Consideration is given to the role of information in the development process, the current status of national population information centers and networks, and the future of population information.
Correspondence: U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Population Division, Population Information Section, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30712 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA]. Population Division. Planning and Policies Section (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). Status and prospects of population policies in ECA member states. African Population Studies Series, No. 10; E/ECA/SER.A/8, 1989. xi, 105 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
"Based on data/information derived from...five United Nations monitoring reports...and the findings from the United Nations Sixth Population Inquiry (1987), this tenth edition of the African Population Studies Series presents a wealth of information on the status of population policy development in the ECA region before and after the adoption of the KPA [Kilimanjaro programme of action on population]. The first part of the study provides pertinent information on the background to population policy development at the global and regional (ECA) levels. The next four parts present an assessment of the status of population policies in the region on population growth, fertility, spatial distribution and immigration/emigration. On these bases, the last part then overviews the prospects of population policy development in the region during the 1990s together with highlighting the associated research priorities."
Correspondence: U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, Population Division, Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30713 van den Brekel, Hans; Klaasen, Nico. Population, political factors, and population policy--a comparative note on the Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany. Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1989. 443-54 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"The paper presents a brief comparison between the Netherlands and the [Federal Republic of] Germany concerning: the official government point of view on population policy; the existing mechanisms for advising on population; the implementation of policies in both countries that are seen to be of relevance in the context of demographic trends. It can be concluded that the government point of view on population policy in the Netherlands is more explicitly formulated...than in the [Federal Republic of] Germany. Both countries have a well functioning but different advisory system on population questions. The implementation of population related policies is further developed in the [Federal Republic of] Germany than in the Netherlands."
Correspondence: H. van den Brekel, Ministerie van Onderwijs en Wetenschappen, Europaweg 4, NL-2700 LZ Zoetermeer, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30714 Vemuri, Murali D. Jawaharlal Nehru on population. Occasional Papers on Perspectives in Indian Development, No. 17, May 1990. 30 pp. Nehru Memorial Museum and Library: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author presents a description of Jawaharlal Nehru's life, then focuses on his impact on India's population policies. Nehru's views on population size and growth and his political commitment to the initiation and development of a national family planning program are discussed.
Correspondence: Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, Teen Murti House, New Delhi 110 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30715 Warwick, Donald P. The ethics of population control. In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. 1990. 21-37 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"Dozens of countries across the world have established programs to control population growth....The methods used include voluntary family planning services; education and persuasion; financial incentives and disincentives; pressures on individuals, couples, or communities; and forced sterilization or abortion. This chapter addresses the ethics of these deliberate attempts to modify human fertility." The author concludes that "three steps can be taken to develop a workable ethics of population control. One is for countries using heavy pressures or coercion to offer an explicit ethical rationale for their practices....A second helpful step would be for donor agencies, particularly the World Bank and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), to issue ethical guidelines for work in the family planning programs they help to finance....Third, it is now time for an international code of ethics covering the implementation of population programs. Its standards should be drafted by a body that is not subject to pressures from countries with a record of ethical abuses or international donors who support their programs."
Correspondence: D. P. Warwick, Harvard University, Institute for International Development, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

56:30716 Greenhalgh, Susan. The evolution of the one-child policy in Shaanxi, 1979-88. China Quarterly, No. 122, Jun 1990. 191-229 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is an abbreviated version of a study on the evolution of China's one-child policy since its inception in 1979 using data from Shaanxi province. The author examines the impact on the policy of the strength of local autonomy versus central control, the effects of socioeconomic reforms, and the relative weight of cyclical and linear trends.
For the study referred to, published in 1989, see 55:40469.
Correspondence: S. Greenhalgh, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:30717 Kudlien, Fridolf. The German response to the birth-rate problem during the Third Reich. Continuity and Change, Vol. 5, No. 2, Aug 1990. 225-47 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
Trends in low fertility in Germany during the Third Reich and the government's efforts to raise the birth rate and control the fertility of ethnic minority groups are described. Consideration is given to abortion restrictions, propaganda to increase fertility among Aryans, and sterilization programs designed to bring about "racial purity" and physical perfection.
Correspondence: F. Kudlien, Christian-Albrechts Universitat zu Kiel, Institut fur Geschichte des Medizin und Pharmazie, Dusternbrooker Weg 120/122, 2300 Kiel, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30718 Mahadevan, K. Fertility policies of Asian countries. ISBN 0-8039-9570-9. LC 88-18223. 1989. 320 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a collection of articles by various authors on fertility policies in Asian countries. "The papers in this volume cover specific nations, focusing on the genesis and development of population policies, the salient features of the family planning programmes and the trends and changes in the demographic scenario. However, the first paper is a general one which focuses on the theoretical-methodological aspects related to population policy in general, and policy-oriented research for the welfare of all the categories of people in society. The twelve papers presented here represent eleven major countries."
Correspondence: Sage Publications, 2111 West Hillcrest Drive, Newbury Park, CA 91320. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30719 Merrick, Thomas W. The evolution and impact of policies on fertility and family planning: Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. 1990. 147-65 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"Population policies and their effectiveness in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico are analyzed and compared. Consideration is given to the evolving political and institutional settings in each country and their impact on policy development. The author concludes that "in all three cases policy development activities helped build local institutions, train researchers, and improve understanding of population issues."
Correspondence: T. W. Merrick, Population Reference Bureau, 777 14th Street NW, Suite 809, Washington, D.C. 20005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30720 Muszalski, Wojciech. Family allowance as a factor in family assistance and population policy, 1948-1988. [Zasilki rodzinne jako czynnik pomocy rodzinie i polityki ludnosciowej, 1948-1988.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 4/98, 1989. 3-23 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The impact of the system of family allowances that was introduced in Poland in 1948 is examined. The author reports that short-term goals relating to real incomes have been the determining factor in allowance allocation, and that allowances have had little impact on population policy.
Correspondence: W. Muszalski, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Wydzial Zarzadzania, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26-28, 00-325 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30721 Palen, J. John. Population policy: Singapore. In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. 1990. 167-78 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The replacement of Singapore's birth limitation policy with a pronatalist policy in 1983 is described. Main features of the policy include the use of fertility incentives for women of higher educational status, a sterilization cash incentive program for women of lower socioeconomic and educational status, and government-sponsored matchmaking services to encourage higher rates of marriage among university graduates. The controversies surrounding these programs are discussed, and the failure of the policy to significantly increase the birth rate is analyzed.
Correspondence: J. J. Palen, Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, 910 West Franklin Street, Richmond, VA 23284. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30722 Park, Chai Bin; Han, Jing-Qing. A minority group and China's one-child policy: the case of the Koreans. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 3, May-Jun 1990. 161-70 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report describes the participation in the one-child certificate program by Koreans living in China, using data from a household survey conducted in 1986....Although the Koreans and all other minorities are exempt from China's strict one-child family policy, by pledging not to have more than one child they receive the one-child incentives....The level of acceptance of the one-child certificate among Korean couples is only about 10 percent of those who currently have one child--one-fourth of the 1982 national figure. Life-table analysis indicates that fewer than 9 percent of Korean women would accept the certificate within a six-year period after their first birth. In the meantime, a second child would be born to 60 percent of the women. Among eight factors considered, three--place of residence, occupation of husband, and sex of the living child--significantly affected the rate of acceptance of the certificate, according to the hazards model."
Correspondence: C. B. Park, University of Hawaii, School of Public Health, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30723 Singh, K.; Viegas, O. A. C.; Ratnam, S. S. Balance in family planning. World Health Forum, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, 1989. 344-9 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The authors review population trends and family planning policies in Singapore from the 1960s to the present. Consideration is given to changes in abortion law, tax incentives for women of higher educational status to encourage them to increase their family size, cash incentives for sterilization directed at women of low educational status, and maternal and child health. They conclude that "family planning has been so effective in Singapore that a risk exists of there being too few young people to sustain the country's economy in the twenty-first century. Relaxation of birth control policies and immigration laws offers hope that this problem will be averted."
Correspondence: K. Singh, National University of Singapore, National University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30724 Tien, H. Yuan. China's strategic demographic initiative: context, scope, and sense. In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. 1990. 99-120 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The costs and benefits of China's one-child policy, or "Strategic Demographic Initiative (SDI)," are reviewed. The author concludes that the policy's "deployment is a positive step, epitomizing the nation's commitment to development and modernization. Its twin aims are to advance both internal welfare and external standing in the world community."
Correspondence: H. Y. Tien, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

56:30725 Beaujot, Roderic. Immigration policy and socio-demographic change: the Canadian case. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 89-4, Jan 1989. 22 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
A brief history of migration policy in Canada is presented. The author focuses on the demographic, socioeconomic, and sociocultural impacts of migration to Canada. Included are discussions concerning migration as a means of compensating for low fertility, and the future of international migration to Canada.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30726 Chen, Chin L. The immigration policies of developed countries and the "brain drain" from developing countries. In: The impact of international migration on developing countries, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1989. 213-6 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Development Centre: Paris, France. In Eng.
The author reviews immigration policies of developed countries and their effects on the emigration of skilled workers from developing countries.
Correspondence: C. L. Chen, Jinan University, College of Economics, Shipai, Guangzhou Guangdong Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30727 Conde, J. Measures to encourage return migration and reintegration of returned migrants in their home country. In: The impact of international migration on developing countries, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1989. 323-32 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Development Centre: Paris, France. In Eng.
"Ever since the so-called OPEC oil crisis in 1973....governments of OECD Member host countries [have been] reordering their immigration policies with the following three objectives in mind: strict control of migratory flows and work permits; integration of immigrant communities wishing to settle in the country; encouragement of return by former immigrants and their families and their reintegration in their home country. The intention of this paper is to examine the third of these objectives with special regard to: measures to encourage return migration; reasons and motivation for return migration; measures to facilitate reintegration in the home country; and return migration seen in relation to international migration as a whole."
Correspondence: J. Conde, Organisation de Cooperation et de Developpement Economique, Centre de Developpement, Service Recherche-Demographie-Migrations, 2 rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30728 Cox, D. Australian refugee policy and developing countries: evolvement of Australian refugee policy, 1945-85. In: The impact of international migration on developing countries, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1989. 249-65 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Development Centre: Paris, France. In Eng.
The author analyzes the impact of Australia's refugee resettlement policy on developing countries. "An examination of refugee policy statements and of refugee arrivals since World War II indicates that neither the severity of particular refugee situations nor economic conditions in the refugees' host country have been major determining factors in Australia's refugee resettlement policy." Possible long-term advantages to developing countries are considered.
Correspondence: D. Cox, University of Melbourne, Department of Social Studies, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30729 Desbarats, Jacqueline. Population resettlement programs in comparative perspective: a review. International Population Dynamics Program Research Note, No. 110, May 17, 1990. 29 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper considers...direct and explicit population redistribution policies, namely, government-directed attempts at population redistribution through resettlement or land colonization schemes....The paper reviews the experiences of several developing countries in the area of resettlement migration and provides some comparative background toward the assessment of programs that implement population redistribution through rural resettlement schemes, in a broad international perspective. It is based on a comprehensive and geographically varied sample of 15 developing countries, including nations from Asia, Africa, and Latin America (although somewhat greater emphasis is placed on Asian countries)."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30730 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Bean, Frank D.; Goodis, Tracy A.; White, Michael J. Immigration policy in the United States: future prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. 1990. 59-84 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The authors review the major features of the 1986 U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) and discuss its future prospects. Consideration is given to employer sanctions, the legalization program, the program for temporary and seasonal workers, and enforcement capabilities. Five challenges facing IRCA are then described, including domestic economic expansion, the projected rapid growth of the service sector, the declining size of U.S. youth cohorts, labor pressures in the Caribbean Basin, and enforcement and compliance issues.
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30731 Fuchs, Lawrence H. The corpse that would not die: the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1990. 111-27 pp. Poitiers, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The various proposals for dealing with illegal migration and regulating legal migration in the United States and the resultant Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 are examined. The author discusses the influence of agriculture, labor, and ethnic group interests and their impact on U.S. migration policy.
Correspondence: L. H. Fuchs, Brandeis University, American Studies Department, Waltham, MA 02254. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30732 Harel, Shay; Hercowitz, Zvi; Pines, David. An analysis of immigration policy: the Israel-diaspora case. David Horowitz Institute for the Research of Developing Countries Paper, No. 7/89, Nov 1989. 34 pp. Tel Aviv University, David Horowitz Institute for the Research of Developing Countries: Tel Aviv, Israel. In Eng.
"This paper addresses policies affecting migration between a homeland and diaspora, and evaluates quantitatively their implications regarding the relationship between Israel and the Jewish diaspora....Two specific policies, one for the homeland and one for the diaspora, are considered. The first, which prevails in Israel since its establishment, is the subsidization of immigration. The second is the financial contribution of the diaspora to the homeland. Conditions for positive net benefit of the first policy to the homeland residents and the second policy to the diaspora residents are derived analytically and evaluated empirically, using Israeli data."
Correspondence: Tel Aviv University, David Horowitz Institute for the Research of Developing Countries, Ramat-Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30733 Hollifield, James H. Immigrants or citizens: immigration policy in France and in the United States. [Migrants ou citoyens: la politique de l'immigration en France et aux Etats-Unis.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1990. 159-83 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
A comparison is made between France and the United States with regard to the ways both political systems have dealt with international migration. The author focuses on the differences in the legislation of national policies.
Correspondence: J. H. Hollifield, Brandeis University, Politics Department, Waltham, MA 02254. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30734 Martens, A. Policy making and demography. [Beleid en demografie.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1990. 113-9 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Social and migration policies affecting the various migrant populations in Belgium are examined. Consideration is given to policies that promote the integration of migrant populations.
Correspondence: A. Martens, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Sociologisch Onderzoeksinstituut, 2C, E. Van Evenstraat, 3000 Louvain, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30735 Meissner, Doris M. The Refugee Act of 1980: what have we learned? Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1990. 129-40 pp. Poitiers, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article discusses the objectives of legislation enacted in 1980 that incorporated into U.S. law the international definition of a refugee. It examines the political climate that existed when the legislation was debated and how sudden, unforseen events affected the implementation of the new law. Particular attention is directed at understanding the difficulty the U.S. has experienced in achieving a nationality-neutral refugee program and in establishing a political asylum system that is fair but resistant to abuse."
Correspondence: D. M. Meissner, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 11 Dupont Circle, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30736 Miller, Mark J. American regularization policy (1986-1989): results and limits. [La politique de regularisation americaine (1986-1989): resultats et limites.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1990. 141-58 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author discusses the migrant legalization policy enacted in the United States in 1986 and the abilities of individual states to control illegal migration. "After analyzing the political-legislative context which gave rise to this multifaceted but circumscribed legalization policy, the characteristics of the illegal population that applied for legal status are presented." A comparison is made with similar legislation passed in France during 1981-1982, and the sociological consequences of illegal migration experienced by both countries are described.
Correspondence: M. J. Miller, University of Delaware, Department of Political Science, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30737 Schoorl, Jeannette J. Demographic research as an instrument for a minority group and migrant policy: the Dutch model. [Demografisch onderzoek als instrument voor een minderheden en migrantenbeleid: het Nederlandse model.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1990. 93-111 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper describes the structure of demographic research with respect to ethnic minorities in the Netherlands as well as the relationship between such research and minorities policy....A short overview of the development of international migration and of the main immigrant population groups in the Netherlands is presented."
Correspondence: J. J. Schoorl, Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut, Lange Houtstraat 19, 2511 CV, The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30738 Seccombe, I. J.; Lawless, R. I. State intervention and the international labour market: a review of labour emigration policies in the Arab world. In: The impact of international migration on developing countries, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1989. 69-89 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Development Centre: Paris, France. In Eng.
"The differences between management and structural emigration policies are illustrated....The major, but not exclusive concern in this chapter will be with 'structural' emigration policies. The main purpose is to present a broad review of policy choices made by labour-exporting countries of the Arab world and to illustrate the gap between policy articulation and policy implementation. The second half of the chapter presents detailed and contrasting case studies of labour emigration policy: Algeria and Jordan."
Correspondence: I. J. Seccombe, University of Durham, Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, Old Shire Hall, Durham DH1 3HP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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