Volume 56 - Number 2 - Summer 1990

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

56:20602 Creedy, J.; Disney, R. Population aging and social security. Department of Economics Research Paper, No. 195, ISBN 0-86839-801-2. May 1988. 23 pp. University of Melbourne, Department of Economics: Parkville, Australia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is...to examine some of the issues concerning population aging and its possible implications for social security. Emphasis is on the analytical issues raised. First, a framework for analysing pension finance is presented in Section II....Section III discusses the relationship between aging and the dependency ratio, showing that changing labour market conditions are important. Section IV then examines projections of social expenditure and provides a basic framework for projecting social expenditure as a proportion of national income. Despite the obvious importance of the subject, it seems that the ways in which the expenditure may be financed and their implications, especially for income redistribution, have been somewhat neglected."
Correspondence: University of Melbourne, Department of Economics, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:20603 Dwyer, Daisy; Bruce, Judith. A home divided: women and income in the third world. ISBN 0-8047-1485-1. LC 88-4938. 1988. xi, 289 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
This volume is the product of a seminar entitled Women, Income, and Policy, held at the Population Council in New York in March 1983. It consists of 12 papers by various authors on aspects of inequality and communication within the household, as seen from the point of view of women, with a focus on issues concerning income. The approach is interdisciplinary, and the geographical focus is primarily on developing countries. Some attention is paid to the different attitudes of men and women concerning fertility.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA 94305-2235. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20604 Mason, Karen O. A feminist perspective on fertility decline. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 88-119, Jun 1988. 17, [2] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"After defining what is meant by a feminist perspective, this paper reviews theories of the fertility transition for their feminist content. The logical roles that women's power or autonomy might play in the fertility decline are then discussed, after which five substantive hypotheses that relate some aspect of women's power to reproductive change are reviewed. Several of these hypotheses treat women's power as a variable that conditions the impact of other socioeconomic changes on fertility decline, rather than as a direct cause of the decline. Empirical evidence is reviewed...[and] the paper ends with suggestions for future research."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 3, Fall 1988, p. 498).
Correspondence: K. O. Mason, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20605 Morrill, Richard L. School busing and demographic change. Urban Geography, Vol. 10, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1989. 336-54 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
The impact of mandatory school busing on the composition of schools and on the demographic character of the city is examined using data for the Seattle school district for the period 1960-1985. The author concludes that the costs of coercion of this kind to achieve desirable social goals are so high and so counterproductive in the long run that the benefits of alternative, voluntary plans to achieve integration must be explored.
Correspondence: R. L. Morrill, University of Washington, Department of Geography, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:20606 Oliveira, Maria C. F. A. Work, family, and women's status: considerations on the demand for children. [Trabalho, familia e condicao feminina: consideracoes sobre a demanda por filhos.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1989. 25-33 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper focuses on the changes in women's [status in Brazil] due to the transition from the regime of colonato to wage labor in Sao Paulo's agriculture. This analysis of the constraints on woman tries to uncover the different capacity of systems of labor organization to accomodate high fertility. It argues that the subordination to a pre-established [structure] makes it very difficult to combine female productive and reproductive roles."
Correspondence: M. C. F. A. Oliveira, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, CP 1170, 13100 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20607 Reishus, David. Financing child care: who will pay for the kids? National Tax Journal, Vol. 42, No. 3, Sep 1989. 249-59 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
This article examines the current debate in the United States concerning who should pay for the child care that most parties agree should be provided, given the rapid growth in mothers' participation in the labor force. The author concludes that the current budget stalemate makes even modest increases in federal government funding for child care difficult to find. The most likely source of additional funds for child care for low-income mothers is a reduction of such support for middle- and upper-income families as exists at present.
Correspondence: D. Reishus, Joint Committee on Taxation, Washington, D.C. 20515. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

56:20608 Ganson de Rivas, Barbara. Demographic and social consequences of the War of the Triple Alliance. [Las consecuencias demograficas y sociales de la Guerra de la Triple Alianza.] 1985. 32 pp. Editora Litocolor: Asuncion, Paraguay. In Spa.
Data from Paraguayan censuses of 1846, 1886, and 1887 and other sources are analyzed to investigate the consequences of the five-year (1865-1870) war between Paraguay and the triple alliance of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. Population pyramids for the years 1846 and 1886 show that the war left Paraguay a nation composed almost entirely of women and children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20609 Handwerker, W. Penn. Politics and reproduction: a window on social change. In: Births and power: social change and the politics of reproduction, edited by W. Penn Handwerker. 1990. 1-38 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
In this introduction, the author discusses reproduction from a political perspective, with a focus on how changes in power relationships affect reproductive behavior. He provides brief overviews of the book's chapters, emphasizing the idea that "changes in resource access costs generate social change through a process that is expressed as a change in moral responsibilities. Moral responsibilities thus reflect historically specific power relationships and means for gaining access to resources."
Correspondence: W. P. Handwerker, Humboldt State University, Department of Anthropology, Arcata, CA 95521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20610 McNeill, William H. Population and politics since 1750. ISBN 0-8139-1257-1. LC 89-28772. 1990. vii, 85 pp. University Press of Virginia: Charlottesville, Virginia/London, England. In Eng.
This work, which represents the three Richard Lectures for 1988-1989 given at the University of Virginia, examines the relationship between demographic trends and politics over the past 240 years. The first lecture examines the causes and consequences of expanding populations in Europe primarily during the nineteenth century. The author notes that the rising agricultural and industrial productivity associated with population growth resulted in a period of European demographic and political expansion. The next lecture examines the growth of populations outside Europe, particularly since World War II, and how the avenues for political and demographic expansion open to most countries have been extremely limited, leading to the potential for violent, revolutionary change. The final lecture considers the consequences of declining populations in the developed world, particularly in light of increasing population pressures in developing countries.
Correspondence: University Press of Virginia, P.O. Box 3608, University Station, Charlottesville, VA 22903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20611 Mielke, James H.; Pitkanen, Kari J. War demography: the impact of the 1808-09 war on the civilian population of Aland, Finland. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 5, No. 4, Mar 1990. 373-98 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A pre-industrial population crisis caused by a war is examined using Finnish historical records. During the War of Finland (1808-09) the Swedish military deployed on the Aland Islands helped spread infectious diseases among the civilian population. The result was a short but intense period of high mortality. This article focuses on the short-term demographic impact of this crisis. Changes in age-specific and sex-specific mortality, fertility, and nuptiality are explored....A projection, assuming that the crisis did not occur, indicates that Aland's population losses were never compensated."
Correspondence: J. H. Mielke, University of Kansas, Department of Anthropology, Lawrence, KS 66045. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

56:20612 Bledsoe, Caroline. The politics of AIDS, condoms, and heterosexual relations in Africa: recent evidence from the local print media. In: Births and power: social change and the politics of reproduction, edited by W. Penn Handwerker. 1990. 197-223 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
"Since considerable attention has been devoted already to prostitution as the the primary means of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) spread in Africa, this paper turns to the epidemic's impact on potentially stable heterosexual relations, particularly from women's perspectives. By identifying some of the assumptions that comprise similar cultural themes in these countries, it examines some bellweather trends in people's emerging responses to policy injunctions to limit partners and use condoms. I draw policy conclusions for three topics: the fate of children whose mothers die from AIDS; threats to female education in the wake of the AIDS epidemic; [and] cultural interpretations of condoms and the likelihood of condom acceptance." Data are primarily from information in recent African print media.
Correspondence: C. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, Evanston, IL 60201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20613 Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat; Quiggin, Pat. AIDS and Sub-Saharan Africa. Populi, Vol. 16, No. 4, Dec 1989. 31-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors review social structure in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effect on the treatment and spread of the AIDS epidemic. Consideration is given to the differences between African social systems, particularly those concerning sexuality, and Western value orientation and how they affect Western approaches to treatment. The authors suggest that "AIDS should be treated as one of the sequels of venereal disease and programmes devised to deal with AIDS should be formulated and implemented in this context."
This is a revised version of an article published in 1989 and cited in 55:40624.
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, Canberra 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20614 Caldwell, John C.; Santow, Gigi. Selected readings in the cultural, social and behavioural determinants of health. Health Transition Series, No. 1, ISBN 0-7315-0799-1. 1989. xix, 305 pp. Australian National University, Health Transition Centre: Canberra, Australia. Distributed by Bibliotech, ANUTECH Pty, GPO Box 4, Canberra 2601, Australia. In Eng.
This volume, the first in a projected series, brings together a representative selection of work concerning the cultural, social, and behavioral determinants of health in developing countries. The 14 chapters, which have been previously published, are by various authors and are classified under five topics: the mortality transition, education, family behavior, mechanisms--anthropological investigations, and health programs. The collection is designed to define an emerging field, provide a textbook for teaching, and promote further research.
Correspondence: Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20615 Cassel, Christine K.; Neugarten, Bernice L. A forecast of women's health and longevity. Implications for an aging America. Western Journal of Medicine, Vol. 149, No. 6, Dec 1988. 712-7 pp. San Francisco, California. In Eng.
The authors review current data on the longevity of women in the United States. They examine the health status of elderly women, changes in women's roles related to health status, and special issues for disease prevention that are relevant to women.
Correspondence: C. K. Cassel, University of Chicago, Department of Medicine, Center on Aging, Health and Society, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20616 Cates, Willard. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, sexually transmitted diseases, and epidemiology: past lessons, present knowledge, and future opportunities. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 131, No. 5, May 1990. 749-58 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Epidemiology and its responses and contributions to the study of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States are reviewed, with a focus on the situation concerning AIDS. The author notes that "more than a year before HIV [human immunodeficiency virus] was accepted as the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, early epidemiologic studies led to public health actions which reduced viral transmission. Future research opportunities for epidemiologists will involve a greater behavioral emphasis and will evaluate primary prevention approaches within a variety of target populations."
Correspondence: W. Cates, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Prevention Services (EO2), Division of STD/HIV Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

56:20617 Chayovan, Napaporn; Knodel, John; Wongboonsin, Kua. Infant feeding practices in Thailand: an update from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 40-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Infant feeding practices in Thailand are examined using data from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey. Findings indicate "that the decline in the duration of breastfeeding evident during the 1970s came largely to a standstill in the 1980s. In addition, the proportion initiating breastfeeding, while high throughout the period, has increased to the point where, at the national level, it is now close to universal. These changes coincide with efforts, primarily undertaken or coordinated by the Ministry of Public Health, to promote breastfeeding and discourage use of breast milk substitutes....Most use of bottles with breastfed children is not for the provision of infant formula but for other types of supplemental food."
Correspondence: N. Chayovan, Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20618 Cohen, Mark N. Health and the rise of civilization. ISBN 0-300-04006-7. LC 89-5405. 1989. x, 285 pp. Yale University Press: New Haven, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This is a broad overview of the impact of cultural evolution on health. The approach is interdisciplinary, although the author's background is in archaeology. Changes in behavior throughout evolution and their effects on health are examined and hypothesized using models from contemporary epidemiology and nutrition science and examples from recent history. Ethnographic evidence from surviving primitive groups is analyzed and contrasted with patterns of health and nutrition in recent history and developing countries today. Changes in health and nutrition in prehistorical populations are also examined. Change over time in life expectancy is a major factor considered.
Correspondence: Yale University Press, 302 Temple Street, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:20619 Dupaquier, Michel; Lewes, Fred. Cholera in England during the nineteenth century: medicine as a test of the validity of statistics. [Le cholera en Angleterre au XIXe siecle: la medecine a l'epreuve de la statistique.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 215-21 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In the battle against the cholera epidemics in England matters of fundamental human importance were at stake. In 1837 the government had set up an official system for collecting 'vital statistics'. It was run by a doctor turned demographer [William Farr], impassioned and highly competent, who made it possible to use the statistics of epidemics. After a splendid example of a false correlation which suggested the importance of the air in spreading the disease, a later epidemic offered large scale evidence of the primary role of water. It was a fine example of successful cooperation between scientists, statisticians and political reformers."
Correspondence: M. Dupaquier, Universite de Rennes II, 6 avenue Gaston Berger, 35043 Rennes Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20620 Germain, Adrienne; Antrobus, Peggy. New partnerships in reproductive health care. Populi, Vol. 16, No. 4, Dec 1989. 18-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors focus on the organizations and strategies that have the potential to improve the reproductive health care of women in developing countries. They point out that "programmes addressing women's reproductive health are being given low priority and are likely to suffer more as 'structural adjustment' takes its toll. One solution is to increase international support for strengthening indigenous women's organizations, programmes, networking and alliance-building."
Correspondence: A. Germain, International Women's Health Coalition, P.O. Box 8500, New York, NY 10150. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20621 Mayberry, Robert M.; Lewis, Robert F. Ten-year changes in birthweight distributions of black and white infants, South Carolina. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 80, No. 6, Jun 1990. 724-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The birthweight distributions of Black and White infants in South Carolina were compared for the paired-year periods 1975-76 and 1985-86. No discernible changes in birthweight distributions between the two time periods were observed especially among Black infants....Neonatal mortality rates in South Carolina declined by 32 percent among Blacks...and by 39 percent among Whites...from 1975 to 1986....Clearly the changes in neonatal mortality rates are not explained by changes in birthweight distributions."
Correspondence: R. M. Mayberry, University of South Carolina, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20622 Mollaret, Henri H. The case of the plague. [Le cas de la peste.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 101-10 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends concerning bubonic plague are reviewed. The author notes that although the number of cases around the world is declining, isolated outbreaks do occur. Although mortality from untreated cases of the plague is high, all cases can be cured if treated appropriately at an early stage of the disease.
Correspondence: H. H. Mollaret, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du Dr. Roux, 75015 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20623 Nordisk Medisinal-Statistisk Kommitte [NOMESKO] (Copenhagen, Denmark). Health statistics in the Nordic countries, 1987. [Helsestatistikk i de nordiske land, 1987.] NOMESKO Publication, No. 29, ISBN 87-7303-286-7. 1989. 92 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng; Dan.
"This publication...presents the latest data from the health statistics in the Nordic countries. Some of the tables also include data for previous years. Some data on population, fertility and mortality have been included for the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Aland separately." The data include vital statistics and life expectancy; fertility and perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality; abortion and contraception; and mortality and causes of death.
Correspondence: Nordisk Medisinal-Statistisk Kommitte Sekretariat, c/o Nordisk Statistisk Sekretariat, Postboks 2550, Sejrogade 11, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20624 O'Neil, John; Kaufert, Patricia A. The politics of obstetric care: the Inuit experience. In: Births and power: social change and the politics of reproduction, edited by W. Penn Handwerker. 1990. 53-68 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
"Inuit in remote communities of the Canadian North have experienced, within the space of three decades, a transition from birth in the context of home and family, to birth under the care of a nurse midwife in a community clinic, to birth under the control of physicians in hospitals in southern Canadian cities. This chapter is concerned with the political aspects of this history. It discusses obstetric policy as one aspect of the penetration of southern institutions and controls into the lives of people living in the Canadian North....This chapter explores the historical and political background to the changes in obstetric policies which have taken place in the Keewatin [communities] over the past fifteen years. It uses archival data, government reports and statistics on the place of birth, plus transcripts of the community meetings and material from a series of interviews with physicians, nurses, administrators and Inuit women."
Correspondence: J. O'Neil, University of Manitoba, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20625 Riley, James C.; Alter, George. The epidemiologic transition and morbidity. Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 199-213 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Changes in morbidity that occurred during the epidemiological transition of the nineteenth century are analyzed. "Although attention has been drawn to changing causes of death, the transition in the prevalent types of disease identified by Omran has significant implications for the health of the surviving population. The transition is characterized by a shift from acute to chronic conditions, which can bring about an overall increase in the prevalence of poor health. We will examine briefly the mechanisms by which this can occur and describe its implications for a more complete theory of epidemiologic transition." Data are for the United Kingdom and are from nineteenth-century Friendly Society records.
For the study by Abdel R. Omran, published in 1971, see 37:4037.
Correspondence: J. C. Riley, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20626 Rosenfield, A.; Fathalla, M. F.; Germain, A.; Indriso, C. L. Women's health in the third world: the impact of unwanted pregnancy. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Supplement, No. 3, 1989. x, 178 pp. Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland: Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
This special supplement contains the formal presentations and commentaries from the Second Christopher Tietze International Symposium on Women's Health in the Third World: The Impact of Unwanted Pregnancy, held in October 1989 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It consists of 20 papers that are concerned with women's and physicians' perspectives on unwanted pregnancy in developing countries, ethical and legal considerations, and policy and clinical aspects of providing comprehensive reproductive health services.
Correspondence: Elsevier Science Publishers, Journal Information Center, 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20627 Sargent, Carolyn. The politics of birth: cultural dimensions of pain, virtue, and control among the Bariba of Benin. In: Births and power: social change and the politics of reproduction, edited by W. Penn Handwerker. 1990. 69-79 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, I address shifts in paradigms concerning childbirth held by rural and urban Bariba in People's Republic of Benin, West Africa. I suggest that changes in institutional control of childbirth...and the increasing influence of an ideology of medical management of obstetrics may contribute to a reformulation of cultural constructs regarding birth....I will argue that increasing government control over practice of obstetrics in Benin, and the concomitant diminishing of the responsibilities of household and lineage with regard to birth, carry implications for the management of birth. As one facet of the argument, I will suggest that Bariba initiation rituals strategically influence the ideology of obstetrics. Government policies regulating such rituals, in turn, are likely to modify Bariba understanding of expected and appropriate behavior for women during delivery. I will focus particularly on concepts of expected behavior in response to pain in Bariba society; the linkages between concepts of pain and therapeutic choice; and the implications of transformations in control of the delivery process for the pain response."
Correspondence: C. Sargent, Southern Methodist University, Department of Anthropology, Dallas, TX 75275. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20628 Woods, Robert. Public health in the urban environment (nineteenth and twentieth centuries): hygiene and sanitation measures. [La sante publique en milieu urbain (XIXe-XXe siecles): hygiene et mesures d'assainissement.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 183-95 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to provide a discussion of the various ways in which improvements in standards of hygiene and sanitation affected public health, and thus the level of mortality, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is particularly concerned with the urban environment in Europe and America. The principal argument is as follows: it seems likely that medical intervention did help to promote the cause of public hygiene--especially in the late nineteenth century--that public hygiene represented an important part of public health at that time and that public health improvements clearly did assist the decline of mortality, but that the precise magnitude of these relationships cannot be discerned."
Correspondence: R. Woods, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

56:20629 Bonnelykke, B.; Olsen, J.; Nielsen, J. Coital frequency and twinning. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1990. 191-6 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In a comparative study to enquire whether parents of twins, especially of dizygotic twins, have a higher frequency of sexual intercourse than parents of singleton infants, data on sociodemographic status, coital frequency and other variables were collected using a postal questionnaire. Parents of all twins born alive in Denmark in 1984 or 1985 were included as cases and a random sample of parents of singleton infants born in the same period were controls. No evidence of any difference in coital frequency was found between parents of twins...and parents of singleton infants."
Correspondence: B. Bonnelykke, Aarhus Psychiatric Hospital, Cytogenetics Laboratory, Aarhus, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20630 Shami, S. A.; Schmitt, L. H.; Bittles, A. H. Consanguinity, spousal age at marriage and fertility in seven Pakistani Punjab cities. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1990. 97-105 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"A retrospective study was conducted on spousal age at marriage, time to first birth and total pregnancies in the populations of seven cities in the Pakistani province of Punjab. Consanguineous marriages were strongly favoured with coefficients of inbreeding...for the present generation ranging from 0.0236 to 0.0286. Male and female ages at marriage were younger in consanguineous unions and spousal age differences smaller than in their non-consanguineous counterparts. Time elapsed from marriage to first birth tended to be longer in consanguineous unions but, in general, they had more pregnancies. As consanguinity has been shown to be associated with increased ante- and postnatal mortality in these communities, reproductive compensation provides a credible explanation for the apparent enhanced fertility with inbreeding."
Correspondence: A. H. Bittles, King's College London, Department of Anatomy and Human Biology, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20631 Tas, R. F. J. Multiple births in the Netherlands, 1900-1988. [Meerlingen in Nederland, 1900-1988.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 38, No. 4, Apr 1990. 12-23 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in multiple births in the Netherlands over the course of the twentieth century are analyzed. The young age distribution of the population resulting from multiple births indicates an increase in their survival, which may be due to improved medical treatment for women with fertility problems and better postnatal medical care. Comparisons are made with single births concerning fetal, perinatal, and infant mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1990-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.