Volume 56 - Number 1 - Spring 1990

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

56:10653 Adams, Paul. Family policy and labor migration in East and West Germany. Social Service Review, No. 63, Jun 1989. 245-63 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Faced with immediate labor shortages and low birth rates, governments of foreign states have attempted to regulate their labor supplies by preventing emigration of workers and children, importing 'guest workers,' supporting child rearing through special social provisions, or encouraging the employment of women. The case of the two German states is examined for the light it casts on the capacity of states to manage the reproduction of their labor forces or to enforce the intergenerational contract on which the welfare state depends, through social policy."
Correspondence: P. Adams, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10654 Andorka, Rudolf. Successes and failures in the field of population policies since 1984. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 27, 1989. 30-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews the successes and failures in the field of population policies since 1984 based on the goals established at the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest and reaffirmed at the 1984 International Conference on Population in Mexico City. "Acceptance of the need to formulate population goals and policies grew, especially in the less developed countries. Progress was made in reducing mortality, but the goals set by the international community were not fully met. Results in the area of fertility were markedly heterogeneous between regions. Rather more was accomplished in restraining the rapid growth of the largest urban agglomerations, and in some countries there is greater freedom of internal migration, although coercive resettlement policies are still found in a few countries."
Correspondence: R. Andorka, Karl Marx University of Economic Sciences, 1093 Budapest IX, Dimitrov-ter 8, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10655 Banister, Judith. Vietnam's evolving population policies. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 155-68 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author discusses Viet Nam's evolving population policies and the impact of fertility levels, family planning, and the economy on policy changes.
Correspondence: J. Banister, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10656 Hohn, Charlotte. On the concept of population-relevant policies against the background of a population decline. [Zum Konzept bevolkerungsrelevanter Politiken auf dem Hintergrund eines Bevolkerungsruckgangs.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1989. 211-20 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The essay deals with the various political aims relating to population,...family [and demographic change,] and the goal conflicts resulting therefrom....[An attempt is made] to differentiate the multitude of political influences on the development of the family and of the population according to direct...and indirect measures." The geographical focus is on developed countries that have experienced a stagnation or decline in population growth. Specific examples from West Germany are included.
Correspondence: C. Hohn, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 55 28, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10657 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). The integration of demographic variables into development plans in Morocco: the experience of a generation, 1960-1964--1988-1992. [Integration des variables demographiques dans les plans de developpement au Maroc: l'experience d'une generation 1960/1964-1988/1992.] Mar 1989. 59 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
The experience of Morocco concerning the inclusion of demographic considerations in the seven five-year development plans adopted between 1960 and 1988 is described. Separate consideration is given to the incorporation of demographic data in the plans and the discussion of specific demographic problems. The paper concludes with suggestions for improving the demographic component of future development plans.
Correspondence: Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 178, Charii Maa El Ainain, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10658 Nerlove, M. Population policy and individual choice. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jun 1988. 17-31 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"The general equilibrium implications of endogenous fertility for several social issues of population policy are examined. Laissez-faire is found to lead to Pareto optimality within generations even in the presence of public goods and Malthusian diminishing returns. On the other hand, bequests emerge as a major potential source of Pareto inefficiency when parents care about the number and welfare of their offspring. Also considered are questions of intergenerational justice and equity using an intergenerational social welfare function. It is shown that maximizing the sum of utilities always leads to a larger population than maximizing per capita utility, but that the laissez-faire solution may lie outside the interval bounded by the two criteria."
Correspondence: M. Nerlove, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10659 Orubuloye, I. O. Population policy in Nigeria. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 451-72 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
"The primary aim of this presentation is to examine the demographic situation of Nigeria in historical context and [the] measures which have been taken to ameliorate the undesirable consequences of high population growth." Objectives of the national population policy are outlined, and the mechanisms for implementing the policy are assessed.
Correspondence: I. O. Orubuloye, Ondo State University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Ado-Ekiti, Ondo State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10660 Osuide, Simeon O. The 1988 Nigerian population policy. Habitat International, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1988. 119-23 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Nigeria's current population policy is reviewed.
Correspondence: S. O. Osuide, Bendel State University, PO Box 67, Ekpoma, Bendel State, Nigeria. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10661 Oucho, J. O. Formulation, implementation and impact of population policy in Kenya. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 548-98 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
The author examines "the formulation, implementation and impact of Kenya's population policy. Previous assessments of the country's population policy have taken a rather narrow perspective by limiting themselves to family planning which addresses only fertility, and no more. [This] report goes beyond that perspective by critically examining population policy in broad terms to include not only family planning and maternal and child health (FP/MCH), but also the welfare of population in general as well as specific population groups."
Correspondence: J. O. Oucho, University of Nairobi, Population Studies and Research Institute, POB 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10662 Population Council (Nairobi, Kenya). Population trends and policies in Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic) and Cambodia (Democratic Kampuchea). In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 143-53 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Current population trends and policies in Laos and Cambodia are discussed, including overviews of the demographic situation in both countries.
Correspondence: Population Council, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10663 Schauble, Wolfgang. The social and economic impact of demographic trends: family policy at the crossroads. German Comments, No. 13, Jan 1989. 59-71 pp. Osnabruck, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author describes the efforts of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany to develop social policies to cope with the consequences of current demographic trends in the country. Consideration is given to policies concerning education, the labor force, and the family.
Location: New York Public Library.

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

56:10664 Bianco, Lucien; Hua, Chang-Ming. The Chinese population faced with the one-child policy. [La population chinoise face a la regle de l'enfant unique.] Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales, No. 78, Jun 1989. 31-40, 110, 112, 114 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
The authors discuss the difficulties encountered by the authorities in China while attempting to enforce the one-child policy. The policy's widespread unpopularity is noted, and the aggressive enforcement tactics of local officials are described. The efforts of couples, particularly in rural areas, to evade the one-child rule are also detailed, including leaving home to give birth, repudiating a wife with a daughter in order to have a chance for a son, and infanticide. China's relative success in accelerating the fertility transition in light of these difficulties is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10665 Botton Beja, Flora; Cornejo Bustamante, Romer. The one-child policy in China. [La politica de un solo hijo en China.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 4, No. 2, May-Aug 1989. 343-76, 431 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article describes family planning policies in the People's Republic of China until 1979. The policy of only one child is framed within the most salient features of Chinese society, and stress is laid on the role of the family structure and of traditional and contemporary mechanisms of social control. The authors show that, despite the relative success of the family planning campaign in urban areas, the Chinese government has yet to reach the goals it set. This situation is accounted for, in historical terms, by changes in the fertility rate, and in ideological terms, by the weight of a specific traditional family structure. This research is mainly based on Chinese sources, as well as on fieldwork conducted by the authors."
Correspondence: F. Botton Beja, Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios de Asia y Africa, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10666 Caldwell, John C.; Larson, Ann. Changing population rates, policies and attitudes in Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 27, 1989. 42-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper will explore the relationships between population growth rates, governmental policies and social attitudes in three regions: Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. The comparative success of family planning programmes in certain countries of South Asia (most notably, India and Sri Lanka) can be partly ascribed to their long tradition of governmental leadership. In addition, families in those countries have strong incentives to educate their children. On the other hand, in North Africa and the Middle East, high levels of urbanization have had antinalist effects, which are offset by very low levels of girls' schooling and of female employment outside the home. In sub-Saharan Africa, high fertility is sustained by the structure of the family, with its tendency to separate reproductive decision-making from responsibility for child-rearing. In addition, governments there have a comparatively weaker tradition of leadership in areas such as family behaviour."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, GPO 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10667 Chaudhry, Mahinder D. Population policy in India. Population and Environment, Vol. 11, No. 2, Winter 1989. 101-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to review the progress so far made in reducing the fertility level [in India] and to appraise the prospects of reaching replacement level fertility at the national level. The evolution of population policy is traced and the target formulation and successes in various five-year plans are discussed....The long-term goal is evaluated...[and] the stalled decline in the crude birth rate is analyzed...." Consideration is given to the impact of population policy. Data are from official sources for the year 1986.
Correspondence: M. D. Chaudhry, Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Political and Economic Science, Kingston, Ontario K7K 5L0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10668 Cheung, Paul P. L. Recent changes in population policies: Malaysia and Singapore. In: International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27, 1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 133-42 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author reviews the reversals in the population policies of Malaysia and Singapore from antinatalist to pronatalist, examines the new policy objectives, and assesses the likelihood of their success. Implications for other Asian countries are discussed.
Correspondence: P. P. L. Cheung, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10669 Cho, Nam-Hoon; Seo, Moon-Hee. Current status and future directions of the population control policies in Korea. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jul 1989. 120-47 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
"The principal aim of this paper is to review recent changes in socio-economic and demographic conditions, and existing population control policies and programs in [South] Korea in an effort to formulate future policy directions and strategies. Major data sources drawn upon in this paper are the 1988 National Fertility and Family Health Survey,...and the 1985 Population and Housing Census...."
Correspondence: N.-H. Cho, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10670 Hollerbach, Paula. The impact of national policies on the acceptance of sterilization in Colombia and Costa Rica. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 20, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1989. 308-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present article examines the demographic and programmatic determinants of [female] sterilization during the late 1970s and 1980s in Colombia and Costa Rica....Analysis of the impact of national policies on the prevalence of sterilization in both counties over a 15-year period is particularly instructive, given the divergence in trends and variation in the characteristics of women selecting the method. These demographic trends are a result of policies enacted to regulate eligibility criteria or conditions permitting access to sterilization, the cost of the procedure, and the compensation given to personnel performing the procedures. Emphasis is placed on the policies affecting acceptance of female sterilization in both countries." Educational, geographical, and socioeconomic differentials among acceptors are considered.
Correspondence: P. Hollerbach, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10671 Kojima, Hiroshi. The effectiveness of pronatalist policies. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 2; 191, Jul 1989. 15-34 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The effectiveness, methodologies, and results of pronatalist policies in Western Europe are examined in the first part of this paper. Next, determinants of the acceptability of fertility policies in Japan are analyzed using data from a 1985 survey of married male household heads. Factors considered include marriage age, parity, income, and geographic location.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10672 Kumekpor, T. K.; Batse, Z. K. M.; Twum-Baah, Kwaku. Formulation, implementation and impact of population policy in Ghana. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 351-407 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
"The Ghana population policy is unique in the sense that it is a comprehensive document which identifies the problems which rapid population growth poses for socio-economic development, spells out both long term and short term policy objectives and targets and suggests actual implementation structures and strategies. In this paper, first the evolution of Ghana's population policy is examined, followed by a detailed description of the plan for the implementation of the policy. Later the family planning aspects of the policy are examined. For want of space, the non-family planning aspects of the policy are excluded from the discussion. Finally a summary is given."
Correspondence: T. K. Kumekpor, University of Ghana, Department of Sociology, POB 25, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10673 Li, Shaomin. China's population policy: a model of a constant stream of births. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1989. 279-300 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The current population policy of China, which emphasizes one child per family, is facing considerable challenge brought about by socioeconomic reforms. The principal challenge is greater individual freedom created by the reforms. The present article examines this conflict. Based on cohort-period fertility analysis, the author proposes a policy of a constant stream of births which ensures a moderate growth rate and a smooth age structure while enabling each couple to have at least two children. Simulation suggests that, in order to achieve the two goals of limiting population size...and allowing more individual fertility choice...the annual stream of births should be around 20 million and the mean age of childbearing has to increase from 26 to 30 over the next 10-15 years."
This paper was originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, Fall 1989, p. 396).
Correspondence: S. Li, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10674 Rajcooman, Vakil; Hanoomanjee, Esther. Formulation, implementation and impact of population policy in Mauritius. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 473-504 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
The authors examine the development of population policy in Mauritius. The focus is on motivations for initiating a national population policy, implementation strategy, encouragement of family planning and contraceptive use, and evaluation of the plan's goals and accomplishments.
Correspondence: V. Rajcooman, World Health Organization, Health Information and Documentation, Port Louis, Mauritius. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10675 Taylor-Thomas, J. T. The Gambian national population policy and programmes. In: Developments in Family Planning Policies and Programmes in Africa. 1989. 505-22 pp. University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies [RIPS]: Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
Population policy and programs in the Gambia are described and assessed. Aspects considered include past attempts to formulate population and family planning policies, traditional family planning practices, population-related projects and activities, and constraints to family planning.
Correspondence: J. T. Taylor-Thomas, Gambia Family Planning Association, Banjul, Gambia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

56:10676 Betts, Katharine. Ideology and immigration: Australia 1976 to 1987. ISBN 0-522-84351-4. 1988. ix, 234 pp. Melbourne University Press: Carlton, Australia. In Eng.
The author develops the hypothesis that Australia's policies encouraging immigration from 1976 to 1987 have been influenced by an elitist intellectual lobby, which has in turn labelled proposals to limit immigration as racist. She examines the role of intellectuals in this process, the development of their pro-immigration attitudes, and the reasons few seem willing to oppose further large-scale immigration.
Correspondence: Melbourne University Press, PO Box 278, Carlton South, Victoria 3053, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:10677 Devoto, Fernando J. Argentine migration policy and movements of the European population (1876-1925). [Politicas migratorias argentinas y flujo de poblacion europea (1876-1925).] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 4, No. 11, Apr 1989. 135-58 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper analyzes Argentine migration policies and the limits in their efforts to intensify or re-direct European migration flow. When studying administrative and parliamentary initiatives between the last quarter of the 19th century and the first quarter of the 20th century, the ambiguous attitude of the Argentine ruling group, especially regarding the kind of immigration to foster and the means of achieving the expected results, becomes apparent. On the other side, a continuity in migration policies can also be traced, evidencing the permanence of certain ideological myths generally shared, even beyond political differences among Argentine political groups."
Correspondence: F. J. Devoto, Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos [CEMLA], Calle Necochea 330, 1158 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10678 Dowty, Alan. Closed borders: the contemporary assault on freedom of movement. A Twentieth Century Fund Report, ISBN 0-300-03824-0. LC 86-23399. 1987. xvii, 270 pp. Yale University Press: New Haven, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines "how different countries throughout history have dealt with movement in and out of their borders, explores why governments resort to restrictive measures, and describes the effects these policies have had." A case is made for open borders that would allow individuals to emigrate or immigrate at will. The author "assesses strategies to bring political pressure to bear on those states that violate the fundamental right of their citizens to self-determination and then calls on the United States to rethink its own restrictions on immigration and refugees and to take the lead in demanding freedom of movement throughout the world."
Correspondence: Yale University Press, 92A Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

56:10679 Goodwin-Gill, Guy S. International law and human rights: trends concerning international migrants and refugees. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 526-46 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article locates both migrants and refugees squarely within the human rights context, contrasting inalienable rights with the demands of sovereignty, and juxtaposing the two in a context of existing and developing international standards. Migration and refugee flows will go on, and the developed world, in particular, must address the consequences--legal, humanitarian, socioeconomic and cultural. Racism and institutionalized denials of basic rights daily challenge the common interest. This article shows how the law must evolve, responding coherently to contemporary problems, if the structure of rights and freedoms is to be maintained."
Correspondence: G. S. Goodwin-Gill, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10680 Havet, Jose. Staying on: retention and migration in peasant societies. International Development, No. 4, ISBN 0-7766-3312-0. 1988. xviii, 220 pp. University of Ottawa Press: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
This book is a product of a colloquium titled Rural Development and Retention of the Rural Population in the Countryside of Developing Countries, held at the University of Ottawa, October 29-31, 1981. The 12 papers, by various authors, include seven case studies concerning Bangladesh, Malaysia, Ghana, Mexico, Guatemala, Peru, and Brazil. The other chapters present an overview of the problem of retention, examine communications problems in this context, and consider the experiences of China, Cuba, and the Eastern European countries, the only countries that have attempted to implement retention policies to date.
Correspondence: University of Ottawa Press, 603 Cumberland, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10681 Li, K. T.; Tsai, H. H. Urban and population decentralization policies: the experience of Taiwan, R.O.C. Industry of Free China, Vol. 69, No. 1, Jan 1988. 1-4 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
The policies that have been successfully implemented in Taiwan to minimize the impact of urbanization and to slow the pace of population concentration are described. Consideration is given to policies designed to affect spatial distribution both directly and indirectly.
Correspondence: H. H. Tsai, Council for Economic Planning and Development, Urban and Housing Development Department, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

56:10682 Li, Rose M. Migration to China's northern frontier, 1953-82. Population and Development Review, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1989. 503-38, 604, 606 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This note examines the evolution of government policies toward Han migration to China's northern frontier, a region that borders the Soviet Union, looking specifically at the provinces of Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, and Inner Mongolia. In addition to assessing the demographic impact of Chinese policies, the author consolidates existing migration figures and develops a methodology for estimating Han net migration to the northern frontier region during two intercensal periods. She also presents estimates of the rates of natural increase of the Han Chinese in each of the three provinces."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 55, No. 3, p. 428).
Correspondence: R. M. Li, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10683 Martin, David A. Effects of international law on migration policy and practice: the uses of hypocrisy. International Migration Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Fall 1989. 547-78 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Classical learning recognizes no role for international law in affecting migration policy and practice, but in modern times the salutary effects are increasing, although they remain modest. International law influences migration policy primarily through effective invocation of various forms of 'soft law' in internal and international political forums. More limited prospects exist for beneficial changes enforced by international institutions and domestic courts. The article cautions against inflated expectations in the latter settings, however, particularly because overly ambitious claims can be counterproductive. It then offers a few predictions about near-term effects of international law, having to do with departures from a country, refugee law and the integration of migrants into their new homelands."
Correspondence: D. A. Martin, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10684 Nahmias, Steven. Optimal strategies for the immigration lottery. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 6, 1989. 355-60 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper considers the so-called OP-1 program in which certain foreign nationals can apply to a lottery for resident alien status in the United States. Based on the way the lottery will be administered, there are advantages for a candidate to submit multiple applications. We find the optimal number of applications for a candidate to submit in order to maximize his or her chances of winning. We also consider two extensions to a multiple year lottery. Current legislation has made no provision for repeating the lottery so these extensions would be relevant only if new legislation is passed."
Correspondence: S. Nahmias, Santa Clara University, Department of Decision and Information Sciences, Santa Clara, CA 95053. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10685 Perruchoud, R. Family reunification. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 27, No. 4, Dec 1989. 509-24 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author explores the problem of family reunification in the context of international migration. The focus is on international and national legislation, policies, and provisions concerning family reunification. The need for international cooperation to resolve the problems arising from international migration and the desire to reunite families is noted.
Correspondence: R. Perruchoud, Intergovernmental Committee for Migration, P.O. Box 71, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10686 Sassen, Saskia. America's immigration "problem" World Policy Journal, Vol. 6, No. 4, Fall 1989. 811-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author challenges assumptions underlying current U.S. immigration policy, especially the idea that immigrants are primarily motivated by poverty, economic stagnation, and overpopulation in their countries of origin. It is argued that immigration is instead a by-product of U.S. involvement in the global economy, which in turn creates powerful forces affecting the outflow of emigrants from developing countries and the influx of immigrants to the United States. It is concluded that current U.S. immigration policy is unworkable in these circumstances.
Correspondence: S. Sassen, Columbia University, Graduate School of Architecture and Planning, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

56:10687 Townroe, Peter M. The case for experimental, adaptive restraint policies in developing nation metropolitan areas. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1989. 131-46 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"Many developing nations have introduced policies designed to slow the rate of population growth of their largest cities. This article argues that there is a strong case for an explicit experimental or adaptive approach in policy design. Using the examples of Sao Paulo in Brazil and Seoul in South Korea, it is argued that coordinated trial and error methods with appropriate monitoring, evaluation, and policy revision can prove beneficial, especially given the high levels of uncertainty which surround both the objectives and the contexts of urbanization policies in most countries."
Correspondence: P. M. Townroe, University of East Anglia, School of Economic and Social Studies, Norwich NR4 7TJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

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