Volume 56 - Number 3 - Fall 1990

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

56:30673 Blanchet, Didier. Who will pay the consequences? The effects of demographic trends on social security and the labor market. [Qui supportera les consequences? Effets des evolutions demographiques sur la protection sociale et le marche du travail.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 289-301 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
Some aspects of probable future demographic trends in developed countries are examined, with particular reference to the costs of providing health services and pensions to an aging population. The author suggests that the health costs of aging are of secondary importance, whereas the costs of retirement will be a major problem. In considering how and by whom these additional costs should be paid, the author suggests that the answer will be found in the evolution of the labor market to adjust to demographic factors.
Correspondence: D. Blanchet, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30674 Bravo, Rosa. Woman, development, and population in Latin America. [Mujer, desarrollo y poblacion en America Latina.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 17, No. 48, Dec 1989. 35-59 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author presents a conceptual framework for the analysis of the relationship between women's status and demographic behavior in Latin America. Recent demographic trends associated with indicators of economic development are first reviewed. The interactions between women's status and various cultural and socioeconomic factors are then examined. The possible effects on women's status of development projects are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30675 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. Demographic trends in the principal retirement schemes in France since 1950. [L'evolution demographique des principaux regimes de retraite en France depuis 1950.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1989. 1,029-52 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author examines demographic trends and retirement schemes in France "by reconstituting long-term trends (since 1950) in the number of contributors and retired persons in the principal basic and supplementary retirement schemes, and [presents] a comparative analysis of the burden of these various schemes. In all cases, the number of beneficiaries rose more or less steeply, while the number of contributors tended to vary, most often downwards, thus causing a substantial increase in their burden. This tendency is associated with a phenomenon peculiar to France: the secular stagnation of employment, accompanied, since the economic recession which began in 1973, by a policy of massive eviction of older people from the labour market."
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30676 Kolb, Rudolf. Population trends and effects on old-age insurance. [Bevolkerungsentwicklung und Auswirkungen auf die Rentenversicherung.] Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, No. 18/89, Apr 28, 1989. 32-9 pp. Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The long-term impact of population trends on the old-age insurance system in the Federal Republic of Germany is discussed. Proposed measures for alleviating the burden of the system are described.
Location: New York Public Library.

56:30677 Macura, Miroslav. Methods to project enrolment by school level and population by level of education. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 23-39 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to remove some of the limitations of the educational planning methodology....The first objective of the paper is to present a revised grade transition method and a revised age-grade transition method, which unlike the original methods explicitly allow for mortality, but retain the assumption of the closed population. The second objective is to indicate how the standard cohort component method of population projections can be modified in order to enable one to project population not only by age and sex but also by the level of educational attainment, using among other things the results of the revised age-grade transition method. The third objective is to present results of illustrative projections prepared by the joint application of the modified age-grade transition method and the revised cohort component method." The method is applied using data from Yugoslavia for the year 1971.
Correspondence: M. Macura, U.N. Population Division/DIESA, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30678 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Education and demographic trends in Morocco. [Education et changements demographiques au Maroc.] Etudes Demographiques, 1989. 203 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This study examines four aspects of the relationship between demographic trends and education in Morocco. Separate consideration is given to the impact of education on mortality, education and fertility, migration and education, and education and economic activity. Data are from national sources, including both censuses and surveys.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, Direction de la Statistique, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30679 Reynolds, Sian. Who wanted the creches? Working mothers and the birth-rate in France, 1900-1950. Continuity and Change, Vol. 5, No. 2, Aug 1990. 173-97 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
The author outlines the history of day-care centers, or creches, in France during the first half of the twentieth century. Consideration is given to the various political and social movements that supported or opposed the institution and to the causes for the creche's inception, particularly female labor force participation and the high infant mortality rate associated with other forms of child care. The author concludes that "the present relatively generous creche provision in France may owe its existence more to demographic concerns than to pressures from either parents or the women's movement."
Correspondence: S. Reynolds, University of Edinburgh, Department of French, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30680 Schwarz, Karl. Women's educational attainment and its significance for the labor market, marriage, and family formation. [Die Bildungsabschlusse der Frauen und ihre Bedeutung fur den Arbeitsmarkt, die Eheschliessung und die Familienbildung.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1989. 361-82 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The effects of the increase in women's educational level on their labor force participation, marriage rates, and fertility levels in West Germany are examined. The author finds a strong correlation between the rise in women's educational status and their economic activity and notes that although university-educated women remain single more often and for longer periods than less-educated women, when they marry they have a relatively high number of children. Men's lack of acceptance of the changes in women's status is linked to educated women's lower marriage rates.
Correspondence: K. Schwarz, Klopstockstrasse 14, 6200 Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30681 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Work and family patterns of American women. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 165, Mar 1990. 57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers written by various authors on social, demographic, and economic consequences of changes in women's roles and status in the United States. The first section is concerned with trends in family formation in 1985, including timing and frequency of marriage, divorce, remarriage, and fertility across several generations of women. The second section deals with factors associated with childbearing and labor force participation.
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton Univerty Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

56:30682 Lee, Luke T. Law, human rights, and population policy. In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. 1990. 1-20 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author reviews the objectives and impact of the Law and Population Program, which was administered from 1970 to 1978 by Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts, and was established in order to relate law and human rights to population and family planning. "The lapse of more than ten years since the closing of the Law and Population Program at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy affords an opportunity to place the program and its activities in perspective. Have the theoretical assumptions and bases underlying the program been justified? What impact, if any, have its activities had on population policies around the world? What lessons may be drawn for the future? These are questions which the present chapter seeks to address."
Correspondence: L. T. Lee, Office of the United States Coordinator of Refugee Affairs, Department of State, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30683 Nabi, A. K. M. Nurun; Krishnan, P. Political demography of the emergence of Bangladesh. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 67, May 1990. 31 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper aims at tracing the factors that influenced the process of nationalist revolution culminating in the emergence of independent Bangladesh. This is the first part of a study of [the] political demography of Bangladesh with reference to the time up to the creation of the country in 1971." Differences between Bangladesh and Pakistan in geography, population distritution, language and culture, and socioeconomic development are discussed.
Correspondence: University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30684 Subrtova, Alena. Population issues in the platforms of Czech political parties at the beginning of the century. [Populacni otazky v programech ceskych politickych stran na pocatku stoleti.] Demografie, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1990. 126-31 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author reviews the integration of population issues into the programs of political parties in Czechoslovakia at the beginning of the twentieth century. Consideration is given to the various parties existing at that time and their stand on such population issues as mortality, health care for infants and children, the elderly, eugenics, population growth regulation, and housing.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

56:30685 Chulalongkorn University. Institute of Population Studies (Bangkok, Thailand); Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Health and population studies based on the 1987 Thailand Demographic and Health Survey. DHS Further Analysis Series, No. 1, Dec 1989. i, 253 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a series providing information on further analysis studies in countries where demographic and health surveys were conducted by the Institute for Resource Development. Thailand is the focus of this report, which includes articles by various authors in the two general areas of health and population studies. Health topics covered include child immunization, infant feeding practices, occurrence and correlates of diarrhea in children, nutritional status of Thai children, and trends in maternal health care. Population studies include contraceptive initiation patterns, oral contraceptive use, contraceptive sterilization, education of Thai children, and marriage registration and postnuptial residence patterns among Thai women.
Correspondence: IRD/Macro Systems, DHS Program, 8850 Stanford Boulevard, Suite 4000, Columbia, MD 21045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30686 Dhillon, H. S. Integration of demographic variables in health planning. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 17-22 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author discusses the importance of integrating demographic variables in health planning. "For the purposes of health planning the separate components of demography are population growth and structure, family formation, fertility, mortality and population movement. The demographic trends in WHO's European Region [and in Algeria, Morocco, and Turkey] will be used to illustrate the application of each of these components."
Correspondence: H. S. Dhillon, World Health Organization, Division of Health Education and Health Promotion, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30687 Dunnell, Karen. Monitoring children's health. Population Trends, No. 60, Summer 1990. 16-22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article illustrates the way statistics on the health of children can be used by presenting a selection of [U.K. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys] data covering three aspects of health: mortality, morbidity, and health-related behaviour [for the 1980s]. Also shown is a guide to centrally available statistics relating to the health of children." The data are presented by age and sex.
Correspondence: K. Dunnell, Office of Population Censues and Surveys, Medical Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30688 Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Gold, Rachel B.; Kenney, Asta-Maria. The need, availability and financing of reproductive health services. ISBN 0-939253-17-8. 1989. vii, 145 pp. Alan Guttmacher Institute: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a sourcebook of information on women's reproductive health services in the United States. "The purpose of this paper is to assess what kind of health services are needed to prevent, bring about or manage pregnancy and childbirth, who is likely to need them, their availability, who is likely to provide them, how much they cost, who pays or cannot pay for them and the adequacy of public programs....We have attempted throughout the document to pay special attention to the needs of low-income women...and teenagers." Separate sections cover gynecological care, reversible contraception, sterilization, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility services, prenatal genetic screening, abortion, and prenatal and maternity services.
Correspondence: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30689 John, A. Meredith. Transmission and control of childhood infectious diseases: does demography matter? Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jul 1990. 195-215 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between the demography of a host population and the epidemiology of an aerogenically transmitted infectious disease. Using a new, fully age-structured model of infectious disease transmission which incorporates non-independent, dynamic demographic and epidemiological systems, the role of host population demography in governing disease incidence and the age patterns of infection is explored. Differences in the effectiveness of immunization programmes as a function of the demography of the host population are also considered [for developing countries]."
Correspondence: A. M. John, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30690 Manton, Kenneth G. Epidemiological, demographic, and social correlates of disability among the elderly. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 67, Suppl. 2, 1989. 13-58 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The magnitude and quality of the problem of disability for the United States elderly population was analyzed in a series of projections." The effect of changes in health on the future increase of the disabled elderly population and service patterns among the disabled elderly are discussed. The author finds that "the number of disabled elderly will increase with the general population's aging...and will require family and other social services to meet older people's needs for personal care, physical equipment, and changes in the built environment. Efficiently designed policies could prevent disability by intervening in early stages of chronic disease processes yielding the highest proportion of disablement....The problem's scope also mandates basic changes in sociocultural perception of elderly people's functioning."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30691 Mauldon, Jane. The effect of marital disruption on children's health. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 3, Aug 1990. 431-46 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study uses retrospective illness histories to investigate whether children's health deteriorates after parental separation. Separation is associated with illness in a multivariate cross-sectional analysis as well as in an analysis of a sample of disrupted children only, in which illness rates before and after separation are compared. Three explanations are hypothesized: (1) divorce reduces the resources available to children, (2) the stress of divorce depletes children's health, and (3) frailer children are selected into divorce. The first hypothesis has stronger support than the second, but the data are too poor for a rigorous test of either. The selection hypothesis is not supported....This research uses the Child Health Supplement (CHS) to the 1981 National Health Interview Survey (HIS), a nationally representative survey of [U.S.] households."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 431).
Correspondence: J. Mauldon, University of California, Graduate School of Public Policy, 2607 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30692 St. Clair, Patricia A.; Smeriglio, Vincent L.; Alexander, Cheryl S.; Connell, Frederick A.; Niebyl, Jennifer R. Situational and financial barriers to prenatal care in a sample of low-income inner-city women. Public Health Reports, Vol. 105, No. 3, May-Jun 1990. 264-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The relationship between the use of prenatal care and factors that may impede access to care was examined in a sample of low-income, inner-city women [in the United States]. Situational and financial barriers to care were not important correlates of utilization. In unadjusted analyses, only insurance status and employment status were associated with utilization. Of the sociodemographic characteristics studied, only parity was strongly associated with the use of prenatal care."
Correspondence: P. A. St. Clair, University of Washington, Department of Health Services, SC-37, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

56:30693 Bouchard, Gerard. Population studies and genetic epidemiology in northeast Quebec. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1989. 61-86 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"SOREP is an Inter-University research center dealing with population issues in northeastern Quebec. Since 1972, researchers have been working on the development of a computerized genealogical database covering the period from the beginning of the white settlements up to the present time....Focusing on the regions of Saguenay and Charlevoix, this paper provides an overview of the work carried out with respect to the database itself (data, computerized record linkage, database management system) and the research being done in demographic and social history, population genetics and genetic epidemiology....This paper also describes attempts to set up an original epidemiological approach based on a combination of population studies (search for gene subdivisions), genealogical inference, and genetic markers in order to provide genetic counselling with enriched information. The legal and ethical issue is also addressed."
Correspondence: G. Bouchard, Universite du Quebec, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30694 Bundey, Sarah; Alam, Hasina; Kaur, Amritpal; Mir, Samina; Lancashire, R. J. Race, consanguinity and social features in Birmingham babies: a basis for prospective study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jun 1990. 130-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of consanguinity on children's health. The study is a prospective survey from birth to five years of a cohort of babies born in a multiracial community....[and uses data from Birmingham, England, on] babies of 2,432 European mothers, 509 Afro-Caribbean mothers, 625 Indian mothers, 956 Pakistani mothers, and 216 Bangladeshi mothers....This prospective study will allow an assessment to be made about any ill health in childhood arising from parental consanguinity, about whether screening programmes are indicated for particular autosomal recessive diseases, and about whether premarital health education might be beneficial."
Correspondence: S. Bundey, University of Birmingham, Maternity Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30695 Castro de Guerra, D.; Pinto-Cisternas, J.; Rodriguez-Larralde, A. Inbreeding as measured by isonymy in two Venezuelan populations and its relationship to other variables. Human Biology, Vol. 62, No. 2, Apr 1990. 269-78 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Isonymy is a useful approach to the study of population structure and thus can be utilized to detect deviations from random mating. In this study we give the results of an analysis of inbreeding levels and relate such variables as mean marital distance, surnames repeated in isonymous couples, and percentage of people using only maternal surnames to inbreeding and endogamy in two Venezuelan populations of black ancestry, Birongo and La Sabana....The most important findings are...that there is higher endogamy, inbreeding, and isolation in Birongo than in La Sabana....The use of isonymy as a complementary tool to study population structure is proposed...."
Correspondence: D. Castro de Guerra, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Laboratorio de Genetica Humana, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020A, Venezuela. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30696 Excoffier, Laurent; Pellegrini, Beatrice. Genetic constitution and the demography of human origin: the mtDNA arguments. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 409-19 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors discuss human genetic constitution and the demography of the origins of humanity. "We propose to review here mtDNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms...data which have been gathered after analysis of ten samples...drawn from three main continental groups (Caucasoids, Orientals and Africans). We shall focus on the hypothetical genetic constitution of a primitive population from which all present modern humans would have diverged. Hypotheses concerning this population's probable age and size will also be discussed."
Correspondence: L. Excoffier, University of Geneva, Department of Anthropology, 3 Place de l'Universite, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30697 Piazza, Alberto. Modern man's history: methodology, results and hypotheses. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 381-93 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author outlines a genetic history of Europe and the world. Consideration is given to historical and genetic linkages among modern peoples, including a phylogenetic tree of 42 world populations; genes and archaeological records; and genes and linguistic classification.
Correspondence: A. Piazza, Institute for Scientific Interchange, Viale Settimo Severo 65, 10133 Turin, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30698 Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia. Immunological polymorphisms and human migration: the history of 180,000 individuals. [Polymorphismes immunologiques et migrations humaines: l'histoire racontee par 180,000 individus.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 395-407 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
Differences in the distribution of three major gene groups among the world's population are analyzed using data from a global sample of 180,000 individuals. The similarities in gene type among peoples are used to hypothesize the extent of historical migration.
Correspondence: A. Sanchez-Mazas, Universite de Geneve, Laboratoire de Genetique et Biometrie, 3 Place de l'Universite, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30699 Soloway, Richard A. Demography and degeneration: eugenics and the declining birthrate in twentieth-century Britain. ISBN 0-8078-1865-8. LC 89-33500. 1990. xix, 443 pp. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, North Carolina/London, England. In Eng.
"I attempt to examine and explain the rise (and fall) of eugenics in twentieth-century Britain in a...historical context shaped in large part by the rapid decline in the birthrate and the assessments of this new phenomenon by contemporaries trying to understand what was happening to their society....I examine eugenics as an evolving species of historically shaped, culturally fashioned social thought based upon biological assumptions about individual ability and social class, and as a reform movement created by both the real and the imagined consequences of long-term changes in reproductive behavior." The author discusses "how differing scientific and pseudoscientific theories of biological inheritance became popularized and enmeshed in the prolonged, often contentious national debate about 'race suicide' and 'the dwindling family.' Demographic statistics demonstrated that birthrates were declining among the better-educated, most successful classes while they remained high for the poorest, least-educated portion of the population....[which led to fears] that falling birthrates among the 'better' classes signified...racial decline and degeneration...." The impact of the eugenics movement on family planning and population policy is addressed.
Correspondence: University of North Carolina Press, 116 South Boundary Street, Post Office Box 2288, Chapel Hill, NC 27515-2288. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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