Volume 56 - Number 1 - Spring 1990

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

56:10524 Ambry, Margaret K. 1990-1991 almanac of consumer markets: a guide to today's more complex and harder-to-find customers. ISBN 0-936889-06-3. 1989. xv, 407 pp. American Demographics Press: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
This work is intended as a guide to the demographics of the U.S. marketplace. It presents data on the population of the United States by age, with additional data for each age group on population characteristics, households, marital status and fertility, educational attainment, labor force, income, expenditures, wealth, and health. The data are for 1980, with some projections to the year 2000, and are pesented separately by sex, race, and Hispanic origin. The data are taken from a variety of official sources.
Correspondence: American Demographics Press, P.O. Box 68, Ithaca, NY 14851-9989. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10525 Bulgaria. Tsentralno Statistichesko Upravlenie (Sofia, Bulgaria). Demographic characteristics of administrative regions in the People's Republic of Bulgaria. [Demografsko sastoyanie na oblastite v NR Balgariya.] LC 89-127456. 1987. 43 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul.
This volume contains a selection of demographic data concerning the characteristics of the population of Bulgaria. The data are presented separately by administrative region.
Correspondence: Tsentralno Statistichesko Upravlenie, 2 P. Volov, Sofia, Bulgaria. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:10526 Duensing, Edward E. America's elderly: a sourcebook. ISBN 0-88285-125-X. LC 88-6132. 1988. vii, 190 pp. Rutgers University, Center for Urban Policy Research: New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This book represents an attempt to gather together in a single volume the data necessary to create a statistical portrait of America's elderly as they are today and as they will be tomorrow--a portrait highlighting the diversity of senior citizens as well as their commonalities." The data come from a variety of sources, including official sources, research studies, and business journals. The section on the demographic characteristics of the elderly includes data on projections, households and family living arrangements, marital status, life expectancy and mortality, geographic aspects, race and national origin, dependency ratios, and veterans. Other sections contain data on income and expenditure, employment and unemployment, health and health care, housing and homeownership, federal programs and expenditures, and social characteristics.
Correspondence: Rutgers University, Center for Urban Policy Research, Building 4051, Kilmer Campus, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10527 Dybova, Blanka. Demographic aging and old age pension insurance. [Starnuti populace a duchodove zabezpeceni.] Demografie, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1989. 323-9 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The focus of this paper is on the aging of the Czechoslovak population and the problems it may create in the future. Comparisons are made between the numbers of people receiving old-age pensions in 1985 with projected numbers for 2005. The author warns of social problems created by the probable dependency burden.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10528 Dzienio, Kazimierz. Projection of disability in Poland until 2020. [Prognoza inwalidztwa w Polsce do 2020 roku.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/95, 1989. 73-97 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Population characteristics of disabled persons in Poland during the period 1974-1984 are analyzed. The author examines the age structure of persons unable to work due to a disability and the causes of the disability. Population trends of the disabled to the year 2020 are projected and the impact of the increase of disabled persons on social policy is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10529 Han, Young-Ja. Pace of demographic transition and age structure change in Korea. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jul 1989. 3-22 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes changes in age structure in China, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea, with a focus on South Korea. The pace of such transitions is compared and it is noted that in Korea, the rapid change that has occurred has implications for the current population policy, particularly with regard to coping with the consequences of rapid demographic aging.
Correspondence: Y.-J. Han, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10530 Johnson, Paul; Conrad, Christoph; Thomson, David. Workers versus pensioners: intergenerational justice in an ageing world. ISBN 0-7190-3038-2. 1989. xvi, 204 pp. Manchester University Press: New York, New York/Manchester, England; Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of essays resulting from a conference on demographic aging and intergenerational transfers, held in Cambridge, England, in July 1988. "The first section of the book presents a broad interpretation of intergenerational conflict from the distinct perspectives of demography, economics, philosophy and social policy. The second section examines in detail the growing economic conflict between workers and pensioners embodied in public and private pension systems, and the final section examines current changes in the nature and purpose of retirement in industrial counties. The essays draw upon a wide range of evidence from Western Europe, North America and Australasia."
Correspondence: St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10531 Kono, Shigemi. Population structure. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 27, 1989. 108-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reviews recent new trends in population structure in the world and its major regions in order to assess the determinants of those trends and explore issues regarding the recent and projected changes in the age structure of population and relationships of those changes to economic and social development. In particular, the paper compares the change in age structure projected by the...United Nations...in its most recent three series--namely, those completed in 1984, 1986 and 1988. By and large the most recent United Nations assessment projects that a larger proportion of the world population will be aged 60 and over in the years 2000 and 2025 than was previously estimated....The case of Japan is used to illustrate the growing importance of increases in life expectancy as a determinant of age structure changes (in relation to fertility decline)...."
Correspondence: S. Kono, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Institute of Population Problems, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10532 Lydolph, Paul E. Recent population characteristics and growth in the USSR. Soviet Geography, Vol. 30, No. 10, Dec 1989. 711-29 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Data from the preliminary results of the 1989 census and Naseleniye SSSR 1987 permit analyses of age-sex structures of the Soviet population and distributions by civil divisions of natural growth rates, total population growth, urban growth, rural growth, percent urbanization, and growths of cities. The paper complements the treatment of census results by macroregions appearing in the November 1989 issue of Soviet Geography...by summarizing trends emerging at a finer scale of analysis and providing recent background information on demographic components of population change."
For the article by Richard H. Rowland, also published in 1989, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: P. E. Lydolph, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53201. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10533 Maslove, Allan; Hawkes, David. The northern population. Canadian Social Trends, No. 15, Winter 1989. 2-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The focus of this article is on the economic and social disparities between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal peoples of the Canadian North. Comparisons are made in the areas of population growth, housing, family characteristics, and income, as well as occupational, employment, and educational status. Data are from the 1986 Canadian census.
Correspondence: A. Maslove, Carleton University, School of Public Administration, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10534 McDaniel, Susan A. Women in Canada's aging society: a feminist perspective. [Les femmes dans un Canada en voie de vieillissement: une approche feministe.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 1989. 137-57 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Demographic aging in Canada is explored as an issue of particular concern to women. "The challenges of population aging, in many ways, are inseparable from women's issues. Women, as the largest group of elderly, have different physical, social, and economic needs than men. Thus, women's more debilitating but often less life-threatening illnesses, status as widows or living alone, and lack of adequate incomes pose problems not unlike those facing women of all ages. As well, women tend more often to be in the situation of 'looking after' others, including older relatives, another way in which aging is a challenge to and for women."
Correspondence: S. A. McDaniel, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10535 Mitra, S. Immigration, below-replacement fertility, and long-term national population trends. Demography, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1990. 121-9 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The author develops a model to study "the long-term demographic effects of immigration on a population experiencing below-replacement fertility...by assuming that the size and age composition of the immigrant population do not change over time. The size of the first-generation immigrant population becomes stationary within a time period not greater than the human life span. Thereafter, the number dying equals the number entering over any given time interval. The stationarity of the native population, among which deaths exceed births, is maintained by the compensating number of births to the immigrant population. The limiting age distribution of the country's population, although stationary, may not decline monotonically with age...." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: S. Mitra, Emory University, Department of Sociology, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10536 Molony, Kathleen. Japan's dilemma: how to cope with an aging population. U.S. Long-Term Review, Winter 1988-1989. 10-5 pp. Lexington, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Future demographic trends in Japan are reviewed, with an emphasis on demographic aging. "It is clear the aging of its population will have an impact on Japan's labor practices, saving and consumption patterns, and demand for public and private resources." The author concludes that "given Japan's past experience in adapting to all types of adversity...its response to demographic shifts will likely enable it to continue its remarkable economic growth."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

56:10537 Nugent, Shane; Rampa, Helen. Demographic change at the small-area level: implications for the planning of Canberra. In: Advances in regional demography: information, forecasts, models, edited by P. Congdon and P. Batey. 1989. 58-70 pp. Belhaven Press: London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between the provision of facilities and the changing age structure of city neighborhoods is examined using the example of Canberra, Australia. In particular, the authors examine the impact of population aging on the need to provide schools at the local level.
Correspondence: S. Nugent, National Capital Development Commission, PO Box 373, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10538 Otto, Johannes. Population projections and changing age structures in the regions of the world. In: Referate zum deutsch-franzosischen Arbeitstreffen auf dem Gebiet der Demographie vom 21. bis 24. September 1987 in Rouen. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 62, 1989. 163-79 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author reviews population projections prepared by the World Bank, focusing on worldwide trends in demographic aging.
Correspondence: J. Otto, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, D-6200 Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10539 Rogers, Richard G. Demographic characteristics of cigarette smokers in the United States. Population Program Working Paper, No. WP-89-7, Oct 1989. 21, [7] pp. University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program: Boulder, Colorado. In Eng.
"This research uses a multivariate log-linear examination of a [U.S.] national data set to analyze the combined influences of ethnicity, age, and sex on cigarette smoking status, not only for smokers but for former smokers and current nonsmokers as well. In general, we find that ethnic and sex differences in smoking vary across several dimensions. For instance, compared to females, males are more likely to smoke and to smoke heavily. The differences between male and female cessation rates varies with ethnicity....Mexican-Americans who smoke generally smoke small quantities of cigarettes. And Blacks are as likely as other groups not to smoke at all, and less likely than Anglos to smoke heavily. This article discusses potential future mortality effects, intervention strategies, and directions for future research."
Correspondence: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10540 Schwarz, Karl. Change of life style with old age: represented by the cohort of men and women born in the years 1912-1916, who in 1972 were 55-59 years old and in 1987 were 70-74 years old. [Veranderung der Lebensverhaltnisse im Alter: Dargestellt am Beispiel der Manner und Frauen der Geburtsjahrgange 1912/16, die 1972 55 bis 59 und 1987 70 bis 74 Jahre alt waren.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1989. 235-46 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The demographic aspects of changes in life-style of people entering old age were studied using data for a cohort of German men and women born between 1912 and 1916. The authors note changes in marital status, mortality, widowhood, employment, and household structure that occurred between the ages of 55-59 and 70-74. Differences among men and women are analyzed, and the impact of social change on future care of the elderly is discussed.
Correspondence: K. Schwarz, Klopstockstrasse 14, 6200 Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

56:10541 Greksa, Lawrence P. Age of menarche in Bolivian girls of European and Aymara ancestry. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1990. 49-53 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Median age of menarche was determined in children of European and Aymara ancestry residing in La Paz, Bolivia (3,600m) [above sea level] and in children of European ancestry residing in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (400m). Median age of menarche in European and Aymara highland natives was younger than reported by previous researchers, thus broadening the range of variation in age of menarche in high-altitude populations. Comparisons between La Paz and Santa Cruz European children suggested that growth and development at high altitudes results in a delay in median age of menarche of about 0.8 years."
Correspondence: L. P. Greksa, Case Western Reserve University, Department of Anthropology, 2040 Adelbert, Cleveland, OH 44106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10542 Leung, Siu Fai. On tests for sex preferences. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 1, No. 2, Oct 1988. 95-114 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper presents a critical evaluation of three widely used tests for sex preferences: sex ratio, parity progression ratio and ordinary least squares [OLS] regression of birth interval. We show that under some appropriate conditions, the sex ratio is a valid test for sex preferences. The methods of parity progression ratio and OLS regression of birth interval fail to deal with right censoring and time varying covariates, which reduce the power of the tests. We suggest the use of hazard estimation to test for sex preferences. We demonstrate the differences among the tests by analyzing the retrospective fertility histories of the Chinese and the Malays in Malaysia. We find that unlike the two conventional methods, the hazard estimation gives clear and strong evidence of sex preferences among the Chinese in Malaysia."
Correspondence: S. F. Leung, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10543 Sakai, Hiromichi. On the change of sex ratio by the Japanese zodiac. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 190, Apr 1989. 55-8 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Changes in the sex ratio in Japan from 1899 to 1986 are analyzed using data from official sources. The emphasis is on differences in the sex ratio according to the signs of the Japanese zodiac. The author notes that although the significance of the zodiac on the sex ratio has been decreasing since the early 1970s, it still has a measurable impact.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10544 Shaw, Chris. The sex ratio at birth in England and Wales. Population Trends, No. 57, Autumn 1989. 26-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"After a period of around forty years where the sex ratio at birth in England and Wales remained roughly constant at around 106 male births for every 100 female births, there has been a decline during the 1980s and the 1988 ratio of 104.8 male births per 100 female births is the lowest figure recorded since 1933. The causes of variation in the sex ratio at birth are still largely unknown although associations have been found with a number of variables, both medical/biological and demographic. Sex ratios are lower, for example, for births to overseas-born mothers and for maternities resulting in multiple births. However, neither the growing ethnic minority population nor the increase in the number of multiple births in recent years can account for the overall decline in the sex ratio."
Correspondence: C. Shaw, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Demographic Analysis and Vital Statistics Division, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10545 Sunami, Shigeo. The relationship between the recent average life span and food and tobacco in Japan. Minzoku Eisei/Japanese Journal of Health and Human Ecology, Vol. 54, No. 6, Nov 1988. 316-21 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between changes in food consumption and smoking and life expectancy in Japan from 1965 to 1980 is analyzed. The results indicate that an increase in milk consumption in particular is associated with an increase in life expectancy.
Correspondence: S. Sunami, Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Public Health, Kawasaki, Japan. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

56:10546 Zarutskie, Paul W.; Muller, Charles H.; Magone, Margaret; Soules, Michael R. The clinical relevance of sex selection techniques. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 52, No. 6, Dec 1989. 891-905 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
"Considering that the implications of sex selection are medical, social, and personal, it is the purpose of this paper to (1) review natural fluctuations in the sex ratio, (2) discuss the variables that have been associated with observed changes in the sex ratio, and (3) summarize current sexual and laboratory methods that are used in an attempt to alter the sex ratio."
Correspondence: P. W. Zarutskie, University of Washington School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, RH-20, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

56:10547 Black, Dan A.; Hayes, K. J.; Slottje, D. J. Demographic change and inequality in the size distributions of labor and nonlabor income. Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 35, No. 3, Sep 1989. 283-96 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper utilizes a joint distribution model of labor and nonlabor income that allows us to analyze the impact of demographic change in the U.S. on the marginal distributions of these two income components over time....We examined the impact of changes over time in labor force participation and population on the marginal distributions of labor and nonlabor income. We disaggregated the variables by sex and age cohorts and found that changes in the age distribution and in the labor supply behavior of women in particular has had a significant effect on the marginal income distributions over time. We also found that the results vary when we examined overall changes in the labor force participation rate vis a vis changes in women's labor force participation separately. The findings are consistent for both income components."
Correspondence: D. A. Black, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:10548 Boyce, James K. Population growth and real wages of agricultural labourers in Bangladesh. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jul 1989. 467-89 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A long-run negative impact of population growth upon real wages is neither theoretically self-evident nor, in the case of rural Bangladesh, empirically clear-cut. In addition to its negative 'labour supply effect', population growth may have a postitive 'labour demand effect' upon wages. The latter may help to explain why Bangladeshi districts with higher rural population densities have higher agricultural wages, and why districts with more rapid population growth in the first half of this century subsequently experienced slower-than-average real wage declines. An investigation of agricultural growth and agrarian structure as mediating variables in the population-wage relation indicates that changes in average operational holding size, inequality of landholdings, and the extent and nature of tenancy contributed to this result."
Correspondence: J. K. Boyce, University of Massachusetts, Department of Economics, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:10549 Dalto, Guy C. A structural approach to women's hometime and experience-earnings profiles: maternity leave and public policy. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep 1989. 247-66 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The differential availability of maternity leave benefits is shown to be an important factor in the earnings attainment process of women. Interaction effects with this job characteristic are found for experience, occupational status, and crowding. The human capital model's explanation of the relationship between women's hometime, women's job choice, and public policy is critically examined. The results indicate that the provision of adequate child care needs to be coupled with parental leave policies if women are to make significant gains in earnings from reducing their time spent at home."
Correspondence: G. C. Dalto, Birmingham-Southern College, Department of Sociology, Birmingham, AL 35254. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10550 Hansson, Ingemar; Stuart, Charles. Social Security as trade among living generations. American Economic Review, Vol. 79, No. 5, Dec 1989. 1,182-95 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"We model [U.S.] Social Security that is legislated endogeneously by living generations. Specifically, we consider the effects of Social Security on resource allocation and Pareto optimality, examining which generations gain from Social Security and whether some generations lose. Because saving and transfer decisions are made sequentially in the real world, we use an infinite-horizon, overlapping-generations framework in which life-cycle saving and transfers to the old are determined by living agents. We focus on the case in which agents are altruistic but place sufficiently greater weight on own comsumption than on the consumption of agents in other generations so that, starting from a steady state without Social Security, living agents would gain utility if consumption were shifted marginally to them from later generations."
Correspondence: I. Hansson, Ministry of Finance, 103 33 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:10551 House, William J. Socio-economic and demographic characteristics of income distribution in Cyprus. Population and Labour Policies Programme Working Paper, No. 167, ISBN 92-2-106881-1. Jul 1989. ix, 85 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of income distribution in Cyprus. "Data is presented on how the distribution of expenditure varies along with demographic characteristics of households (e.g. age, sex, household size, dependency, household structure, education, marital status) and economic characteristics of households (e.g. labour force participation, work intensity, work status, sector, occupation). Income and expenditure inequalities are found to be relatively moderate in Cyprus....It is also found...that older persons in Cyprus are relatively disadvantaged in terms of income and expenditure...."
Correspondence: ILO Publications, Route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10552 Jensen, Leif; Tienda, Marta. Nonmetropolitan minority families in the United States: trends in racial and ethnic economic stratification, 1959-1986. Rural Sociology, Vol. 54, No. 4, Winter 1989. 509-32 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"This paper traces the economic status of nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) black, Mexican and American Indian families during the period 1959 to 1986. Analysis of 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1987 U.S. Census Bureau data revealed substantial improvement in the economic status of rural minority families between 1959 and 1979....However, nonmetro black and Mexican family incomes deteriorated substantially in the ensuing seven years. The shift in residence toward urban areas contributed to the 1959-1979 decline in minority poverty, although American Indians benefited considerably more than blacks or Mexicans from this mechanism. Furthermore, labor market commitment has a greater ameliorative effect on family poverty for all groups than does public assistance. That poverty among nonmetro minorities improved in response to increasing labor supply is a policy-relevant finding discussed in the conclusions."
Correspondence: L. Jensen, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10553 Lam, David. Population growth, age structure, and age-specific productivity. Does a uniform age distribution minimize lifetime wages? Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1989. 189-210 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"Motivated by empirical evidence that fluctuations in age structure affect relative wages across age groups, this paper asks whether there is a steady-state age distribution that maximizes the lifetime wages of a representative worker. The paper proves the surprising result that in a pure labor economy with any constant returns technology, a uniform age distribution minimizes lifetime wages. Skewed age distributions, generated by either positive or negative population growth rates, generate unambiguously higher lifetime wages than a stationary population, in spite of possible reductions in per capita output in every period. The presence of non-labor factors complicates, but does not necessarily reverse, this result. The paper relates the beneficial effects of higher rates of population growth on lifetime wages in a pure labor economy with imperfect substitutability across age groups to the benefits of population growth that appear in overlapping-generation consumption loan models with intergenerational transfers."
Correspondence: D. Lam, IPEA/INPES, Av. Pres. Antonio Carlos 51, andar 14, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20020, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10554 Lapkoff, Shelley F. Population nonstability and cohort lifetime income. Pub. Order No. DA8916748. 1988. 174 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author studies shifts in population age structure and their impact on the labor market, income, and retirement programs using data from the United States. "This thesis measures how rates of return are affected by the underlying demographics, and evaluates the success of different structures for a pay-as-you-go system in minimizing differences among cohorts. A new structure for a retirement program is discussed that yields rates of return for all cohorts, despite population nonstability."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 50(4).

56:10555 Lerman, Robert I.; Lerman, Donald L. Income sources and income inequality: measurements from three U.S. income surveys. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1989. 167-79 pp. Springfield, Virginia/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the contribution of individual income sources to overall inequality [in the United States]. It provides new evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) on the marginal effects of earnings of family heads, capital income, spouses' earnings, and housing income. The results differ from an earlier study based on the Current Population Survey (CPS). In the SCF, capital income is more disequalizing while spouses' earnings is more equalizing than in the CPS. SCF measures of the effects of housing income are similar to those based on the Survey of Residential Finance."
Correspondence: R. I. Lerman, American University, Department of Economics, 4400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20016-8029. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

56:10556 Ray, Ranjan. The behavioural and welfare implications of housing demand under rationing. The United Kingdom experience. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1989. 211-24 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"The present study investigates, on pooled budget data (1968/1985) from United Kingdom Family Expenditure Surveys, the consequences of relaxing the assumption of free choice in housing, while continuing to maintain the assumption of unrationed demand for other items. Since the demand equations are estimated jointly as a system, introducing rationed demand for one item will have consequences for the other demand equations. We investigate the nature and magnitude of such changes using the framework of a general demographic demand system that allows for non-linear/non-separable commodity demand behaviour and also permits the equivalence scales to vary between the rationed and unrationed items." The author finds that "unlike in previous studies, the rationed demand system fails to reject linear preferences."
Correspondence: R. Ray, University of Manchester, Faculty of Economics, Department of Econometrics, Manchester M13 9PL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10557 Sastry, M. L.; Szyrmer, J.; Weeks, M. Economic-demographic linkages in an extended U.S. input-output model: the impact of income and age. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1989. 303-20 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we extend the traditional Miyazawa framework to analyze the interrelations between income, age and income-age subgroups in the income formation process. Our model is constructed using the 1972 U.S. input-output table and data from the 1972 Consumer Expenditure Survey, the 1972 National Income and Product Accounts and the 1980 Census....Our results show that the income-age disaggregation adds considerable information to a household endogenous input-output model and that multiplier values and trends vary significantly with income base specification."
Correspondence: M. L. Sastry, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Analysis Division, 1401 K Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20230. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10558 Smith, N.; Westergard-Nielsen, N. Wage differentials due to gender. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 1, No. 2, Oct 1988. 115-30 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"In this paper, a longitudinal data set covering 5% of all Danish wage earners over a 9-year period is used to shed light on the observed wage differentials due to gender. A human capital model is used to isolate the effects of changes in experience, schooling and unemployment, together with other factors....Despite the observation from macro statistics that women have had the highest observed increases in wage rates, the models show that this increase is mainly due to an improvement in their background characteristics and that men still receive a higher return to their characteristics. The main difference between genders appears to be that female workers do not, in general, get any return to their experience. The estimates also show negative effects on the wage rate of previous spells of unemployment."
Correspondence: N. Smith, University of Aarhus, Institute of Political Sciences, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10559 von Weizsacker, R. K. Age structure and income distribution policy. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jun 1988. 33-55 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"The dependence of earnings on age is a firmly established empirical fact. A simple microeconomic model of educational choice, being consistent with this observation, is designed. The model lends itself readily to aggregation over individuals and age groups. Thus, relations can be set up between economic variables influencing the aggregate distribution of labour incomes and demographic variables determining the age structure of the population. The main results of the present study are...overall earnings inequality is shown to be an increasing function of life expectancy and a decreasing function of fertility, [and] the effectiveness of redistributive policies is sensitive to the age composition. In particular, the inequality-reducing effect of a one percent income tax rise is shown to be the smaller the older the population."
Correspondence: R. K. von Weizsacker, University of Bonn, Department of Economics, Adenauerallee 24-42, D-5300 Bonn 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

56:10560 Wilson, Franklin D.; Tienda, Marta. Employment returns to migration. Urban Geography, Vol. 10, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1989. 540-61 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper examines whether migration between 1975 and 1980 affected the likelihood of being employed in 1980 among black, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and non-Hispanic white men. Multivariate statistical analyses of the [U.S.] Public Use Microdata Samples of the 1980 decennial census reveal that migration did not increase the likelihood of being employed among the native-born population, especially black, Mexican, and Puerto Rican men. Only the foreign-born who migrated between 1975-1980 increased their likelihood of being employed. The findings move us one step closer to understanding how migration alters the job prospects of native minority men."
Correspondence: F. D. Wilson, University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

56:10561 Boyd, Robert L. Childlessness and social mobility during the baby boom. Sociological Spectrum, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1989. 425-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"America's post-war baby boom was an era of high fertility and widespread pronatalism. Supposedly, few couples during this time were childless by choice. However, by using a special census sample, this study shows that voluntary childlessness was relatively common in certain upwardly mobile segments of the population during the baby boom. In particular, the results support the classic Dumont-Banks model of status enhancement and fertility, which states that couples with the greatest disadvantages must make the greatest sacrifices of child-centered behavior. The theoretical implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for future research proposed."
Correspondence: R. L. Boyd, University of North Carolina, Department of Sociology, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10562 Nakano, Eiko. Regional differences of the life course pattern among Japanese married women. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 45, No. 2; 191, Jul 1989. 35-45 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Regional differences in the life cycles of married Japanese women are examined. The life cycle pattern of marriage, childbearing, retirement from work, and resumption of work is compared among four areas of Japan using data from a 1984 labor force survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

56:10563 Allen, James P.; Turner, Eugene. The most ethnically diverse urban places in the United States. Urban Geography, Vol. 10, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1989. 523-39 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using 1980 U.S. census data, we ranked all urban places over 10,000 in population according to the relative ethnic diversity of their populations, as measured by the entropy index....The results show that larger cities are usually highly diverse, but the most diverse urban places are found throughout the full range of population sizes. The places that ranked highest in ethnic diversity are usually part of a metropolitan area, most commonly in the Los Angeles and the San Francisco areas. A number of places in the New York City-northern New Jersey area and others in south Florida, Texas, and Hawaii also ranked high. The most ethnically diverse places are highly varied in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, but army posts constitute a distinctive type. In contrast, the least diverse urban places tend to be small in size, suburban or nonmetropolitan, strongly white with very few minorities, and located in the Northeast and Midwest."
Correspondence: J. P. Allen, California State University, Department of Geography, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

56:10564 Estaville, Lawrence E. The Louisiana French in 1900. Journal of Historical Geography, Vol. 14, No. 4, Oct 1988. 342-59 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
A variety of sources are used to analyze the geographical patterns of the Louisiana French population at the end of the nineteenth century. The author hypothesizes that this was a period of critical and tumultuous transformation during which an aggressive Anglo-Saxon population displaced the French as Louisiana's predominant population. A gradation-modeling approach is used to examine the relative decline of French cultural influence from its geographic core. "Fifty-four economic, social, and political variables drawn primarily from the 1900 manuscript census schedules were tested statistically against the gradational morphology. The findings of this study challenge several important traditional interpretations of the Louisiana French."
Correspondence: L. E. Estaville, Clemson University, Department of History, Clemson, SC 29634. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10565 Fleischer, Henning. Trends in the number of aliens since 1987. [Entwicklung der Auslanderzahl seit 1987.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 9, Sep 1989. 594-9 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Trends in the foreign population in West Germany since 1987 are examined. Data are from the Central Register of Foreigners and the 1987 census. Information is included on methodological problems, population size, foreigners as a percentage of the total population, births and deaths, international migration, refugees, regional distribution, and nationality.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

56:10566 Hayes-Bautista, David E.; Schink, Werner O.; Chapa, Jorge. The burden of support: young Latinos in an aging society. ISBN 0-8047-1371-5. LC 87-33564. 1988. xx, 196 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
Demographic and socioeconomic trends among the Latino population of the United States are analyzed, with a focus on California. Specifically, the authors examine possible effects of the demographic aging of the Anglo baby-boom generation and the growth of the relatively young Latino population. The book begins by describing a worst-case scenario for California in 2030. The past, present, and future dynamics of California's population are then outlined. Chapters are included on the age-ethnic gap, employment and income, education, health care, and political participation. The study concludes with a best-case scenario for California in 2030.
Correspondence: Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

56:10567 Siggner, Andrew J. The Inuit. Canadian Social Trends, No. 15, Winter 1989. 8-10 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The socioeconomic status of the Inuit, or Eskimo population, of Canada is briefly reviewed based on data from the 1986 census. The Inuit age structure, geographical concentration, and migration patterns are discussed.
Correspondence: A. J. Siggner, Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, Aboriginal Data Unit, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

56:10568 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). The black population in the United States: March 1988. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 442, Nov 1989. iv, 55 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents a statistical portrait of the demographic, social, and economic status of [U.S.] Blacks based on the March 1988 Current Population Survey (CPS). Topics included are population distribution, age, sex, marital status, education, family composition, employment, income, and poverty status. The report focuses on changes that have occurred in the Black population nationally and regionally since 1980. Data are presented for two regions: the South and the North and West combined."
Correspondence: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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