International Labour Office [ILO] (Geneva,
Switzerland). From pyramid to pillar: population change
and social security in Europe. ISBN 92-2-106497-2. 1989. viii, 187
pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The effect of projected trends in demographic aging on social security in Europe and the possible impact of changes in family policy, including social security measures, on demographic change are examined. "After taking stock of the major population trends to the year 2025, using the most recent available data, [the book] analyses three important aspects: social security measures designed to support and strengthen the family; income maintenance for the elderly, particularly through pension schemes; and the increasing cost of medical care financed by social security. It lays stress on innovative policies with regard to retirement pensions and health care systems to meet the specific needs of the elderly."
Correspondence: ILO, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.
Bourdais, Celine. Demography and women: new
approaches. [Demographie et femmes: nouvelles approches.] Cahiers
Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 1989. 3-13 pp.
Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
This is an introduction to a special issue of the Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie devoted to women and demography in Canada. The focus is on aspects of recent demographic studies that particularly involve women, including the large-scale entry of women into the labor force, the adequacy of traditional methods of collecting population statistics, and the substantive demographic and social changes that have had a considerable effect on living conditions, especially for women.
Correspondence: C. Le Bourdais, Universite du Quebec, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique--Urbanisation, 3465 rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Ron. Production and reproduction in Sub-Saharan Africa:
an overview of organizing principles. In: Reproduction and social
organization in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Ron J. Lesthaeghe. 1989.
13-59 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London,
England. In Eng.
This chapter offers a summary of the specific features of social organization in Sub-Saharan Africa. The focus is on how the basic organizational and socioeconomic differences among the countries of this heterogeneous continent are related to its reproduction. The contributors have "drawn on the work of Ester Boserup (1970) and Jack Goody (1976) who offered precise and especially verifiable propositions with respect to the links between reproductive systems on the one hand, and modes of production, gender relations, and exchange of the productive and reproductive capacities of women on the other. Their propositions, along with those of several other authors, are also described...."
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Ron J. Reproduction and social organization in Sub-Saharan
Africa. Studies in Demography, No. 4, ISBN 0-520-06363-5. LC
88-31501. 1989. xi, 556 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley,
California/London, England. In Eng.
"Unlike most Asian and Latin American countries, sub-Saharan Africa has seen both an increase in population growth rates and a weakening of traditional patterns of child-spacing since the 1960s. It is tempting to conclude that sub-Saharan countries have simply not reached adequate levels of income, education, and urbanization for a fertility decline to occur. This book argues, however, that such a socio-economic threshold hypothesis will not provide an adequate basis for comparison. The contributors to this volume take the view that any reproductive regime is also anchored to a broader pattern of social organization, including the prevailing modes of production, rules of exchange, patterns of religious systems, kinship structure, division of labor, and gender roles. They link the characteristic features of the African reproductive regime with regard to nuptiality, polygyny, breastfeeding, postpartum abstinence, sterility, and child-fostering to other specifically African characteristics of social organization and culture. Substantial attention is paid to the heterogeneity that prevails among sub-Saharan societies and considerable use is made, therefore, of inter-ethnic comparisons."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: University of California Press, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Nafis. Investing in women: the focus of the
nineties. Populi, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1989. 4-19 pp. New York, New
York. In Eng.
The importance of considering the needs of women in development planning is discussed, with a focus on raising the educational status of women, particularly poor women in developing countries. The author contends that education for women will be the key determinant of fertility decline and social development in the upcoming decade. It is noted that educated women have fewer children and that children of educated women are healthier and live longer. The goals of the United Nations Population Fund concerning women are outlined, and recommendations are discussed.
Correspondence: N. Sadik, UNFPA, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Helen. Women, population and development trends since
1984. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 27, 1989.
13-29 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reviews progress over the past five years with respect to the six recommendations adopted at the International Conference on Population 1984, which specifically address the situation of women. They include: integrating women into development; women's economic participation; education, training and employment; raising the age at marriage; the active involvement of men in all areas of family responsibility; the ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Several important areas potentially relevant to population issues which were omitted from the Conference recommendations are identified and discussed....Finally, progress made with respect to data on women is highlighted, and caution is advised with respect to continued calls for new data."
Correspondence: H. Ware, 26 Booth Crescent, Cook, ACT 2614, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
56:10635 Barnes, G.
P.; McLeod, R. The criteria for revising constituency
boundaries. Population Trends, No. 57, Autumn 1989. 30-4 pp.
London, England. In Eng.
This article explains the historical background, current rules, and practical considerations concerning the work of the Boundary Commission for England, the organization that reviews parliamentary constituency boundaries. Demographic and other factors affecting constituency changes are considered.
Correspondence: R. McLeod, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Boundary Commission for England, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
56:10636 Kvasha, A.
Ya. On methods for estimation of casualties during the
great patriotic war. [O metodike opredeleniya lyudskikh poter' v
velikoi otechestvennoi voine.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 1,
1989. 60-6 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Issues concerning the measurement of mortality from war are considered, with particular reference to the Soviet experience in World War II. The author considers three categories of deaths: direct casualties, or servicemen and women and civilians who were killed; indirect casualties, or those who might have been born under normal peacetime conditions; and secondary casualties, which are mainly of a psycho-social nature and have been the least studied. Methodological issues of calculating numbers of casualties in these three categories are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
Wilfried. Demographic analysis of voting behaviour.
In: Referate zum deutsch-franzosischen Arbeitstreffen auf dem Gebiet
der Demographie vom 21. bis 24. September 1987 in Rouen. Materialien
zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 62, 1989. 27-43 pp. Bundesinstitut
fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In
Characteristics of the voting population in West Germany are discussed. "The...paper will present in comparative form the changes of the age structure of the eligible voters, their electoral participation and the votes cast in the Bundestag elections since 1957. The [data] have been derived from the representative statistics of the Bundestag elections."
Correspondence: W. Linke, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, D-6200 Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Francis. Bread and the plague: epidemics and subsistence
in Old Castile at the end of the sixteenth century. [Le pain et la
peste: epidemie et subsistances en Vieille-Castille a la fin du XVIe
siecle.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1988. 208-20 pp. Paris,
France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The relationship between availability of subsistence food and epidemics of the plague (studied here in Old Castile [Spain] in 1597-1600) is complex. At the time, the relationship between malnutrition and disease was considered to be direct, which explains the policy constantly adopted by the authorities: to feed the population in order to prevent the disease and to treat it; distributing bread was also a means of calming social unrest. In reality, the causal relation is more an indirect one: the spread of the epidemic was above all favoured by the greater mobility of the population, largely motivated by the search for food."
Correspondence: F. Brumont, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique [CNRS], GRECO 30, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Pierre; Locoh, Therese. Social and cultural factors
related to health in West Africa. [Facteurs culturels et sociaux
de la sante en Afrique de l'Ouest.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 10, ISBN
2-87762-011-5. Jan 1990. 36 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le
Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper studies socio-cultural factors and their impact on health [in Western Africa]. Modern and traditional treatments of some common diseases (measles, tetanus, cholera) are described to stress the interference of cultural representations and community behaviour on these diseases. The influence of reproductive behaviour in the life cycle, of therapeutic resources and representations of diseases, of accessibility to health services and medicine and finally of maternal education are examined. In their concluding comments, the authors suggest some research priorities to improve knowledge in the field of socio-cultural aspects of health status in West Africa, in order to implement more efficient health policies."
Correspondence: CEPED, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
James; Lwanga, S.; Mann, Jonathan M. The global
epidemiology and projected short-term demographic impact of AIDS.
Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 27, 1989. 54-68 pp. New
York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper summarizes the natural history, surveillance and global patterns of infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the etiologic agent of AIDS....The natural progress of the disease is described....Available evidence on the speed of progression from infection to AIDS and possible co-factors in that progression are reviewed. The three patterns of AIDS which are described characterize the experience of different regions according to the types of transmission (i.e., homosexual vs. heterosexual, contaminated blood, drug use) and demographic characteristics of the affected persons. An epidemiologically based short-term forecasting model for AIDS cases is presented and used to project the demographic impact of AIDS in a hypothetical central African country."
Correspondence: J. Chin, World Health Organization, Global Programme on AIDS, Forecasting and Impact Assessment Unit, 27 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Julio; Frejka, Tomas; Bobadilla, Jose L.; Stern, Claudio; Sepulveda,
Jaime; Jose, Marco. The epidemiologic transition in Latin
America. In: International Population Conference/Congres
International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27,
1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 419-31 pp. International Union for the Scientific
Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Health conditions in Latin America are discussed in light of the region's epidemiological transition. This transition is described by the authors as "the longterm changes in the patterns of death, disease and disability that characterise specific populations and that usually accompany broader transformations in their demographic, social and economic structures." The origins and meaning of this concept are outlined. "The paper selects two cases, Costa Rica and Mexico to offer a more dynamic view of the changes in health through time....Finally, the last section draws out the implications of the empirical analysis for the further elaboration of the epidemiological transition theory. Specifically we suggest that a number of Latin American countries might fit a new model of the transition."
Correspondence: J. Frenk, National Institute of Public Health, Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Theodore J.; Grossman, Michael. Pregnancy wantedness and
the early initiation of prenatal care. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 1,
Feb 1990. 1-17 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The study examines the impact of the wantedness of a pregnancy on the demand for early prenatal care. Using a cohort of pregnant women in New York City, we estimate a prenatal care demand function in which we control for the probability of giving birth, given a woman is pregnant. We interpret this control as a measure of wantedness. The results indicate that...by allowing women to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, induced abortion increases the average use of prenatal care among black and Hispanic women relative to what would have been observed if the women who aborted had instead given birth."
Correspondence: T. J. Joyce, City University of New York, Baruch College, Department of Health Care Administration, 269 Mercer Street, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
56:10643 Kutty, V.
Raman. Women's education and its influence on attitudes to
aspects of child-care in a village community in Kerala. Social
Science and Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 11, 1989. 1,299-303 pp. Elmsford,
New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this study of 78 rural mothers of preschoolers in Trichur District, Kerala, India, the author attempts to measure the impact of 10 years of schooling on their attitudes to five important aspects of child-care which have been hypothesized to be key factors in improved child survival. The possible reasons for the important findings of (1) stronger positive attitudes towards traditional aspects of child-care such as breast-feeding, and weaker positive attitudes towards immunization, and (2) no significant difference between educated and less educated women in any of the areas tested, are discussed. The study also explores the question of whether the education of husbands is more important in producing positive attitudes in women than their own educational status, and finds evidence to show that this is so with respect to immunization. The reasons for this are discussed."
Correspondence: V. R. Kutty, Sri Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695 011, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
Peck, A. Maria; Vagero, Denny H. Adult body height, self
perceived health and mortality in the Swedish population. Journal
of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 43, No. 4, Dec 1989. 380-4
pp. London, England. In Eng.
The purpose of this study is to examine adult body height as an indicator of general health using data from a 1980-1981 randomly selected sample of the adult Swedish population. "Information was obtained on adult height, socioeconomic status in childhood and adult life, self perceived health, self reported longstanding illness, and mortality during a six year follow up....[Findings indicate that] there is a detectable excess risk of morbidity and mortality from being short. Assuming that the childhood environment is an important determinant of adult stature it is also important for adult health."
Correspondence: A. M. Nystrom Peck, Huddinge University Hospital, Department of Social Medicine, Huddinge, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Anne R.; Elo, Irma T. The relationship of birth spacing
and child health. In: International Population Conference/Congres
International de la Population, New Delhi, September/septembre 20-27,
1989. Vol. 1, 1989. 403-17 pp. International Union for the Scientific
Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper, we summarise hypotheses about the association between birth spacing and child health [and mortality], describe methodological problems which complicate analysis of this topic, and discuss needed research. Our discussion is limited to the association between birth spacing and child health, because very little research has been carried out on the association between birth spacing and maternal health. As will be clear throughout the paper, however, birth spacing may have important consequences for maternal health...." The geographical focus is on developing countries and data are from the World Fertility Survey for the period 1974-1982.
Correspondence: A. R. Pebley, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Larissa I. Reproductive patterns and cancer incidence in
women: a population-based correlation study in the USSR.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 18, No. 3, Sep 1989.
498-510 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Within the USSR regional variations in principal reproductive characteristics and the incidence of breast and cervical cancers have been studied using standard correlation and regression analysis. The associations identified in previous analytical studies are generally present in the overall USSR population. However, the demographic peculiarities of this country (low mean ages at marriage and first birth, high rate of induced abortions, etc.) introduce specificity into these relationships. The principal findings are: prevailing influence of parity versus age at first birth on regional variation of breast cancer incidence; consistent association between abortion rates (total, out-of-hospital and in primigravidas) and incidence of both breast and cervical cancers; suggested positive associations of early marriage and first birth with cervical cancer risk. Most of the reproductive variables studied affect the incidence of breast and cervical cancers in opposite ways."
Correspondence: L. I. Remennick, All-Union Cancer Research Centre, Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Kashirscoye shoose 24, 115 378 Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Patricia B. Alternative abortion policies: what are the
health consequences? Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 70, No. 4, Dec
1989. 941-55 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This article offers an analysis of one domain of abortion policy consequences, the health impacts of alternative abortion policies. After outlining the legal and practical criteria by which abortion policies can be assessed, it details the health consequences of completely prohibited abortion and of completely elective abortion, concluding that the former produces higher health costs than the latter." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: P. B. Richard, Ohio University, Department of Political Science, Athens, OH 45701-2979. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
Andrei; Rogers, Richard G.; Belanger, Alain. Longer life
but worse health? Measurement and dynamics. Population Program
Working Paper, No. WP-89-10, Dec 1989. 24,  pp. University of
Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program: Boulder,
Colorado. In Eng.
"A number of recent cross-sectional studies of longevity and health among the elderly have concluded that recent positive trends in the prolongation of life have not been matched by similar trends in the extension of healthy life. This paper challenges that pessimistic conclusion by examining conceptual issues related to the measurement and dynamics of the mortality-disability process. It argues that the most widely adopted model used to measure the health of the population over time is biased in favor of a pessimistic conclusion, and that a neglected component in models of the dynamics of societal health is the return transition from dependence to active life. The paper uses data from the 1986 [U.S.] Longitudinal Study of Aging to illustrate its principal points."
Correspondence: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Michael W. Demography and vector-borne diseases. ISBN
0-8493-4961-1. LC 88-38229. 1989. 402 pp. CRC Press: Boca Raton,
Florida. In Eng.
This book is concerned with the demographic aspects of the spread of vector-borne disease. The emphasis "is on population movements--whether they cover short distances or involve longer migrations, and on changes in people's social status, conditions, customs, and beliefs--that is, changes in social mobility." The book consists of 24 chapters by various authors on aspects of the relationship between migration and disease. Apart from those papers dealing with specific diseases, including trypanosomiases, leishmaniases, Chagas' disease, malaria, schistosomiasis, and onchocerciasis, papers are provided on the impact of urbanization and irrigation projects. The geographical emphasis is primarily on developing countries.
Correspondence: CRC Press, 2000 Corporate Boulevard NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Susheela; Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Torres, Aida. Prenatal
care in the United States: a state and county inventory. ISBN
0-939253-13-5. 1989. xvii, 82; xvii, 293 pp. Alan Guttmacher Institute:
New York, New York. In Eng.
This report provides information on "the use of clinical prenatal care services by women of various population subgroups and in each of the counties of the United States; the incidence of low birth weight, preterm delivery and infant mortality, also at the county level; the sources and limitations of public funding available to finance prenatal care services; and the number of sites in each county where clinical prenatal care services are offered, or are likely to be offered, by type of provider." Volume one includes some analysis of the data; Volume two provides the relevant data.
Correspondence: Allan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Reinhard. Health and social class in Imperial Germany: a
social history of mortality, morbidity, and inequality. ISBN
0-85496-527-0. LC 87-22397. 1988. 246 pp. Berg: New York, New
York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book is an examination of the relationships among social inequalities in health, morbidity, and mortality and developments in health care, infrastructure, and the general standard of living in Imperial Germany, which covers the period from 1870 to World War I. Part 1 examines changes in health and mortality in the context of social inequalities. Part 2 analyzes the determinants of the decline in mortality that occurred. Part 3 focuses on the growth of the medical profession and its contribution to the changes described above.
This is a translation of the original German study published in 1981 and cited in 48:30757.
Correspondence: Berg Publishers, Market House, Deddington, Oxford OX5 4SW, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medecine, Bethesda, MD.
R. J. IQ and falling birth rates. Atlantic, Vol. 263,
No. 5, May 1989. 72-9 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author examines differences, including fertility differences, among groups within a population and how such differences can in the long run affect the economic well-being of a society. He points out that in the United States, "bright, well-educated women of all races are having fewer children, a phenomenon [that] may affect national productivity and the gene pool." The author notes that the sensitivity of issues concerning population quality and intelligence is such that the issues are unlikely to be discussed or resolved.
Correspondence: R. J. Herrnstein, Harvard University, Department of Psychology, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: New York Public Library.