Volume 56 - Number 2 - Summer 1990

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

56:20324 Ahmed, Ashraf U. Socio-economic determinants of divorce in Bangladesh. Rural Demography, Vol. 14, No. 1-2, 1987. 61-77 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"This study examines the divorce pattern of Bangladesh with a set of socio-economic factors: education, religion, current residence, childhood residence, work status before and after marriage and age at first marriage. The source of data was ever-married women aged 15-49 of 1975 Bangladesh Fertility Survey. Multiple classification analysis technique was used for analyzing the data....Divorce is found to have a strong inverse relation with age at marriage, and is more common among illiterates, Muslims, and rural women. The duration of marriage before divorce is found to be very low and the divorce rate is strongly associated with childlessness."
Correspondence: A. U. Ahmed, University of Dhaka, Institute of Statistical Research and Training, Ramna, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20325 Antoine, Philippe; Nanitelamio, Jeanne. The rise of the unmarried woman in African cities. Three examples: Pikine, Abidjan, and Brazzaville. [La montee du celibat feminin dans les villes africaines. Trois cas: Pikine, Abidjan et Brazzaville.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 12, ISBN 2-87762-013-1. Apr 1990. 27 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in marriage patterns in the major urban centers of Africa are reviewed using examples from the Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Senegal, and the Congo. In particular, the authors note that the age at first marriage for women is increasing and that more women are remaining unmarried. The reasons for these changes are explored and are found to be due not only to increased female education but also to profound social changes associated with urbanization.
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20326 Belanger, Alain. Multistate life table with duration dependence: an application to Hungarian female marital history. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 5, No. 4, Mar 1990. 347-72 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Building on recent developments in multistate demography, and using data from the 1984 Hungarian microcensus, this paper analyzes the impact that the introduction of duration-specific transitions has on the results of a multistate life table analysis of marital dissolution. The results show that the inclusion of duration has its greatest impact on the distribution of the stationary population between ages 25 and 35."
Correspondence: A. Belanger, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20327 Botev, Nikolai. Nuptiality in the course of the demographic transition: the experience of the Balkan countries. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1990. 107-26 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The paper examines marriage patterns in [Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, and Yugoslavia] during the course of the demographic transition. It is shown by analysis of the available data that cultural and institutional factors, such as family type, kinship structure or religious doctrines, alone, cannot explain adequately all the features of nuptiality in the region....[we take] into account the distinctive historical and developmental context in a given country or region. It is argued that the relative importance of marriage postponement (and celibacy), birth control, and out-migration, as parts of a complex system of 'adjustments' to sustained population growth, was determined by the rate of this growth, as well as by the pace of socio-economic development and a number of other factors (including institutional and cultural ones). The experience of the Balkan countries is explored with this assumption as a background."
Correspondence: N. Botev, Karl Marx Higher Institute of Economics, Demographic Research Laboratory, 1156 Sofia, Bulgaria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20328 Carmichael, Gordon A. First marriage trends in Australia revisited. Australian Family Project Working Paper, No. 10, Feb 1990. 36, [8] pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"In a recent paper Bracher presents a reconsideration of first marriage trends in Australia [for the period 1921-1986] in which he argues that with respect to decisive trends to later and less universal marriage over the past approximately two decades, previous writers have erred on two counts. First, they have wrongly located the onset of change in the mid-1970s and placed the young in its vanguard....Secondly, they have relied too heavily on 'normative' change to explain changing marriage behaviour, seeing economic change in a secondary role. In Bracher's view the case is stronger for attributing the retreat from marriage primarily to economic forces. This paper reviews these two arguments after first taking issue with aspects of Bracher's account of historical trends in age at first marriage in Australia."
For the paper by Bracher, published in 1988, see 55:20399.
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20329 Carmichael, Gordon A. Marriage and informal cohabitation among cohorts of Australian males: evidence from multistate life tables. Australian Family Project Working Paper, No. 8, Jun 1989. 32 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper examines the interplay between recent marriage trends and trends in consensual partnering using data from 2,104 males aged 20-59 who in 1986 participated in a nationally representative survey [in Australia].... What has been the extent of the retreat from formal marriage since the height of the marriage boom? Just how widespread has informal cohabitation become in recent years? How far might the retreat from marriage be attributable to the emergence of living together as an alternative option to getting married? These are the major questions addressed in a study based on multistate life tables constructed for male cohorts aged from 20-24 to 55-59 years using month by month marriage/relationship histories."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20330 Cornell, L. L. Age at marriage, female labor force participation, and parental interests. Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 223-31 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The objective of this paper is to use Coale's description of the timing of marriage and Hajnal's discussion of patterns of marriage in two kinds of societies to argue that age at marriage results from the intersection of parental and bridal interests; that early marriage occurs when parental interests are dominant; and that mean age at first marriage for women will rise when the economy creates labor force opportunities for young, never-married women which increase their value to their parents. This issue is investigated by examining the marriage patterns of daughters within individual sibling sets using population registers from a pre-development society, early modern (1600-1868) Japan."
Correspondence: L. L. Cornell, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20331 Haskey, John; Kiernan, Kathleen. Cohabitation in Great Britain--characteristics and estimated numbers of cohabiting partners. Population Trends, No. 58, Winter 1989. 23-32 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article analyses data on cohabitation--including pre-marital cohabitation--from the 1986 and 1987 General Household Surveys [for Great Britain]....As well as analysing trends and patterns of cohabitation by age, sex, and marital status, the article investigates the variations in the proportions cohabiting according to the cohabitant's region of residence, educational level, and socio-economic group and also examines the effect of cohabitation upon childbearing. It is estimated that in Great Britain in 1986/87, there were about 900 thousand cohabiting couples and over 400 thousand dependent children living in such families."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, OPCS, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20332 Haskey, John. Identical addresses at marriage and pre-marital cohabitation: results from linking marriage registration and census records. Population Trends, No. 59, Spring 1990. 20-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim of the study...was to investigate the characteristics of couples [in the United Kingdom] where both partners had given identical addresses before their marriage and whether this feature signified that the couple had cohabited pre-maritally. Using the results from linking a sample of identical address marriage and 1981 Census records, it is concluded that at least 8--and possibly 9--in every ten such couples had cohabited pre-maritally, so that this feature in a marriage entry is a good indicator of pre-marital cohabitation. The article also gives other information on the social and family circumstances of these identical address/pre-maritally cohabiting couples, such as the household composition and family sizes of the couples to be married."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20333 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). Cohort marriage tables for females in Japan: 1950-1987. Estimates of marital status. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 261, Oct 16, 1989. 70 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Marriage tables for cohorts of Japanese females are presented for the years 1950-1987. Estimates of first marriage, divorce, and remarriage rates by age are included.
Correspondence: Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20334 Kertzer, David I.; Hogan, Dennis P. Reflections on the European marriage pattern: political economy and marriage in Casalecchio, Italy, 1861-1921. Population Issues Research Center Working Paper, No. 1989-02, Apr 1989. 41, [8] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Population Issues Research Center: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Political, economic, demographic, and social changes swept through northern Italy during the mid-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Its relatively traditional sharecropping society was transformed in their wake. This paper focuses on several elements of marriage in a nineteenth-century Emilian town in northern Italy as they evolved during this transformation, and on the implications of these observations for current generalizations about marriage patterns in historical Europe. The data come from a population reconstitution study of the town of Casalecchio di Reno, a rural community near Bologna, for the period 1861-1921....The analysis shows that although Casalecchio was undergoing radical changes in its political economy during this period, marriage and household patterns were slow to change, continuing to exhibit features unique to its sharecropping past."
This paper was originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Population Issues Research Center, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20335 Kosmin, Barry A.; Lerer, Nava; Mayer, Egon. Intermarriage, divorce, and remarriage among American Jews, 1982-87. Family Research Series, No. 1, Aug 1989. iv, 35 pp. City University of New York, Graduate School and University Center, North American Jewish Data Bank: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The marital histories of 6,457 ever married, never widowed, Jewish adults from nine cities around the United States (representing a population of 1.2 million American Jews) were analyzed in order to determine the extent of intermarriage, divorce, and intermarriage upon remarriage, and their possible causal relationship with seven social-demographic factors." Sex and age differentials are included. Findings indicate that "the social composition of the American Jewish family is growing ever more complex by virtue of increasing rates of intermarriage, divorce and remarriage. Among those who are under 40 years-old, 50% of the males and 38% of the females are currently either intermarried, divorced or both. The evidence suggests that these proportions are bound to increase over the coming years, both for these individuals and for the American Jewish population as a whole."
Correspondence: City University of New York, Graduate School and University Center, North American Jewish Data Bank, Box 465, 33 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036-8099. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20336 Lamine Keita, Mohamed. The typology of Guinean marriages: a case study. [La typologie des mariages en Guinee: une etude de cas.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jan 1990. 67-125 pp. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Marriage patterns in Guinea are analyzed using a sample of data from the 1983 census of 1,310 men and 1,812 women living in the city of Kamsar. Factors considered include ethnic origin, place of birth, age, religion, educational status, age difference between spouses, number of wives, and women's rank in polygynous households.
Correspondence: M. Lamine Keita, Ministere du Plan et de la Cooperation Internationale, Division des Resources Humaines, Conakry, Guinea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20337 Leridon, Henri. Cohabitation, marriage, separation: an analysis of life histories of French cohorts from 1968 to 1985. Population Studies, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1990. 127-44 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In the present paper, we consider the conditions under which first unions [in France] take place (type of union and age of parties), as well as their eventual outcome (marriage or separation). Successive cohorts of first unions after 1968 have experienced different histories: the transition from the traditional model to the present one has been characterized by discontinuities. In the most recent cohorts (1980-82), marriage is still the most frequent outcome of first unions that began outside marriage (50 per cent marry within the first three years of the union); pre-marital cohabitation does not appear to have affected the stability of marriage, and altogether one-fifth of first unions are broken within ten years." Data are from individual marital histories collected in 1985 for the Enquiry on Family Life.
For a related study, published by the same author in 1989, see 55:40389.
Correspondence: H. Leridon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20338 Lichter, Daniel T.; LeClere, Felicia B.; McLaughlin, Diane K. Local marriage market conditions and the marital behavior of black and white women. Population Issues Research Center Working Paper, No. 1989-11, Oct 1989. 29, [5] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Population Issues Research Center: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Previous research has typically ignored the spatial dimension of marriage markets, focusing instead on highly aggregated data or on individual models of entry into marriage. A basic premise of our study is that [U.S.] marriage trends are played out across local marriage market areas that define female opportunities for marriage. Using local area data from the newly-released 1980 Public Use Microdata Sample (D file), we provide a direct test of several competing explanations of the apparent retreat from marriage and of black and white differences. Our analysis reveals that (a) local economic opportunities (including welfare) for females, spouse availability, and urbanization contribute significantly to spatial variations in female marriage rates; (b) the local supply of economically 'attractive' males plays an especially large role in the marital behaviors of U.S. black and white women; and (c) racial differences in marriage market conditions accentuate, but do not explain completely, black-white differences in marriage rates."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 392).
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Population Issues Research Center, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20339 McCaa, Robert. Women's position, family and fertility decline in Parral (Mexico) 1777-1930. Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 233-43 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Relationships among women's status, family formation patterns, and fertility in the Parral mining district of northern Mexico over the period 1777-1930 are analyzed. "It is clear that by the middle of the nineteenth century, the proportion of unmarried women rose sharply as did illegitimacy ratios and the percentage of women and children dependent upon themselves. Although marital fertility remained unchanged, overall fertility rates fell by as much as 20 to 30% due to shifting family formation patterns. Future studies of Latin American population history should examine non-marital as well as marital fertility, taking into account errors and ommisions in both instances."
Correspondence: R. McCaa, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20340 Miller, Robert L.; Hayes, Bernadette C. Female marital mobility within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland: a log-linear analysis. Sociological Review, Vol. 38, No. 1, Feb 1990. 111-33 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A series of log-linear models predicting the exchange marital mobility experiences of Irish wives are presented. For the Irish Republic, the best explanatory model is one in which the relationship between a husband's occupational status and that of his father-in-law remains homogeneous across age levels. Women show a marked propensity to marry husbands at a similar occupational status as that of their fathers and long-range upward or downward mobility across the manual/non-manual divide is unlikely....The same general model of homogeneous association holds for Northern Ireland across age levels and religious affiliation. In the North, however, more short-range mobility occurs, particularly between the two upper non-manual groups."
Correspondence: R. L. Miller, Queen's University, Department of Social Studies, Belfast BT7 1LS, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:20341 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Stephen, Elizabeth H. Marital noncohabitation: separation does not make the heart grow fonder. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 1, Feb 1990. 259-69 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
The authors explore marital noncohabitation and its impact on the divorce rate in the United States. Findings indicate that "the percentage of currently married persons living apart in the United States is highest for ages 18-24 and for blacks. The two most common identifiable reasons for husbands and wives not living together are military service and incarceration. We found that those living apart from their spouses in 1976 were nearly twice as likely to experience a marital dissolution within three years, compared with persons cohabiting with their spouses."
Correspondence: R. R. Rindfuss, University of North Carolina, Department of Sociology, CB 3210, Hamilton Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20342 Roden, Michael. Covariates of divorce in Australia: an analysis using proportional hazard models. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 6, No. 2, Nov 1989. 145-63 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper utilizes data from the 1986 Family Formation Survey of the ABS [Australian Bureau of Statistics] to examine the incidence and correlates of divorce among real cohorts of Australian women with specific characteristics. It is shown that marriage cohort, age at marriage, country of birth, area of residence, age left school and fertility status at marriage are related to the risk of divorce. The results of the present investigation complement findings of other studies on divorce in Australia as well as hazard model based studies from the U.S.A., Canada, and New Zealand."
Correspondence: M. Roden, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Demographic Analysis and Research Section, W4Gc, PO Box 10, Belconnen ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20343 Roussel, Louis. After the separation. [En aval de la separation.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1989. 365-76 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in divorce and marital separation in France are reviewed using data from two surveys undertaken in 1985. The breakup of consensual unions is also considered in the analysis. The focus is on the implications of such changes for both the individuals concerned and their children.
Correspondence: L. Roussel, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20344 Tucker, M. Belinda; Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia. New trends in black American interracial marriage: the social structural context. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 52, No. 1, Feb 1990. 209-18 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study addresses the underlying demographic correlates of interracial marriage as distinct among black women and men in a western [U.S.] location. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the structural correlates were nearly identical for men and women: the interracially married tended to be younger, more likely to have been married before, and more distant in age from their spouses....Furthermore, persons born in the North...and in foreign countries were more likely to be married to nonblacks, which seemingly indicates that moves away from communities of origin to environments that are relatively tolerant regarding race facilitate interracial marriage. Findings are interpreted as indicative of the strength of social control in mate selection."
Correspondence: M. B. Tucker, University of California, Center for Afro-American Studies, 160 Haines Hall, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1545. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

56:20345 Andersen, Ellen; Matthiessen, Poul C.; Olgaard, Anders. Residence and housing in the first half of the century. [Boligmasse og boligbyggeri i forste halvdel af dette arhundrede.] Saertryk, 1989. 6-19 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan.
This article, which is primarily concerned with housing in Denmark during the first half of the twentieth century, also considers the impact of demographic factors on housing. Data are included on changes in household characteristics and size by city, town, and parish.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20346 Asian Population and Development Association (Tokyo, Japan). Population and the family in Japan. Population and Development Series, No. 9, Feb 1989. 102 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
Changes affecting the family in Japan are analyzed. Following an introduction and overview, the first chapter deals with historical changes related to the family and examines family types and functions. Other chapters are concerned with trends and analyses of factors causing changes in the family, the family and regional development, and population aging and the family. A chapter on probable future trends in the family and household is included. A final chapter presents results from public opinion surveys on the Japanese family.
Correspondence: Asian Population and Development Association, Nagatacho TBR Building, Room 710, 10-2 Nagatacho 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI. Source: East-West Population Institute, Acquisitions List, May-Jun 1989.

56:20347 Bideau, Alain; Brunet, Guy; Plauchu, Henri. The population of Champfromier at the end of the ancien regime: linking two censuses and vital statistics. [La population de Champfromier a la fin de l'ancien regime: couplage de deux recensements et de l'etat civil.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1989. 269-85 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the 1774 and 1783 censuses of the French parish of Champfromier are used to examine household structure at the end of the ancien regime. The census data are matched with family reconstitution data for five villages in the Valserine valley to examine changes in household structure.
Correspondence: A. Bideau, Centre Pierre Leon, UA CNRS 223, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20348 Bledsoe, Caroline. The politics of children: fosterage and the social management of fertility among the Mende of Sierra Leone. In: Births and power: social change and the politics of reproduction, edited by W. Penn Handwerker. 1990. 81-100 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
The author investigates child fosterage among the Mende of Sierra Leone. "Unlike infanticide, fosterage--one of the most striking features of African families--is not an extreme, irreversible adjustment; it can be done and undone a number of times, even with the same child, to meet new exigencies....I stress the importance of sociopolitical processes of negotiating benefits from children. Mende adults and children can tinker with their relationships, creating new ties, strengthening old ones, and redefining burdensome ones. Thus, cultural labels such as kinship and fosterage are best viewed not as relationships that compel future support, but as idioms for making demands or asserting claims with respect to children....[Data are] from a 1981-82 ethnographic study in a semi-urban Mende town of about 4,400 in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone, and from a return trip in 1985 to a larger town in the Southern Province."
Correspondence: C. Bledsoe, Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, Evanston, IL 60201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20349 Bruschini, Cristina. A sociological approach to the family. [Uma abordagem sociologica de familia.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1989. 1-23 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper discusses the range and limits of some concepts of the family, related to theoretical perspectives and to possibilities of an empirical approach to this social group. It argues that in recent studies of the family one can find the symbolic outlook of anthropology on the one hand, which deepens the analysis of dynamics of family relationships, but is limited to strict segments of society. On the other hand, one can find demography and sociology surveys, capable of framing broad portraits which, although liable to generalization, are static and limited to family relations within the household. As an example of possible methodology, the paper describes the proceedings and results of [a study on] family structure and daily life in the city of Sao Paulo [Brazil], in which the author assembles some of the commented approaches, trying to overcome their limitations."
Correspondence: C. Bruschini, Fundacao Carlos Chagas, CP 11478, Avenue Prof. Francisco Morato 1565, 05513 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20350 de Jong, A. H. Family formation and women with young children. [Gezinsvorming en vrouwen met jonge kinderen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 38, No. 3, Mar 1990. 13-23 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in family characteristics and size in the Netherlands are examined, using the mother and her children as the focus of the analysis. Data are from official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20351 Egerbladh, Inez. From complex to simple family households: peasant households in northern coastal Sweden 1700-1900. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1989. 241-64 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The long-term development of the households of landed peasants was investigated longitudinally in one village, and cross-sectionally in several parishes in northern coastal Sweden. The results showed a dominance of complex family households in a stem family system during the 1700s and development toward simpler family households in the 1800s. Demographic, economic, ecological, geographic, and, to some degree, cultural factors and their changes over time were taken into consideration in an explanation of this transition."
Correspondence: I. Egerbladh, Umea University, Demographic Data Base, S-901 87 Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20352 Heekerens, Hans-Peter. Remarriage and step-families: a bibliography of German, English, and French-language literature from the years 1889-1988. [Wiederheirat und Stieffamilie: eine Bibliographie deutsch-, englisch- und franzosischsprachiger Literatur der Jahre 1889-1988.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 61, 1989. 67 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This unannotated bibliography on remarriage and step-families covers German, English, and French works published between 1889 and 1988. Books, monographs, chapters, articles, and dissertations are listed. The arrangement is alphabetical by author. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: H.-P. Heekerens, Fachhochschule Munchen, Bogenhauser Kirchplatz 3, D-8000 Munich 80, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20353 Jensen, An-Magritt; Moen, Bjorg. Father and mother--sister and brother. [Far og mor--soster og bror.] Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning/Norwegian Journal of Social Research, Vol. 30, No. 5-6, 1989. 461-71 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines recent trends in the characteristics of families with children in Norway. Findings indicate that "ninety-seven per cent of the children are born into families with both parents. The parents, however, are not necessarily married. The results also show a clear tendency towards decreasing numbers of children living with both mother and father by increasing age of the children. This development seems to accelerate for the younger cohort compared with the older....Close to one-fifth of the children in this survey are living in families that are in some way or another affected by a break-up or a new family formation." Data are from the 1988 Children's Families Survey.
Correspondence: A.-M. Jensen, Norsk Institutt for By- og Regionforskning, Nycoveien 1, Oslo 4, Norway. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20354 Joshi, Heather. Changes in family structure and their linkages with the labour market. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 365-77 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author explores changes in family structure in the United Kingdom, with particular focus on the relationship between fertility and women's participation in the labor market. Differentials in women's and men's wages and family responsibilities are examined. Data are from British family surveys for the period 1971-1986.
Correspondence: H. Joshi, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20355 Kurzynowski, Adam. Socio-demographic changes in family life patterns in Poland. [Podstawy spoleczno-demograficzne zmian wzorow zycia rodzinnego w Polsce.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 29, No. 3, 1986. 11-68, 263, 269 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Changes in family life patterns in Poland in the period 1945-1985 are analyzed, including changes in educational levels, occupations, and living conditions. The author notes that socioeconomic development has resulted in full employment, the shift of population from rural to urban areas, and other demographic changes. Changes in the family and household include a reduction in size and the confirmation of the nuclear family as the almost universal family type.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20356 Lerner, Susana; Quesnel, Andre. Socioeconomic changes in family space in a rural population in Yucatan: the emergence of new reproductive behavior. [Transformation de l'espace familial, social et economique dans le milieu rural au Yucatan: l'emergence des conditions d'une nouvelle pratique de la reproduction.] In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 2, 1989. 329-41 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Fre.
Past and recent trends in family characteristics in the sisal-producing region of Yucatan state, Mexico, are examined. Separate consideration is given to the area's economic structure and occupational levels; the decline in mortality since 1940 and its effect on family characteristics; agricultural activity among households and the impact of the family life cycle on family structure; labor force participation among domestic groups; high fertility levels, households, shifts in the labor force, and new ideas of fertility; and population policies, institutional mediators, and the increase in contraceptive use.
Correspondence: S. Lerner, Colegio de Mexico, Camino al Ajusco 20, Mexico DF, 10740 Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20357 Lerner, Susana. The family as an integrating element in population studies and policies. [La familia como elemento integrador en los estudios y politicas de poblacion.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 31, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1989. 185-91 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Family is considered to be a basic category of analysis in population studies as well as a key element in demographic planning. The consequences of reductions of mortality in a population upon the evolution of family structures are analyzed and discussed." The geographical focus is on Mexico.
Correspondence: S. Lerner, Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, Pedregal de Santa Teresa, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:20358 Lutz, Wolfgang; Scherbov, Sergei. Multi-state analysis of family dynamics in Austria: scenarios to the year 2030. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-89-05, Jan 1989. v, 23 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The authors utilize a multi-state life table approach to analyze family dynamics in Austria. Current patterns of family dynamics are analyzed using data from 14,500 women surveyed in 1986. The authors project future distributions of family status based on various assumptions of transition intensities between states.
Correspondence: IIASA, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20359 Mannan, M. A. Family, society, economy and fertility in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep 1989. 67-99 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"This paper examines the socio-economic and cultural conditions under which the large family represents a rational economic goal for parents [in Bangladesh]." The author notes that rural children provide valuable labor services to parents during childhood, grown sons continue to support their parents financially and in other ways, and sons are the most reliable source of security in old age. Daughters, however, remain at home and cost a significant amount for dowries at marriage. It is concluded that prevailing socioeconomic conditions in Bangladesh still provide substantial support for high fertility and son preference.
Correspondence: M. A. Mannan, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:20360 Mason, Andrew; Phananiramai, Mathana; Poapongsakorn, Nipon. Households and their characteristics in the Kingdom of Thailand: projections from 1980 to 2015 using HOMES. HOMES Research Report, No. 1, Nov 1987. 58, [2] pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"The purpose of this report is to provide detailed descriptions--historical information and projections--about the number and demographic characteristics of households in Thailand. For this purpose, special tabulations [using the HOMES model] from the 1970 and 1980 population censuses have been used to analyze the demographic structure of Thai households and...to project households to the year 2015. The tabulations on which analysis is based were compiled in cooperation with the National Statistical Office of Thailand using the 1 percent sample for 1980 and a 2.5 percent sample for 1970." The emphasis is on analyzing the impact of demographic change on both the composition and the number of households in this country where extended or multigenerational families have traditionally been prevalent.
Correspondence: East-West Center, Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20361 Moen, Bjorg. Households in change--what happened since 1960? [Husholdningsutviklingen--hva har skjedd siden 1960?] Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning/Norwegian Journal of Social Research, Vol. 30, No. 5-6, 1989. 447-60 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
"This article describes the household size of people at selected ages in 1960, 1970, and 1980, using [Norwegian] census data....A growing number of elderly and young adults contributed to the rising number of households. Falling fertility rates led to fewer children per family and thus to smaller households. More important, however, is the growing tendency to live alone among all age groups of adults and the elderly....The establishment of the pension system seems to be the most important factor, especially for elderly single women."
Correspondence: B. Moen, Statistisk Sentralbyra, P.B. 8131 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20362 Moen, Bjorg. Number of households and household composition, 1960, 1970, and 1980: some changes in age distribution. [Husholdningsstorrelse og -sammensetning 1960, 1970 og 1980: noen utvalgte alderstrinn.] Rapporter fra Statistisk Sentralbyra, No. 89/15, ISBN 82-537-2847-6. 1989. 50 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Olso-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor.
This report documents the increase in the number of households and decrease in the size of households in Norway using census data for 1960, 1970, and 1980. The focus is on trends in the distribution of age groups in households. Sections are included on demographic trends and trends in the number of households, households with small children and youths, households of 25- to 55-year-olds, and households of the elderly.
Correspondence: Statistisk Sentralbyra, P.B. 8131 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20363 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Household composition and structure in Morocco. [Composition et structures des menages au Maroc.] Jan 1990. 51 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Household characteristics in Morocco are analyzed using data from the 1982 census. The data are for a sample of some 57,000 rural and urban households. The analysis is in three parts, which examine changes in household size over time, household characteristics in 1982, and the characteristics of individuals within households.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa Al Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20364 Noack, Turid. The Norwegian family in change--myths and facts. [Den norske familien i endring--myter og realiteter.] Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning/Norwegian Journal of Social Research, Vol. 30, No. 5-6, 1989. 473-91 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
"Common beliefs and myths about [Norwegian] family patterns are contrasted with the most important demographic trends in the last few decades. We have observed a strong tendency to postpone first births, but to be a first-time mother after 40 years of age is still a rarity. Childlessness and one-child families have increased only slightly. The probability of having a third child has decreased. Today, one-third of all children are born out of wedlock, mostly because of the increase in consensual unions. Age at first marriage has increased and marriage rates decreased as more couples prefer a consensual union instead of marriage as the first stage of living together. Divorce rates have strongly increased since the beginning of the seventies....Cohort fertility seems fairly stable, at a level slightly below replacement."
Correspondence: T. Noack, Statistisk Sentralbyra, P.B. 8131 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway. Location: New York Public Library.

56:20365 Poston, Dudley L.; Cullen, Ruth M. Propensity of white women in the United States to adopt children. Social Biology, Vol. 36, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1989. 167-85 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The objectives of this paper are (1) to estimate the numbers of U.S. women at three different points in time (1973, 1976, and 1982) who have a propensity to adopt, according to various socioeconomic and demographic characteristics; and (2) to compare via log-linear analysis the major characteristics of these women with women who have not shown such a propensity....The major finding of this study is that parity appears to be the most important determinant of the propensity to adopt, although fecundity status and age also have noteworthy effects." Data are from the 1973, 1976, and 1982 National Surveys of Family Growth.
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20366 Repetto, Robert; Shah, Vimal. Demographic and other influence on long-term savings behaviour in a rural development block in India. In: Socio-Economic Development and Population Control, edited by M. E. Khan and D. V. N. Sarma. 1988. 189-205 pp. Manohar: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The impact of high fertility on rural household savings in Gujarat, India, is examined. Findings reveal that larger families are less successful at accumulating assets and that "economic value [is] attached to male children which is reflected in the fact that households with more male children over the age of ten appear to have lower demand for other forms of wealth."
Correspondence: R. Repetto, World Resources Institute, 1709 New York Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20006. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20367 Ruggles, Steven. Family demography and family history: problems and prospects. Historical Methods, Vol. 23, No. 1, Winter 1990. 22-30 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines the concept of family demography, with particular reference to the recent publication of the proceedings of a conference on that topic entitled "Family Demography: Methods and Their Application." The focus is on problems and prospects of family demography and its relevance to historical research.
For the publication referred to, edited by John Bongaarts et al. and published in 1987, see 54:10448.
Correspondence: S. Ruggles, University of Minnesota, Department of History, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20368 Santi, Lawrence L. Household headship among unmarried persons in the United States, 1970-1985. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 2, May 1990. 219-32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Recent trends in rates of household headship and headship differentials by sex and color [in the United States] are examined within the context of a model that expresses the likelihood of heading an independent household as a function of age, marital status, parental status, and individual money income. The parameters of this model are consistent with predictions derived from a 'life-course' perspective and are stable across period, sex, and color. Nonetheless, residual effects of period, sex, and color persist even after the independent variables are taken into account." Data are from Current Population Surveys for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985.
Correspondence: L. L. Santi, University of Arkansas, Center for Research and Public Policy, Little Rock, AR 72204. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20369 Shaw, Chris. Recent trends in family size and family building. Population Trends, No. 58, Winter 1989. 19-22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article....reviews some recent trends in family-building patterns in England and Wales. A lengthening of the interval between marriage and first birth in the 1970s and a sharp increase in the 1980s in the fertility of women aged over 30 indicate a tendency to delay childbearing to later in life. Average completed family size has been falling with more women remaining childless. However, information on future childbearing intentions shows that the two child family remains most young women's ideal."
Correspondence: C. Shaw, OPCS, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20370 Sorrentino, Constance. The changing family in international perspective. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 113, No. 3, Mar 1990. 41-58 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Changes in the family in developed countries over the past 30 years are analyzed. The author notes that "families are becoming smaller and less traditional as fertility rates fall and more persons live alone; Scandinavian countries are the pacesetters in developing nontraditional forms of family living, but the United States has the highest incidence of divorce and of single-parent households."
Correspondence: C. Sorrentino, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Foreign Labor Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20212. Location: Princeton University Library (Docs).

56:20371 Sundin, Jan. Family building in paternalistic proto-industries: a cohort study from nineteenth-century Swedish iron foundries. Journal of Family History, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1989. 265-89 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Family building and household structure in nineteenth-century proto-industrial iron foundries in northern Sweden are examined by comparing the lives of 500 persons born at iron foundries with 600 persons born in an agrarian area. The organization and demands of work, dependence on the business cycle, and paternalism are important factors in explaining the social and demographic patterns at the foundries."
Correspondence: J. Sundin, University of Linkoping, Department of Health in Society, 581 83 Linkoping, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20372 Volkov, A. Ethnically mixed families in the USSR: structure and dynamics. [Etnicheski smeshannye sem'i v SSSR: dinamika i sostav.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 7, 1989. 12-22 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The structure and dynamics of ethnically mixed families in the USSR are analyzed using 1979 census data for a sample of 3,226,000 families, of which 487,000 were mixed. The data are provided by the ethnic groups concerned and by republic.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:20373 Wetzel, James R. American families: 75 years of change. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 113, No. 3, Mar 1990. 4-13 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Trends in family characteristics in the United States over the past 75 years are reviewed. The author notes that "American families have changed in many ways in this century, as our population adapted to evolving technologies, economic conditions, and social trends; changes were particularly pronounced during the 1960's and 1970's as the baby-boom generation reached adulthood."
Correspondence: J. R. Wetzel, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for Demographic Studies, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (Docs).

56:20374 Winchester, Hilary P. M. Women and children last: the poverty and marginalization of one-parent families. Institute of British Geographers: Transactions, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1990. 70-86 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The spatial distribution and socioeconomic status of one-parent families in Great Britain and Australia are described, and reasons for the increase in this type of family are analyzed. The author finds that "one-parent families, largely composed of women and children, constitute one of the most rapidly-growing family types. Evidence from Britain and Australia reveals their extreme marginalization in the labour market, and their concentration into public housing. These problems are related to patriarchal structures within society, particularly the expectations of traditional gender roles and the segregation of women's job opportunities."
Correspondence: H. P. M. Winchester, University of Wollongong, Department of Geography, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

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