Volume 56 - Number 3 - Fall 1990

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

56:30627 Lappe, Frances M.; Schurman, Rachel. Taking population seriously. ISBN 1-85383-055-0. 1989. 90 pp. Earthscan Publications: London, England. In Eng.
The authors discuss the global population situation and examine several interpretations of the social and economic causes that affect fertility. "We first consider the perspective of the biological determinists--those who see human populations overrunning the carrying capacities of their ecosystems. We suggest why this view has been largely discredited and describe a milder version that dominates public perceptions of the population problem today....[We also] examine the relationships of social power--economic, political, cultural--that influence fertility. We construct what we call the power-structures perspective, referring to the multilayered arenas of decision-making power that shape people's reproductive choices or lack of them. We use this framework to show how the powerlessness of the poor often leaves them little option but large families....We examine critical lessons from the handful of third world countries that have been exceptionally successful in reducing fertility. In each, we find our thesis reinforced: far-reaching social changes have empowered people, especially women, and provided alternative sources of income, security, and status to child bearing."
Correspondence: Earthscan Publications Ltd., 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H ODD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

56:30628 Coale, Ansley J. Lectures on population and development. Lectures in Development Economics, No. 8, ISBN 969-461-002-8. 1990. 123 pp. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics [PIDE]: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
This book contains two lectures and commentary on population and development by Ansley J. Coale presented to the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in Islamabad. The focus is on less-developed countries. The first lecture concerns the demographic transition and its implications for population trends in the third world, including growth characteristics in traditional societies, and compares the demographic transitions in Europe and the developing world. The second lecture deals with population growth and economic development, with consideration given to a study conducted by Coale and Eugene M. Hoover on this interrelationship. The projected estimates arrived at in the study are compared with the actual outcomes.
Correspondence: Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30629 El-Shagi, El-Shagi. Population problems and economic development in the third world. [Bevolkerungsproblem und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung in der Dritten Welt.] Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, No. 35/89, Aug 25, 1989. 34-46 pp. Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The problem of rapid population growth in developing countries is examined. Causes of high birth rates are discussed, and their economic impact is analyzed. The need to integrate population policy into overall development policy is emphasized.
Location: New York Public Library.

56:30630 Farooq, Ghazi M.; MacKellar, F. Landis. Demographic, employment and development trends: the need for integrated planning. International Labour Review, Vol. 129, No. 3, 1990. 301-15 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The authors contend that problems associated with rapid demographic growth in developing countries have to be tackled through comprehensive population and human resource planning. Linkages between population and development are especially close in the area of labour markets. Following a discussion of the impacts of demographic factors on labour supply, labour demand and migration, the article proposes a practical framework in which population and human resource development plans may be operationalised. The concluding section briefly discusses the emerging area of population policy formulation and implementation."
Correspondence: G. M. Farooq, International Labour Office, 4 Route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

56:30631 Hossain, Shaikh I. Interrelations between child education, health, and family size: evidence from a developing country. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 38, No. 4, Jul 1990. 763-81 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The objectives of this study are, first, to examine whether small families have a higher propensity for child investment in education and health than do larger families. An economic model is developed as the basis for empirical investigation of the hypothesis that larger family size and lower average per child investment are simultaneously determined. Second, by incorporating child health as another measure of child quality, it is possible to explore the determinants of child mortality, a vital index of the current socioeconomic welfare of a country. Further, this approach also permits examination of the interrelations with investment in child health and fertility....The aim...was to design a model that tests the empirical applicability of the New Home Economics postulated by Becker and Lewis in a rural setting of a less developed country. Data from Bangladesh were used...."
Correspondence: S. I. Hossain, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

56:30632 McNicoll, Geoffrey; Cain, Mead. Institutional effects on rural economic and demographic change. Population Council Research Division Working Paper, No. 14, 1990. 60 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors assert that "much of conventional wisdom on the relationship between population and rural development is flawed because it ignores or understates the importance of institutional contingency....First, the outlines of the rural demographic situation in the Third World and covariant trends in agricultural resources and technology are briefly described. Next, a rationale is developed for explicit treatment of institutional contingency at various levels of economic and social organization....Both topical and country illustrations of the relationships between rural development and population change are presented. The final section discusses the policy implications of the analysis...."
Correspondence: Population Council, 1 Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30633 Olson, Mancur. The key to economic development. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 205-14 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This is an attempt to discern the most plausible explanation of the variations in economic development among countries. The author examines several determinants, including natural resource endowments, exogenous differences in capital stocks, cultural differences in individual responses to economic incentives, and features of the international system, and finds they are insufficient explanations. Rather it is concluded that "for most developing countries today, improvements in institutions and economic policies can have more impact on per capita income than fertility-repressing policies."
Correspondence: M. Olson, University of Maryland, Department of Economics, College Park, MD 20742-1315. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30634 Oppong, Christine. Sex roles, population and development in West Africa: policy-related studies on work and demographic issues. ISBN 0-435-08022-9. LC 87-27386. 1987. xiii, 242 pp. Heinemann: Portsmouth, New Hampshire; James Currey: London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors and concerns the relationships among sex roles, demographic change, and development in West Africa. "This volume takes up a number of issues regarding economic development and population growth and planning from the point of view of gender....West African data from varied cultural contexts in four countries, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria and Sierra Leone [are used] to address a number of recurrent research and policy issues relating to sexual division of labour, demographic change and economic development...." Sections are included on women's work; fertility, parenthood, and development in Nigeria; population policies, family planning, and family life education in Ghana; and government plans and development policies.
Correspondence: Heinemann Educational Books, 70 Court Street, Portsmouth, NH 03801. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:30635 Ramachandran, L. Population and development in post-independence India. In: Population transition in India, Volume 1, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 13-23 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper aims to discuss the demographic scene in India vis-a-vis the socio-economic development in the post-Independence period...." Consideration is given to the effect of population growth on development, the impact of development on fertility control, and the adequacy of governmental development policies.
Correspondence: L. Ramachandran, Gandhigram Institute of Rural Health and Family Welfare, Tamil Nadu, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30636 Reddy, P. H. India in the demographic trap. Janasamkhya, Vol. 7, No. 2, Dec 1989. 93-102 pp. Kerala, India. In Eng.
The stages of demographic transition through which India has passed in the twentieth century are analyzed. The effects of family planning programs on the birth rate and the overall population growth rate are discussed. A stall in the decline of the birth rate is examined in relation to the economic situation and to agricultural and food grain production.
Correspondence: P. H. Reddy, Population Centre, 2nd Cross Malleswaram, Bangalore 560 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30637 Rogers, Tom. Population growth and movement in Pakistan: a case study. Asian Survey, Vol. 30, No. 5, May 1990. 446-60 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
Trends in the growth, movement, and character of the population of Pakistan are examined. Findings reveal that "the problem is not merely fertility and overpopulation but also involves the transition to modernity. Rapid population growth is a symptom of a number of traditional behaviors that together have created a crisis. Schemes to implement family planning will be superficial and prone to fail without fundamental social changes involving the role of men and women, attitudes toward marriage and education, and the reconciliation of traditional habits with the modern concept of the state and nationalism." Data are from a 1989 National Institute of Population study in Pakistan, a 1989 USAID study, and reports from the Statistics Bureau of Pakistan.
Correspondence: T. Rogers, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

56:30638 Roy, Bunker. Voluntary agencies and government. In: Population transition in India, Volume 1, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 55-71 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author discusses rural development voluntary agencies in India and their role as envisioned by the government, the various programs in which they are involved, and government funding of and administrative involvement in these programs.
Correspondence: B. Roy, SWRC, Tilonia, Rajasthan, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30639 Saxena, Pradeep K. Human capital formation and economic development in India. In: Population transition in India, Volume 1, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 35-44 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines human capital formation and economic development in India, with a focus on comparing income inequalities among 18 states.
Correspondence: P. K. Saxena, Institute of Applied Manpower Research, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30640 Singh, Padam. Population and planning in India. In: Population transition in India, Volume 1, edited by S. N. Singh, M. K. Premi, P. S. Bhatia, and Ashish Bose. 1989. 25-34 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper highlights some of the important aspects relating to treatment of population variables in planning. The methodology discussed as well as illustrations relate to [India's] Seventh Five Year Plan." Variables considered include population size and distribution, demographic change, households, age distribution, socioeconomic factors, income, and expenditure and poverty levels.
Correspondence: P. Singh, Institute for Research in Medical Statistics, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30641 Tabah, Leon. From one demographic transition to another. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 28, 1989. 1-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author addresses the differences between the Asian and African demographic transitions and the factors affecting them. "The present article gives particular emphasis to the role of certain social, economic and cultural factors that are associated with the process of modernization. It is argued that while some elements tend to depress the supply of children (for example, postponement of entry into marriage accompanied by longer retention of women in the educational system), others tend to increase the supply, as is the case with the reduction of post-partum amenorrhoea associated with the shortening of the breast-feeding period."
Correspondence: L. Tabah, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30642 Tout, Ken. Ageing in developing countries. ISBN 0-19-827279-0. LC 88-39187. 1989. xvi, 334 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; HelpAge International: London, England. In Eng.
The author describes trends in demographic aging in developing countries and assesses future prospects for the elderly in the third world. Separate chapters consider population forecasts, regional studies in aging, existing services, pilot programs and a program critique, national strategies, and special groups of the elderly.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:30643 Universite du Benin. Unite de Recherche Demographique. Population and development. Proceedings of a seminar on the dissemination of the results of research on population and development in Togo: Tove, July 4-9, 1988. [Population et developpement. Actes du seminaire de dissemination des resultats de recherches sur la population et le developpement au Togo: Tove, 4-9 juillet 1988.] Etudes Togolaises de Population, No. 14, 1988. 261 pp. Lome, Togo. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Togo in 1988, which was designed to increase awareness of the relationship between population and development factors among those responsible for the country's development planning. The topics covered include population and resources, health and the family, education, development of the infrastructure, the family, and schooling.
Correspondence: Universite du Benin, Unite de Recherche Demographique, B.P. 12971, Lome, Togo. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

56:30644 Whitehead, Ann. Wives and mothers: female farmers in Africa. Population and Labour Policies Programme Working Paper, No. 170, ISBN 92-2-107379-3. Mar 1990. v, 34 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the implications of some of the characteristics of women's work in agricultural production in Sub-Saharan Africa with respect to economic planning. The discussion proceeds within the context of three issues; first the growing recognition that women are neglected human resources in development planning; second the great historical and contemporary importance of female labour in Sub-Saharan African farming and thirdly the twenty year long crisis in agricultural production....Section one describes women's work and their active roles as family labourers and independent farmers. The second part examines the recording of women's work in national statistics and its neglect due to unwarranted assumptions about the nature of the household and the domestic roles played by women within it." The effects of women's concern for their children on their willingness to increase work and decision making are examined. The final section of the paper deals with implications for economic planning and policy-making.
Correspondence: International Labour Office, Route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

56:30645 Blanchet, Didier; Kessler, Denis. Forecasting the economic effects of the aging population. [Prevoir les effets economiques du vieillissement.] Economie et Statistique, No. 233, Jun 1990. 9-17, 86, 88 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The authors forecast the economic consequences of demographic aging in France. Consideration is given to possible changes in health expenditures, health care financing, pension funds, and the living standards of retirees.
Correspondence: D. Blanchet, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30646 Bonneuil, Noel; de Lambilly, Robert; Bourchet, Bernard; Bertrand, Patrick; Munoz, Paul; Marie, Pierre. Demography of the work force and wage costs: calculation of the ACS in a highly mobile population. [Demographie du personnel et couts salariaux: calcul du GVT dans une population a forte mobilite.] Population, Vol. 44, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1989. 1,101-20 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The 'Age-Competence-Shift' (ACS) measures variations in the total wage bill from one year to the next due to changes in the structure of the corresponding workforce....This article presents results obtained from a combination of the practical needs of personnel management and a theoretical analysis of the dynamics involved in the costs associated with shifts in the workforce within an enterprise." The geographical focus is on France.
Correspondence: N. Bonneuil, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30647 Donovan, Suzanne; Watts, Harold. What can child care do for human capital? Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan 1990. 5-23 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study reviews the evidence on the possible contribution that a publicly supported child care program [in the United States] could make to the stock of human capital that future generations will bring into the nation's labor force, focusing on the development of children most at risk of future poverty and dependency. The analysis first discusses the potential benefits to individuals, and to society at large, of increased human capital investment. Next, evidence is reviewed on how pre-school programs have affected educational attainment. The link between educational attainment and earning capacity is then examined....In conclusion the evidence supports the claim that investment in child care, incorporating tested developmental components, can yield net benefits to society by enhancing the human capital of upcoming generations."
Correspondence: S. Donovan, Columbia University, Public Policy Research Center, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30648 Kendig, Hal L.; McCallum, John. Greying Australia: future impacts of population ageing. Pub. Order No. 86-0322-1. ISBN 0-644-04881-6. 1986. xii, 65 pp. National Population Council, Migration Committee: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The report charts the dimensions of population ageing for Australians to the year 2021, and anticipates consequent issues in private and public lives. Emphasis is placed on the great diversity in the experience and timing of the many life changes in growing older. The report considers likely futures in older people's family and housing circumstances, two pervading influences on quality of life. Attention is then directed to retirement...and the economic resources which are so critical to independence and social participation. Subsequent sections consider the changing lifestyle of older people, care for the minority who will have health and welfare difficulties and the impact of population ageing on public expenditure."
Correspondence: Australian Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, National Population Council, P.O. Box 25, Belconnen ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30649 Ogawa, Naohiro. Population ageing and its impact upon health resource requirements at government and familial levels in Japan. NUPRI Reprint Series, No. 35, Apr 1990. 23 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"Rapid economic growth in post-war Japan has been accompanied by unprecedented population ageing. In this paper the impact of Japan's ageing population is analysed [with respect to] (i) health-care services (ii) allocation of resources to health care and (iii) the manpower requirements to support health in old age. These projections are based upon macroeconomic modelling techniques."
This paper is reprinted from "Ageing and Society," Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, Sep 1989, pp. 383-405.
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho, 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30650 Wise, David A. The economics of aging. National Bureau of Economic Research Report, No. 88-25159, ISBN 0-226-90295-1. 1989. ix, 416 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois/London, England. In Eng.
This volume consists of 12 papers by various authors presented at a conference held in New Orleans, Louisiana, March 19-21, 1987, on the economics of aging. "Contributors consider the housing mobility and living arrangements of the elderly, their labor force participation and retirement, the economics of their health care, and their financial status." The objective as a whole is to examine the factors that affect the well-being of the elderly and the consequences that follow from an increasingly older population with longer individual life spans. The approach is interdisciplinary, involving demography, health, and economics, and the geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

56:30651 Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ehrlich, Anne H. The population explosion. ISBN 0-671-68984-3. LC 89-48263. 1990. 320 pp. Simon and Schuster: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
Problems surrounding population growth are discussed, with a focus on the interrelationship between population and ecology. The geographic scope is primarily worldwide, with an emphasis on the situation and relevant policies in the United States. Consideration is given to the effects of population increase and industrialization on the environment, food and water supplies, and quality of life. Recommendations for improving the world's environmental condition and for reversing many aspects of ecological degradation are included.
Correspondence: Simon and Schuster, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30652 Keyfitz, Nathan. Reconciling economic and ecological theory on population. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-89-27, Mar 1989. v, 23 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
This volume contains two papers in which the author discusses theoretical aspects of economics and ecology and how they may be incorporated into a policy analysis of population. "On this theoretical approach the population is at the center of a succession of nested boxes representing the economy, the culture, and the environment. The papers work out some of the consequences of this approach. They recognize the flexibility of substitution under the price system, as well as the limits the environment sets on any possible economy."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30653 Komlos, John. Nutrition, population growth, and the industrial revolution in England. Social Science History, Vol. 14, No. 1, Spring 1990. 69-91 pp. Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
This study proposes a conceptualization of the industrial revolution in England in terms of [a model of] the interaction of demographic and economic processes linked by the nutritional status of the population....The sequence of the model is as follows: (1) Prior to 1730, the population of England was essentially in a food-controlled (Malthusian) homeostatic equilibrium; (2) the favourable weather conditions of the 1730s and resulting bountiful harvests destabilized this equilibrium by increasing the nutritional status..., causing a baby boom; (3) the increased population density..., fostered economic development; (4) industrial expansion created opportunities for employment, which meant the end of the Maltuhsian relationship between population growth and nutritional status; (5) population growth continued."
Correspondence: J. Komlos, University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260-0001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30654 Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. People and nature. Populi, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1990. 23-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The impact of population growth on the world's natural resources is examined. Consideration is given to sustainable development, pollution and global warming, the ecological balance, conservation, and the effect of population growth on other forms of life.
Correspondence: H. R. H. the Duke of Edinburgh, Buckingham Palace, Buckingham Palace Road, London SW1, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30655 Santos, Miguel A. Managing planet earth: perspectives on population, ecology, and the law. ISBN 0-89789-216-X. LC 89-49264. 1990. xi, 172 pp. Bergin and Garvey: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author explores the scientific and legal aspects of the international ecological situation. "Chapter 1 examines the ecological characteristics of human population, such as exponential growth and carrying capacity. This chapter also includes a discussion of the population policies in developing and developed nations. The objective of chapter 2 is to construct an analytic framework for the interaction of society with the environment. An overview of natural resources and pollution in the context of ecological process is presented. The criteria for determining the earth's carrying capacity for humans are evaluated in the third chapter. Chapter 4 proposes a synergistic model for determining the earth's carrying capacity. The final chapter...considers the problems and prospects of international law and environmental protection."
Correspondence: Bergin and Garvey, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30656 Shapiro, David. Population growth, urbanization, and changing agricultural practices in Zaire. Population Issues Research Center Working Paper, No. 1989-18, Dec 1989. 11 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Population Issues Research Center: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper examines some of the linkages between the demographic changes that are taking place in Zaire, particularly overall population growth and rapid urbanization, and changes in agricultural practices. The focus is on evaluating the likely consequences for food production and for the environment of these changes that are taking place in agriculture. In particular, we argue that the pressures to feed Zaire's increasing urban population...along with population growth and increased population density, have resulted in changes in agricultural practices....Given present technology, the changes in agricultural practices that have emerged in response to population growth, increased population density, and growth in demand for food production are not sustainable in the long run."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Population Issues Research Center, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30657 Simon, Julian L. Population matters: people, resources, environment, and immigration. ISBN 0-88738-300-9. LC 89-20240. 1990. xiv, 577 pp. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of essays in which the author reviews global population trends and the effect of population growth and economic activity on the world's environment. Consideration is given to natural resources and carrying capacity, population policies and beliefs, immigration, a critique of the low population growth position, progress and the future, and publication, funding, and the population "establishment."
Correspondence: Transaction Publishers, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

56:30658 Bloom, David E.; Steen, Todd P. The labor force implications of expanding the child care industry. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan 1990. 25-44 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the labor force implications of increased social investment in the child care industry [in the United States]. We have two main conclusions to report. First, expanding the child care industry will remove a major barrier to employment for a sizable number of women. This includes women in middle and upper income families who desire to work for personal fulfillment and to improve their families' lifestyles. But even more so, it includes women in low-income and single-parent families who need to work to maintain a minimal and dignified standard of living and who might otherwise remain dependent on welfare benefits for their own and their families' subsistence. Second, expanding the child care industry will help employers cope with a range of personnel problems they will increasingly face as the U.S. undergoes a major transition in the 1990's from being a labor surplus economy to being a labor shortage economy."
Correspondence: D. E. Bloom, Columbia University, Department of Economics, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30659 Bluestone, Irving; Montgomery, Rhonda J. V.; Owen, John D. The aging of the American work force: problems, programs, policies. Labor Economics and Policy Series, ISBN 0-8143-2174-7. LC 89-5572. 1990. 429 pp. Wayne State University Press: Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"The papers in this volume are based on presentations at a conference on the aging of the work force in the United States, held at Wayne State University in Detroit in March 1988....Part I sets forth the theme of the aging of the work force as the baby boom cohort grows older. The challenges faced by government and industry are discussed....[and] the importance of societal values to the creation of public policy and practices aimed at demographic changes in the work force [is examined]....The papers in Part II discuss what might be called a 'middle-aging' of the work force, with fewer younger workers but also with fewer people in their sixties or over. The movement toward earlier retirement and the need for adequate pensions for the retiree are discussed....In Part III, which is focused on health issues and costs...of the social impact of our aging work force on employment, health care, and income maintenance [and]....strategies developed in a wide variety of industries to provide health care [are described]....The effects of an aging work force on productivity and related issues are considered in Part IV....Part V focuses on the impact of our aging work force on economic distribution...."
Correspondence: Wayne State University Press, Leonard N. Simons Building, 5959 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI 48202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30660 de Oliveira, Orlandina. The participation of women in urban labor markets in Mexico: 1970-1980. [La participacion femenina en los mercados de trabajo urbanos en Mexico: 1970-1980.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 4, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1989. 465-93, 625 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article we analyze the presence of women in urban labor markets in Mexico in the 1970s....We center our attention on female labor in order to draw up two typologies for cities. The first one, constructed on the basis of specific rates of participation by age, allows us to pinpoint urban areas that make the greatest use of young labor and those that absorb adolescent and adult workers. The second typology, based on the insertion of women in the work force, is useful for classifying urban areas according to the diversification of the labor markets. We found that, in general, women participate mostly in diversified labor markets that absorb labor from different age groups and with different levels of skills...." Data are from the 1970 and 1980 Mexican censuses.
Correspondence: O. de Oliveira, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Sociologicos, Camino Al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30661 Goldstein, Alice; Goldstein, Sidney. China's labor force: the role of gender and residence. PSTC Reprint Series, No. 90-05, May 1990. [31] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationships among gender, income, and development level in China. Consideration is given to sex differentials in the labor force, occupational distribution, income differentials, and the effects of government control of wages and economic policies. "The data analyzed here show that disparities currently exist in both the types of occupations considered suitable for men and women and the status, as measured by income, that men and women can attain within any broad occupational group....Contextual factors, including both levels of urbanization and cultural norms, continue to have a strong impact on gender differences in labor force patterns....New economic policies have potential for reinforcing these differences, but also for mitigating them." Data are from the 1982 census and 1986 surveys of Guangzhou and Shanghai provinces.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30662 Gomulka, Joanna; Stern, Nicholas. The employment of married women in the United Kingdom 1970-83. Economica, Vol. 57, No. 226, May 1990. 171-99 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The proportion of married women in employment in the United Kingdom grew rapidly during the 1970s rising from around 50 to 60 per cent. The paper investigates this change using a time-series of cross-sections from the Family Expenditure Survey. An attempt is made to assess how much of the change was due to trends in the observable characteristics of the population and what part was played by changes in behavioural and other factors reflected in the coefficients of the model. A technique of growth accounting is proposed and used to this purpose."
Correspondence: J. Gomulka, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:30663 Hayward, Mark D.; Grady, William R. Work and retirement among a cohort of older men in the United States, 1966-1983. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 3, Aug 1990. 337-56 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Multivariate increment-decrement working life tables are estimated for a cohort of older men in the United States for the period 1966-1983....We identify the effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the potentially complex process by which the labor force career is ended. In contrast to the assumed homogeneity of previous working life table analyses, the present study shows marked differences in labor force mobility and working and nonworking life expectancy according to occupation, class of worker, education, race, and marital status. We briefly discuss the implications of these findings for inequities of access to retirement, private and public pension consumption, and future changes in the retirement process."
Correspondence: M. D. Hayward, University of Southern California, Andrus Gerontology Center, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0191. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30664 Kong, Sae Kwon; Choe, Minja Kim. Labor force participation of married women in contemporary Korea. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 9, No. 2, Dec 1989. 116-38 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
"This paper presents some results from the 1986 Family Life Survey of Korea. This survey was the first that was conducted in Korea with the specific purpose of understanding women's life cycle beyond marriage and fertility....A probability sample of 3,400 households representing the whole country were selected, [including] interviews of ever-married women of ages 15 to 64....The survey collected information on household composition, with basic characteristics of members of household including health status....marriage history, including how husbands were selected, pregnancy history including the age of children when they first left home and reason for leaving home, contraceptive use, health, and women's employment at different stages of life."
Correspondence: S. K. Kong, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-du, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30665 Lloyd, M.; Fergusson, D. M.; Horwood, L. J. A longitudinal study of maternal participation in the full-time workforce: Part 1: entry into the full-time workforce. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, Nov 1989. 3-22 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a ten year longitudinal study of the workforce participation of mothers of a birth cohort of Christchurch [New Zealand] children. By ten years 37% of the mothers had entered full-time work with the median time to entry being six years. Full-time workforce participation rates tended to be highest amongst: mothers whose youngest child was over five years old; mothers from families of low socio-economic status; mothers from families experiencing financial difficulty; and mothers who held non-traditional sex-role attitudes. It is concluded that entry into the full-time workforce is a [result] of a complex series of processes which include: the effects of the transition to motherhood on maternal role perceptions and opportunities for workforce participation; the demands of the family economy which may place pressure on the mother to enter the workforce; and the mother's role orientation which may influence her attitudes towards workforce participation."
Correspondence: M. Lloyd, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch School of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Christchurch Child Development Study, Christchurch, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30666 Radcliffe, Sarah A. Between hearth and labor market: the recruitment of peasant women in the Andes. International Migration Review, Vol. 24, Summer 1990. 229-49 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes practices used to recruit peasant women for employment in Peru. "Andean peasant women are recruited into varied types of work both in rural and urban areas. Recruiting agents...and family members are particularly important in placing the women in labor markets...external to the peasant villages. However, recruitment into waged labor is contingent upon the role played by female labor in the maintenance of the rural household: the [age] at which highland women migrate is conditioned by the sexual division of labor in the domestic unit. Recruitment into migration is thus an outcome of the interaction between the structure of labor markets and the division of labor within the peasant household."
Correspondence: S. A. Radcliffe, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30667 Rexroat, Cynthia. Race and marital status differences in the labor force behavior of female family heads: the effect of household structure. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 3, Aug 1990. 591-601 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines the effects of household structure on the labor force status of female heads of families with minor children [in the United States]....Results of this study show that an extended family (a) has no effect on the labor force behavior of white, previously married mothers, (b) increases the likelihood of employment of black and white never-married mothers, and (c) conditions the impact of preschool-aged children for black mothers only; the effect is negative for never-married black women and positive for formerly married blacks. Findings reported here suggest that models of labor force behavior are misspecified if female heads of families are not analyzed separately by race and marital status."
Correspondence: C. Rexroat, Clemson University, Department of Sociology, Clemson, SC 29634. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30668 Saha, Tulshi. Children's work and contribution in the family: value of children in the context of Bangladesh. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 90-02, Jul 1990. 24 pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper studies the determinants of children's work and contribution in the family and evaluates the notion of the value of children in the context of Bangladesh, utilizing World Fertility Survey data from Bangladesh (Bangladesh Fertility Survey 1975)." Findings reveal "that children from lower socioeconomic families influenced the participation in wage labor. Among the factors that influence children's labor force participation, level of living, as represented for instance by ownership of assets, is prominent....Even though children are more likely to work for money in rural than urban areas, in Bangladesh children provide more assistance in urban families than in rural families....Children from single parent households are nearly three times as likely to participate in wage labor than in households where both parents are present. Children of widowed, separated and divorced mothers provide assistance more than when their fathers are alive."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30669 Sharp, John. Relocation, labour migration, and the domestic predicament: Qwaqwa in the 1980s. In: Migrants, workers, and the social order, edited by Jeremy Eades. 1987. 130-47 pp. Association of Social Anthropologists [ASA]: London, England; Tavistock Publications: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper looks briefly at several issues relating to the control and reproduction of a cheap labour force in the context of one particular [South African] bantustan, Qwaqwa (in the Orange Free State) in the 1980s. It takes cognisance of the argument...that it was local commitment to relationships perceived to be 'traditional' which provided the ideological aspect to the control and reproductive functions of the peripheral labour reserves...." Consideration is given to relocation, agriculture, and the wage labor market; the flow of income to domestic groups; and the implications of unemployment.
Correspondence: J. Sharp, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondelbosch 7700, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:30670 Tomita, Yasunobu. Comparison of the unemployment statistics between the U.S.A. and Japan. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 12, May 1989. 44-8 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author analyzes the differences in the definitions of unemployment in the United States and Japan. Unemployment statistics for both countries are presented for the period 1984-1988.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

56:30671 Uthoff, Andras W. Integration of demographic variables in planning for employment. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 3-15 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"My objectives are fourfold: to describe briefly my understanding of the traditional approach for integrating demographic variables in planning for employment; to discuss urban poverty and employment problems profiles as they are present in Latin American countries; to indicate the demographic factors operating in the production of such critical problems; and to assess, in light of the above, the potential for work on integration of demographic variables in planning for employment."
Correspondence: A. W. Uthoff, International Labour Office, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:30672 Veron, Jacques. Demographic changes and employment perspectives: some methodological reflections. [Changements demographiques et perspectives d'emploi: reflexions d'ordre methodologique.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 3, 1989. 41-9 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
Some theoretical concepts concerning the relationship between demographic trends and employment availability are examined. Examples from various countries are used to illustrate the concepts discussed. The role of technological change in helping human resource needs adjust to demographic fluctuations is discussed.
Correspondence: J. Veron, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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